xt7tb27pqm00 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7tb27pqm00/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1943 journals kaes_circulars_003_395 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 395 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 395 1943 2014 true xt7tb27pqm00 section xt7tb27pqm00 • A V
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-— ` pv "·A_ ,$T"‘" ,   ,~alanced diet Hom
` l`e:u·h correct lahle service and table manners fm- 8
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‘ Foods Project for 4-H Clubs
By limrn Lacy, Rum Lmrsitzk, and .»\mm lsukurxsi Davis
'l`he foods to be prepared in this project are wholesome dishes
suitable for suppers or luncheons either for family meals or for spe-
I. cial occasions. Your own home—grown food can be used for serving a
I well—planned, well-prepared, and well-balanced wholesome meal. For
_ at group too large to seat at a table, use a simple buffet service.
Complete the following lessons:  
Supper and luncheon menus Simple desserts _ I
_ (lreamed soup and sauces Quick breads _ V
One dish meals Table service  
' Salads Preparing and serving a supper or luntltcon `
' Keep records of work at project meetings and at home.  
l s ~ .
i _ l l
Study and discussion l
1. What makes a satisfactory supper or luncheon menu? l
2. Consider menus for the entire day. ‘ I
3. Plan work for next meeting. Decide how food materials are to be supplied. y
Assign duties. z
Demonstration.- Method of keeping records.  
Home work.-—— Plan two supper menus, one for the family and one i
for a special occasion. i
Planning and Selecting Meals
5 _ _ .
Meet daily food requirement.- Know the foods necessary lor
the body needs, whether you are preparing a menu for the family or
selecting your own meal from food prepared for you. Often you
have the right foods set before you, but you do not choose properly
because of likes and dislikes. A good diet includes the right amounts
ttf all the foods needed by the body. lt is not necessary that all these
foods be included in every meal, but they should be supplied in the
three meals of the day. 'llierefore keep in mind what is to be served
it the other two meals when planning a breakfast. dinner. or supper.
fat cztth day some of the foods listed in each group below.

 Foods art
l posed 0[—
t tttttsot-
4 _ f Exreisstos Ctncutsxn No. 395
li I
l` \\'OI`l£ 2\||
\`egetable oils
|’|lU'I`l-ZIXS ...,.....{ lleans (tlriedl Lamb (lean)
lllf Beef (lean) Milk _ _ _ h_l
saut Cheese (American Muttou (learn ll"'l‘l "°“ hodl limle °l ° 1;
and Collage) pcm (mulmc then and comaescents ant
yhickml (nd dried) keep body tissues of children
Imp pg? Pork umm uml adults in repair
Fish Sovbeans
one . '
I all l|l|.l`llt)SIi ,.,..... (Zoitrse tctcals Coarse \it| digestion and help in pre-
mm I`rt1its and touting or overcoming consti- I
H tegetablcs patiou
ll '
- \Il.`·` ` t ,
uma \l.R.\LS
NNN Cllrium ....,_, Cheese Milk ( V `
tors lmu ..,.i.i.... Beans (dried and string) Heart ( l
Beef (leanl Liver (
((·C(·| Beets Molasses Help build antl repair lion} ztlltl   A
uml lilackberries Oysters muscular tissues. build new red   (
i Cereals (whole grain) Peas blood corpuscles, and keep both ·
lllllli Eggs (volkl Pork (lean) iu good condition. Aid in body I
Greens Prunes processes such as digestion. 3
Rhubarb heart action. and secretions i
lu; l'll0%ph0rus ..,, Cereals (whole grain) Egg ()'0ll<)
ll) *`· Cheese Meat (lean) l
. . l
t`|l\t‘ Milk (
I in lilliulliti .»\ .,,___ Butter Greens    
. U Carrots Liver 2 t
lm"` Cheese Milk (whole) {
Cream Spinach l
Ullr Eggs Sweetpotatoes `
ll Fish liver oil ~
luzuuiu Il ..... Beans (string) Milk (\\'llOl€) ‘
Breads (whole grain) Peas (fresh green) *
IV Cereals (whole grain) Pineapple lH€lP PIUHIUH. Q,(,“·,i, uml
lll ` Wheat (germi i
_ . ,, (health.
