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1
7<  FA  Asn HOMEc]Z2erzce r
, - .4 .  
Vol. 5, No. 3 ......................... Summer 1959 li
rat
A report of progress published quarterly by the Kentucky Agricultural _
. . . . . 9**
Ex erzment Statzon, Umverszt 0 Kentuck , Lexmvton
b
l{l·ZN'l`U(ZK\' .o\(LRl(2Ulfl`UR.r\L lLXl’lZRll\rIENT Material appearing in this publication may be re-
Sr1`·`\T1()N produced without further permission, provided that S
QQILANK   Y;/E;.Cll .........................................   ...... glI'CCl[OI`   acknovvlcdglucnt is Inudc of the Source and that ix?
~ uirmm .`EAY . .. . ..   .... . .... ice irector . . . .
1 . . ....... ... ... .. . . . o lh; _ I il _ <, _ 21 2 kl
w. 1>.e,urrooos .................................... Associate Director :0 °l “lg°l‘“ ‘“"‘“g’ °‘ "°`“ “ ‘“"° W“h°"t "’p'°“ W,
j. Ai,i.rxN Ssirrn ..............................,... Agricultural Editor Y tw Aut mn
Kcntucky Farm (md Hcme Science Address correspondence about articles in this pub-  
jossru G. l)uNc:rtN ................................................ Editor h°“tif’“ t" eil]? the "“th°“ Tl the _D€p“"m°l“ Of rr
M. Nasa Cox ........................................ Assistant Editor Pubhc Inlomlatlon and E¤t¤¤s the r<>¤f€d cuttmss m St<->¤¤¤€¤· Most of them ¤‘€¤<>t·¤  ,. 'itZ'A't *#.—>s.··t;=?‘t¤ · r ·.,¤'  ·}¤%¤· . ..     -t-t.... .  
.   ’"’= #5 sf=?f’.s;::l'Yi%:‘¤Y;?*i§~ ·.»   ‘°·o*€*a  ·c?7     ?§‘#;?"‘i···t.f I",   ‘ *` ‘· »~<&t.       "   ‘
` ik i»·t    'i,€‘;=I"¢?f?`if§?·’.fii;§`?°¤é§°T—¥’£>1 It   ·‘  ;·L‘-  ’=i•'”*=i~€*  tg} lei -YY.   III    :t`   I`Ii```I        
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Fig. l.—(left) This plant of susceptible clone (KyC4-9) shows dying) in this plant of clone (Ky(Z7l-8) is spreading from
signs of mosaic, (right) This resistant plant is of a clone dead spots on the leaves. See Fig. 2 for a close-up view of
(Ky(14()-2) that does not become readily invaded by the dead spots on a clover leaf that remained localired and
_ · mosaic virus. (center) The systemic necrosis (or complete did not spread.
r~ . . -
Kt;>:·1·t‘c:xY FARM Asn Hour; Sc:11aNc:1z—SUxtxtt;a 1909 3
 

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This three-row tobacco primer is operated by four men. developed by the Gay-Bell Corp. of Paris, Ky. Although Tip
The leaves are primed by hand, placed in a vertical con- it has been in use for several years on farms owned by
veyor which moves the leaves past a device which places a the developers, it has not been placed on the market. _. .
loop or chain stitch around each group of three leaves. (Mention of commercial names in this article should not _
The continuous string of leaves then travels into a burlap be construetl to be an endorsement of the products.)   _
bag for transporting to the barn. The machine is being _ ’
O O U mr I
r`F<*,
BC 3I1lZll'1 0 CC0 I` 1 A  V
EllglIl€€PS Sll0W I)OSSlbllllQl€S of llS1llg_ lll£\ChlIl€S ~
to cut labor and costs long associated »¤ ~
with growing and harvesting burley
the highest quality. \zVhen timeliness is considered _
. . . . <~
. ·1lon Y with total labor re uirements the two most criti-
By El)\V.»\Rl) M. sMiTi-i ‘ 5 _ ‘ q * _ _ _
cal production areas are: (1) establishing the crop lll ,,
Tobacco mechanization im Jlies the inte rrated use the Held, which includes nlant bed work and trans- _
_ 1 . .
of a system of machines and methods to produce to- planting; and (2) harvesting, which includes topping c
haeco, from seeds to marketable product. The deve- and suckering, and cutting and housing. v QV
lopment of functional requirements and specifications Direct field planting of tobacco seeds represents a __
for this system is the objective of the tobacco mechani- possible method of establishing plants in the field with
zation research program of the Agricultural Engineer- a substantial saving in labor and costs. Such a method , vt
ing Departinent. would eliminate the time-consuming tasks of plant bed
The average total hand labor requirement for the preparation and care, pulling plants, and transplant-  
production of bnrley tobacco in Kentucky is -109 man- ing. V V
hours per acre. The total hand labor requirement for One obstacle to direct field planting of tobacco is
* . . . . . . — *
each of the various production operations in tobacco the very small physical size of the seeds. Burley seeds ”
production is indicative of the basic need for focusing were sent to a commercial company in California hav- QV V `
some attention on mechanization. Some production ing equipment to place a spherical coat of clay of any 1 .