ll l` _' llmlllll C .4..., Apples l,etluCC (
lgrll Bananas Oranges (
mw Cabbage (rawi Potatoes (
Grapefruit Strawberries (
"blli Greens Tomatoes l
ttl`t`*` Lemons Turnips ”
lllallllll l) ....__, Beef Liver
Eggs (yolk; Milk
Fish liver oil

   ti Extt-zxstox CtRt:ut..-ut No. 395
l Study and discussion
l 1. Food value of milk
( 2. Ways of using milk (jog]
(   Demonstration tlt1`0t
l   Make white sauce. i sttll.
t 2. Make cream soups (tomato, spinach or pea). lmm
  3. Prepare creamed vegetables (beans, cabbage, or turnips).
  Home work
t l. Make a cream soup at least 3 times.
l 2. Collect recipes on ways of using milk and use 2 oi` them. gmc
. Importance of Milk
( Milk supplies calcium and phosphorus to build_ bones and teeth;
vitamin A, necessary for growth and health; protein for muscle build- _
. . Stuc
mg; and sugar and fat for energy. Every child over 2 years should have X
:t quart of milk a day to provide for growth and for building bones S
ztnd muscles. Some of this milk may be in soups, puddings, cereals. Dm
· and cocoa. Buttermilk may be used in place of one-third of the sweet A
milk, if butter is served with the bread or vegetables. A
White sauce is the basis for cream soups, and other creamed dishes. C
To make cream sauce, melt the fat; add the flour; stir thoroughly. p
Add salt and milk. Cook over low heat, stirring constantly until the L
sauce is as thick as desired. P
Kind Use Fat Flour Milk Sal! C
Thin ........ Cream soups ........,. 1 T 1 T I c Ml I gotta
Medium ..... Cravies, meats, and hm
vegetables ........... 1 T 2 T l c % l _ U
  Thick ....... Croquettes and IMM
‘ s0ufHes ........,..... l T 3 T l C W [ Hwfll
t tltttc
Cream soups are mixtures of thin white sauce with cooked, .[
mashed, or strained vegetables, meat, or fish. Some stock YUHY be - milk
used in the sauce. To l cup of thin sauce add % to l cup of {he mph
vegetable, meat, or fish pulp. A very thin sauce should be used ““_[h [mm
starchy foods. Add prepared food material to the white S&UC€» m‘X“ ` high
ing well. Season to taste. Beat slightly with (lover eggbeater bcfvtt stm
serving. Almost all vegetables are suitable for cream soup. A Small to if
amount of onion adds a pleasing flavor to most cream soups. lite (5
t lttt

St=t·t·1~`k on I.uuctuaos 3
2 c canned or cooked tomatoes I/A c flour
I slice onion 1-1 salt
rl c milk lf t e ner
14 c hutter Q P pl
Cook tomatoes and onion for about ll) minutes. Press tomatoes
through a sieve. Make I1 Wl`11[C sauce of the milk. flour, butter and
salt. Add tomatoes to the sauce, pouring slowly and stirring con-
tinuously to prevent curdling. Serve immediately.
fl c cabbage 2 c water
1.//Q t salt 1 c medium white sauce
Shred cabbage. Put it in boiling salt water. Boil 10 to 15 minutes.
until tender. Drain oll water. Mix with white sauce. Serve hot.
A11; Meeting 111. ONE—DISH M1~:ALs '
NA Study and dtscussion 1 1
C Heat supplements A
H l Scalloped and au gratin dishes
lr, . ` '
H S Demonstration 1 V
Cm Make cottage cheese and serve it in several ways; as salad and iu sandwiches. 1
Make a cheese dish or other 0ue—dish meal.   ‘
RB ort bv each member on home work assi¤ned at Jreyious 1l1C€ll1l*". 1 A
. rn o 1
ICS Home work 1 E
1 ' Check your own food habits.  
l 1’· Prepare cottage cheese according to instructions.
the Use cottage cheese in at least 3 ways.
Prepare I1 one-dish meal.
" Cheese is made from the curd of milk. Of the many varieties, Q
' t . . . =
t cottage cheese (made from skimmilk) and American cheese are the 1
it best. known. Cheese is very rich in the muscle—building material. j
lttotetn. Since cheese contams material s11n1lar to that lound tn t
11 meat, it should not be served with it. Cheese is more easily and
quickly digested when grated and combined with other foods not
Cd uch in protein. lt makes an excellent main dish for xt meal.
bt; 'l`he milk for cottage cheese should be freshly sourcd. _-\Ilow skim
the ‘ lllllls to stand until it has glabbered, Cut curd into %; lflCh I0  
ith lllfll Cubes. Heat it Slowly Over warm water until the (iU1`(l S€]>?l1`iU<‘*
my _ lmlll the whey. Do not allow water to boil. Over-cooking or too
are lllgll H heat toughens the eurd and makes an undesirable product.
all Slmlll through cheeseclotlm The eurd may be washed in cool water
l . . ~ · , .
lll '€m0ve SONY taste, Season with salt ?1Il(l C1“€aIT1. SWECI lTllll< llldl
"°¤gu1ater1 with rennin and used instead Ot SONY milk. .\ll**\\'
l lll Ul it rcnnin tablet to 3 quarts of sweet milk.

  s lixttanstos Ctkcutaytt No. 395
il   (Lottage cheese may be served with fruits or vegetables in salads. Der
y in sandwiches, and in -many other ways. lt is a wholesome and
. nutritious protein lood and should be served often. 1
l l I luuter fyi lh solt. ntiltl theese
` ( 2 'l` chopped green pepper fi/i t salt
[ Iii 'l` chopped onion 2 'l` milk
l   ll [1II]l]€(l IUIINHU pllll) |’2ll)I`lk2l R€¥
l cas
l (look pepper and onion with the butter El minutes, stirring constantly. HO!
Add tomatoes [rom which liquor has been drained and took .'» Nlal
l minutes. Add cheese cut in small pieces. Cook over hot water until (fa]
1 . . .
clieese is melted; then add milk and egg slightly beaten; add season- Wu
‘ ing. Serve on toast or crackers.
N 5ll(CS ol` l)l`C1\(l (l`CIllU\C CI`lISl 2lII(l l)lllICl' C1I(Cll hll(`CI (`lll lll (IIIICSJ
[Q lb sharp cheese (gl`(ll€(ll 2 c milk or zi little more l
ly./Q t dry mustard l t salt will
irq t cayenne pepper Sl   mw
l’ut bread and cheese in baking dish in alternate layers. Beat Cgw hm
and add them to milk. Pour this over bread and cheese inixture l '
. av
4 l.et stand 8 hours and bake in moderate oven. _ `
( ttor
RAVIOLA (,.l.€(
l ll) gl`Ullll(l HICEU 2 lI`lC(lilllIl gl`CCll l)C[)|.)Cl`S Y) ·
2 medium onions l qt canned tomatoes Ol
5 c of noodles (lll1C0Ol§€(l) 2 t salt Oy}
(One stalk of chopped celery may be added to this recipe if desired.)
Chop vegetables hne. Fry vegetables in bacon drippings or butter.