. ~ . . . . . . k
operations, however, need to be performed within a specified diameter around each seed. The increased
limited o itimum time ieriod if the ( ualitv of the cro > uhvsical size and the uniform sha ie of each seed af-
. 1 . 1 _ _
is to be preserved. For example, harvesting must be forded by this clay coat facilitated mechanical hand-
done at just the right stage of leaf maturity to get ling and more accurate placement of the seeds.
~l Ixmxrvcitv Faint Asn Home Scuaxc1c—SUxrxu;n 1959
  Y

 . An exploratory test was designed to study some of create the proper physical enviromnent for the emer-
V the factors concerned with functional requirements of gence of the coated seeds,   methods and time of
J3 planting machinery for mechanized field planting of laying the plastic mulch,   methods and time of
1 ‘ I coated tobacco seeds. Coated burley (Ky. 53) seeds planting the seeds, and (4) methods of thinning the
` “ were planted directly in the Held on four different plants to one plant per hill.
dates and at three different rates to determine their A second main area of tobacco yroduction is har-
et I
performance as measured by emergence. Because vesting and housing burley tobacco. One test was
a ' g ` y ' - nducted last year to evaluate five different harvest—
_ quire from about 6 days to 3 weeks, a black polyethy- ing methods. Two mechanical harvesters were in-
·, O lene lastic mulch was laced over the row 'ust rior cluded. One was a rimin machine develo ied bv the
l .
* Gay-Bell Corporation of Paris. The other was a stalk- ;
 _— V_ V cutting machine designed by Mr. \Villiam C. Irvine of
·— .      e   ..,     V    . .·  ,   ‘   · e>- %t¤V -, ,.-.   =·=   ·
s   ‘°¥‘*·     `’i‘   *4: --=‘r .. < I = :   *»§"”`®$`     DaHV11l€·
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1 ;;,  ‘ l if     .;-Vm2».;:s—»>     ...   r r   The results indicate that burley tobacco can be har-
VV V <   .  ·— P2  ....         ‘’‘’‘   is    H . . . . .
-.;VV‘;a;; ·’ r’‘‘ = ._-—     ··   i VV; g<~; %g;>  vested mechanically without sacrificing yield or qual-
‘ C   --‘.  ¥ YQ .,.` . LY       .   ’·=<.   it Use of the riminv machine resulted in si Ynificant- I
‘ sg ,*~,   —-»a steer V ·’‘‘ t #’··   ‘-··- ·   V V     ly higher yields, and both the priming and stalk cutting
  -=-...‘°     in ;-r= 5    ’ -   ..». ` " .-—-. .   ..,°·  2   i ‘/·` ,‘»;=%;<" - - V
_     N   E EA  YA         :.*2% machines resulted in higher g1'OSS 1'€tlll`ll PGY 100
   e   VA  "qi  >·  *:·~i·· V.   Q    A    _ +V_. pounds of cured leaf than from hand-cut tobacco.
          ·’=·-’— Q if ...€  ··       2.   Lf   _· l_ ._ V    The success of mechanical methods of harvesting
V ~ ` V —....       =,. ‘·     r zi  , ‘ ` TV- V. ·~  t n b ‘`‘‘· . .
W ’   __,=- V      q     .:=rr‘·.· {   it -  ~ -V     `· burlev tobacco will be dependent, to a certain extent.
‘ ’   I EQ    ».=· . .   »—i` —     *  ·» V- ii it  .s .   -'  ' ,
_     ·       -_..    :..   ._    V   ’_· ir (Continued on Page 6)
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    :V  ;   `·..  sr  VV»»   Vrfr -· V ia   - ·‘ , we VV,  
‘     A.‘ _é_·t ~. li{4;.AAA' if
This machine for planting coated tobacco seed and laying A,A — y   -   `   f* ·    
a plastic mulch in a single operation was developed by the   ...;=.‘ _A __ _  VV j  .  _   V \ .!"_’-il. V  
UK Department of Agricultural Engineering. It is a modi-         A  ,VV- ’  _ , Q     ’ A '   '
· i` fied one-row corn planter with plastic-laying equipment   d»i· _ V 4 fx   V TM jg .   ‘   I
  added.  `¤,A'A ’ A ‘ VL _,' 'V V  . V •, V   ’ » A V
v' *" .j*   *3; · ,’#§§~f ` · ‘ e W
_A to planting the seeds. Holes, 18 inches on center along       V- `~   gig}. _- ·*— { , xslt yi  
ii the row, were cut in the plastic mulch through which   i { W _/ it .V ,. `· tk,   `i · .   
l' the seeds were planted. The plastic mulch was selected * $’ ‘ VV~. /' [ V { it  , ` -   ,4 V V V   gi
for its ability to conserve moisture and increase soil A V  .»   gf  if   \ X t   ·  
K temperatures as well as control weeds. -· ·"·`, _V   _VVr=r., _,i» ( '   » g=§’*
`· Results indicate that coated tobacco seeds can be   V   ·   V
planted directly lll the field with confidence that the   V  V,
plants will emerge and grow to maturity. This test,   _' .    ’~V· ·¢¤
also, revealed several probletns that need to be solved I  ‘’ii   M   `   J"   ·
\ — in order to establish the functional requirements of "I  
machinery for direct Held planting. Among the pro-   A M
—l‘ blems are 1 seedbed >re >aration and irotile to W V
V I I
,4 ,
Q AA >   • A A
Only one man is needed to operate this housing machine, ' ` -V A ¤       ;,,. e  
designed for hanging primed leaves in the tobacco barn. U . Y   ‘   VF    
Essentially, it is a movable platform suspended from rails ,, , , I U A ‘ ri ,
A* in the barn and powered by an electric hoist. The operator ' l · il i   —- _ . .  
loads the primed leaves on the platform, then hoists the · y N . pi   r__V ‘ ‘=r'     _A ”
load and himself to the top rail; there he places enough · • id   ·... V ,   V 3; • |||
. . n I II I . $ ··  " V {
. ol the load to fill the rail and as he descends he loads the     _ ·
\ p· succeeding rails. The device is being developed by the I . • * ` ' it   ···r · Q, . °: ..°.
V (Lay-Bell Corp., of Paris. Kv. ° ° . °` °° Y`. ` . ·l . ‘ _ , .
‘ n • tz -I I lall ..•..*II~ » s -· V

 Resistant Clover Clones from leaf marking that is common on red clover.`The _
(cmltinucd from Page 3) absence of leaf marking serves as an aid in identifying ‘ ·
the clones. _ .
  . Results of tests under greenhouse and field con- ,
  ditions show that in clones KyC6 and KyC71-8 the “
  virus commonly invades the plants systemically and PQ ‘
    ( usually kills them, but in clones KyC40, KyC4()-1 and
  ° KyC40-2 the virus tends to remain confined in the __ '
  local lesions (Fig. 2). These three clones are vigorous, __
      of good appearance, without leaf markings, and re- ,  
f‘,° J       ,·v‘ ' tiif Q   =l_   yvvg     1; p'  sistant to at least some isolates of bean yellow mosaic , 4
  .V ,V q      ; v1rus.'They seem to have considerable promise as  
.   . { {   breeding stock for development of a variety of red _.‘
      AAVA ;;. _,v· lat. _) A p clover resistant to this common virus disease of red ‘··»
· .7 ;     · " clover m Kentucky.
      A B e s i d e s helping develop resistant varieties, is
Fig. 2.—These dead spots (necrotic lesions) on a leaf of a there is a Second and perhaps equaux practical hse Y
plant of clone Ky(Z7l-8 remained localized and did not for ii€Ci`OtiC`SPOttihg PiahtS> namely. tot Comparing T
spread. The leaf had been rubbed with bean yellow the relative effectiveness of two or more preparations W.
mosaic virus. of the virus. After a necrotic-spotting leaf is rubbed { . 
because in some of them the virus becomes localized With virus, the virus €ht€i's the C€iis» ihuitiPii€s» tihti I
or immobilized in the small necrotic spots and fails kills it gi`0uP of cells. Causihg a visible dead sPOt· Oh'
to spreatl into the growing parts of the plant. In such Vi0usiY this tuihishes si ihsiihs thi Chuhtihg the with
cases the result is a paradoxical situation in which tive huihhei Ot active Viius Piiiticies ih ths Pi€Pattt‘
practical resistance is based on a reaction that is really tioii with which th€ isai Was rubbed. ahd ttii C0ihPth" » , I
one of extreme susceptibility or sensitivity, as a nec- ihg Ohh Pispaiatiuh with ahuthsh BY the hss of h€'s‘ , QA 
,·(,tic-SP(,ttmg reucmm iS_ rotic-spotting clones we have learned how to prepare I _
This type of necrotic-spotting resistance has been iihti use ihhcuiuih mote €tt€CtiV€iY than W6 Chhiti do L .