Add meat to vegetables and cook until brown, Stew the tomat0€S (165
down t1ntil there is very little juice and add them to the meat TDW r hm
ture. Add the cooked noodles to the above ingredients. Pour into sup
ti greased baking dish and bake l hour. Sal;
ti hgntl cooked eggs Salt to taste me
Ita t medium white sauce Buttered bread crumbs
I’tu alternate layers of salted sliced eggs and white sauce into ll
grcasetl baking dish. Cover with crumbs and bake in a modcrHl0l‘ im,
lieftted oven (35OO F) until sauce bubbles and crumbs are bl`0“`llr wm
Cooked peas or other vegetables may be used in this dish. bm
Study and discussion Sill?
l. Essentials of a good salad
2. Value of fresh vegetables in salads ° _,
il. Types of salads lm]
t. Canned vegetables for salads *ll`e
5. Salad dressings

$t*1·t·t»a on l.lYNC||I·Z()N 9
;tds. Demonstration I
Ltntl l. Salad dressings _
2. Salads of some of the following;
Spinach or other greens
Cabbage in various combinations
(lanned vegetables or fruits
Report on home work assigned at previous nu·t·ting.
ly, Home work ~
4 5 Nlake a supper menu for each of the different seasons of the year
util (fall, winter, spring, and summer) considering foods obtainable in
‘°"‘ tour locality at these seasons. Make and serve salads at 3 meals.
Salads '
Composition.- Salads are made of meat, hsh. vegetables, or fruits. I .
with the addition of a dressing. Any vegetable that may be eaten  
ws raw, almost any cooked vegetable, and an unlimited number of com- · t .
  binations of vegetables make good salads. Fruits, also, may be used   t
raw, cooked, or in combination. Because so many salad combina- ,
tions are appetizing, left—overs may be used in salads. Some type ol   _
green, leafy vegetable is often used as a salad itself or as a bed or  
border for a salad. Lettuce is perhaps the most commonly used. Y
Others are cabbage, endive, water cress, spinach, and celery. I
“?"· Uses.—A good salad is not merely an appetizer. lt fills a very I
pcs 1 111e11e11. 111111 111111 ll1Clll 111 1.
111ix111r1· 111` 1)(i2lL€ll egg, sugar, 2lll(1 milk. $111 1()g€1l1C1` 111111 111111 0111Cl` 1
uS_ lllgl`C(1lC11l.S. 1)l`()l) by S})OOl1l`U1S 1111111 ll greased baking s11e1·1. 111111 1
1 l)2lli(' i11 ll 11\()(1€1`ZilC1\` heated <)\'L`11 550° F. l{Cl1l()\'(' 1.I`()lll 11111 EIS 1;
-11 1 _ 1 .
ms 1 *111111 11s baked. Y011 will 1111ve 50 5-111cl1 co01<1CS. 1 ¥
. I
Study and discussion 1
1. ClI2ll`2l(j[€l`lSll(`S 111' ¤·0111| l1I('1lll~
2. jiiclging o1` quick 1)l`C£`1(1$ 1
Demonstration 1
1111 1. Make COl`1llll€2ll or \\’11()lC·\\’ll€Lll 11is1111i1. 1
111, Y. Make 11 111:11 of (lll1Cl{ brc;111. 11s l)C{lll1l1 111 11r:111;1· 111·e1111. 1
·e; Report by 111111 111e1n|11·rs 1111 work (1()1l(' 111 11111111·
@11 Home work
ld. 1· l’l1111 11 IIICIIII l`11r ll 1\1Il(jl1C()ll 111 !~illl)ll]ll 111 next IIlCCl1Ilg. I’»es1 1111*1111 Nllll
111 111i11e1| 10 be ])l`Cl)?il“€(1 111 1111:11 111ec1i111.;.
111 2. Make il 111:11 01 (llllC1< bread.
CORNMl·l.·\I. M11l·`1·`INS
1 1 1111‘111111·11l I il` 1111:l1e11 ~|111111111i11;;_
I 1,1;, 1 g;1|1 1 1· l`lCSl] l111111·1`1111lk
Ei _ 1; 111 M5 1 $1111:1 1 @211
N1 l11'21| egg with 21 (1(')\'Cl` Cgg-1)C21lCI`. .1\1111 milk 111 1)C21lCl1 egg. 1111-11 111111
O1 ‘1"1` ingredients. :11111 1:151 rlie 1Tl€11€(1 S1lOl`[Cl`1lDg. l)()1ll` 1)2`ll1Ql` 11110
a1 n 11111. greased lllllliflll rings. Fill 111   111eir 11011111. being carelul 1101
1()1)\'€1`1111. Bake i11 21 1101 ()\'C1l 1111111 11111f1ins are l11(}1`()l1g1`ll§` br0wn1·11
y  ·|11(1 (`ll1Sl1`. Remove 11*0111 rings 215 $11011 21S taken lrom 111e 11ve11.

   I4 Extension Cincutmz No. 395
tl I .
I tt whole-wheat or graham Hour yg t soda que
I c white flour 4 T fat {hc
I t salt iff; c sour milk (approximately)
I 2 t baking powder
j Mix and sift all dry ingredients, except soda. Combine fat with dry tart
y I ingredients by cutting in with knives or a pastry mixer or by rubbing Im;
j with tips of lingers. Stir soda into sour milk. Pour milk into Hour thor
t mixture and mix lightly. Knead dough lightly on Houred board. UC
  Roll carefully to about M2 inch thickness and cut with biscuit; cutter. wu;
¥ Place on sheet and bake in hot oven for I2 to I5 minutes. lh?
I I orange I egg hd
_ I c raisins or dates 2%, c flour I
I t soda I t baking powder IQIIJI
% c sugar [4 t salt Wh
A t 2 T butter IA c nuts may be added _
I t vanilla ('lrated rind of 1 orange alla
Pour the orange juice in a cup; finish. Hlling the cup with boiling she
water. Add soda to juice. Sift all dry ingredients. Save a little flour as r
to mix with fruit and nuts. Mix the liquid and stir into the dry ·
mixture; add melted butter and orange rind. Stir in fruit and nuts. mm
Pour in a loaf pan that has been lined with wax paper or a greasfid mr
ian. Bake 50 minutes in a moderatelv heated oven; let cool in an. _
I [ nex
Study and discussion IMI
l. Setting the table for buffet and family snppers Um}
2. Duties of a hostess A
  Polite table manners mu
Plan for demonstration supper or luncheon HHH.
I. Choose menu from those submitted at former meeting. [IN.
1 2. Determine guests to be invited, `1
` Ii. Assign duties.
The Buffet Service
I Buffet service is a delightful and convenient method of serving H
large number or an uncertain number of guests. The menu may IW
..· .. ,  .. ,. l.·,,—. Den
much simpler than that for tl meal seived at the table, but tic .
tistic effect and atmosphere of the buffet meal may be just as €I1€¢¤`lII‘ cfm
in? and attractive as in any other method of service. The meal ma} .
be served in the dining room, in the living room, or on the porch ° 5
or the lawn. the
Decoration of tables.- The table should be spread with clean.
n·ell—ironetI linen or lace cloth. Some deeoratiions such as a bowllol
gay Howers, lighted candles or both should be used to give a Iesnve

air to the table and room. Small tables with linen covers at which
guests may eat may be placed about the house, porch, or lawn, or
fly) the guests may hold the trays or plates on their laps.
Selection of menu.- The menu for a buffet meal should be
dry tarefully planned, and should not include foods which are hard to
Ding handle or cut, as a heavy meat or raw vegetable salad. The foods
loul should not be watery, such as tomato salad with French dressing.
HNL (jreamed dishes should be served in timbales. The menu usually
UCL eonsists of two courses, with the 111ain one on the central table and
the dessert on the side table or tea wagon.
Serving the mea1.— The guests 11111) pass around the table and
help themselves or, at more formal affairs, may be seated at small
tables and the plates may be served to them from a center table. ‘
\\’hen the hostess wishes to give a more festive atmosphere to informal
affairs than is possible when the guests help themselves to all food, li
ling she may have friends sit at each end of the table, to serve such foods ‘
0m` as the hot dish or the salad and beverage. '
d*Y When the guests are expected to serve themselves, the plates y
uw should be placed at the end of the table at which the guests will i
  ¤l2l1`t. (jold foods such as sandwiches and salads should be placed  
next to the plates and then the hot dishes and beverage with the  
water glasses, silver, and napkins at the