exploited successfully by plant pathologists in develop- h€iOi€· This khowiedgs is tissthi ih the sstitch tht i`€‘ r
ing virus-resistant varieties of plants. For example, the sistiiht Phihts- Whhh ihtihY Piahts must be shhlhcthti V
hurlcy mbucco mosuicqcsismnt varieties Ky35’ Ky57’ to the disease by inoculation. It is also useful and im- "‘
and Ky58 developed by plant pathologists at the Ken- Phitttht ih stutiYihg the ihhsiittihcs Ot t€sisttihC€·
tucky Agricultural Experiment Station carry the nec- -
rotic-spotting type of resistance to the mosaic virus. Tobacco PI’0dl1(ZIi0ll
From among the lumdreds of red clover plants test- (Confirmed ffvm Pflge 5) 91.
ed, several that developed necrotic spots were selected upon the development of mechanical methods of _ `
and increased as clones. Six of these clones were se- housing the tobacco. increased harvesting efficiency -7
lcctcd for further comparison. Clones KyC6 and K) C- would only magnify the housing problem which is a ·;
Tl originated as plants selected among survivors of critical problem from the standpoint of efficient utili-
some seedlings of Kenland red clover that had been zation of labor.
inoculated with a fungus that causes southern an- The functional requirements for housing stalk cut ,
thracnose. Clone KyC71-8 is from a plant selected from tobacco in conventional housing facilities were estab-
a group grown from seed produced on a plant of clone lished by a careful study of publications and observa— I
KyC7l growing outdoors, i.e. open pollinated. Clone tions of housing techniques employed by farmers.
KyC4(l is from a plant selected in 1953, growing with- These requirements were utilized in the development ` 
out symptoms in the midst of infected plants in a of the principal components of a machine for housing .
field of 3-year-old Kenland. Clones KyC4()-1 and KyC- stalk-cut tobacco. A prototype was constructed and its ;»
40-2 are from plants from seed produced on a plant operation was observed. A full-scale machine was con- _
of Ky(Z4(l growing outdoors in a cage with several structed and its operation was observetl. A full-scale tl
other 1iccrotic-spotting clones. machine will have to be constructed and tested V
These clones were selected because of their necrotic thoroughly before recommendations can be made on
spotting reaction and also because of their freedom the general use of the housing machine. —
 
6 Krzxrucxr FARM AND Home Scn;Nca—SUstsmn 1959
  }

 "KtkR hR1t°B°f
N __ €I1 HC y €S€3I°C BSI] S III 1°1€
U By FRANK B. BORRIES, _]R. ·
_ SEVERE WINTER SHOWS OATS Atlantic had 11 percent survival and yielded only 13
NEED WINTER-HARDINESS bushels an acre; Dubois, 30 percent survival and 26
  A Severe Winter at L€Xingt0n_]aHuary in particular buslliels an acre; Forkedeer, 12 percent survival and 17 4
_p1,O\/Bd the various varieties Of Winter Oats used by bus e s an acre; and Bronco, 38 percent survival and
  Kentucky farmers need more of the desirable winter- 28 bushels an écrg
g A, hardinéss factor Other experimental lines showed variable results.
v SO Says Verne Fmkuer, Kentucky Agricultural Ex_ Four of the l1st·had 30 percent survival; six averaged
, . Perimem Station Small grains breeder, after a Survey Of 40 percentsurviyal; and six were less than 20 percent V
__ * yields OH tha Lexington Station farm. surv1val.'Y1elds 1n each case were comparable to thc
gv F inkner found the standard varieties winter-killed IOW Suwwal rate'
a badly and that survival in some cases was as low as BEEF L
T- 11 percent. Some of these varieties up to now had RIN`B;J L PERFORMANCE TEST
g. been thought sufliciently winter—hardy. B G DIVIDENDS TO STATE
But the test had some encouraging aspects, he add- The Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Stations
`*e2·¤~ ed. Several experimental lines, kept right along for beef-bull performance test, now in its {ifth year, con-
  just such a rigid—and frigid—test, had good survival. tinues to bring dividends to cattlemen, says \V. P. Car-
J \Vintok, a standard variet , winter-killed badl at ri us, animal husbandry section head.
i Y Y g ,
»» Lexington; it had only 25 percent survival and yielded "A nationally known Kentucky breeder learned
only 15 bushels an acre. But Ky 56-518, an experi- through one test that one of his top young herd bulls
— · mental line, had 76 percent survival and yielded 51 was not producing calves that gained as rapidly as
F£k»·‘ bushels an acre. Kv 56-527, another line nursed alon desirable. He alread has made a substantial chan re in
( . S Y in
wg _ just for such a test, had 66 percent survival and yielded his breeding program. Another large cattle operation,
i_ 46 bushels per acre. using about 800 commercial cows, tested live or six
i- The four recommended varieties did poorly, Fink- bulls annually and then selected top performers out
ner said, since they are not particularly winter-hardy. (CWIHHUCJ on Paw, 8)
_ j     ._“‘  x;  ...=     .`.‘        
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