xt7tht2g903g https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7tht2g903g/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1940 journals 1_14 English Lexington, Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky fruit notes v.1 n.14. text Kentucky fruit notes v.1 n.14. 1940 2014 true xt7tht2g903g section xt7tht2g903g ile
uf Vol. 1 February, 1940 N0. 14
:;,2 W. D. Armstrong, Horticulturist, Editor
.nd WATCH FOR RABBIT AND coating on the injured area at
ery MOUSE INJURY once. Several materials can be
s a W D. ARMSTRONG used satisfactorily. Ordinary
iw ' shellac is one of the best cover-
ICC, Siiicc practically all parts of l|1{;S HS it_does 1TOt illjure the cx-
011 Kentucky have been covered witl1 l105€’<1_ <10110i1t€ #1831105. Otdlnary
md snow of various depths for sev- l11'11S11111i; {§1`¥1fi3111g “'_3·X 15 _W€l1
ety eral weeks since Uhristmas, it is i11111l1t€<1 to USB 21S_ 1S 01‘d11l¤11‘Y
`hiS to be expected that many fruit 111011t*d DH1'111°f111· 501116 S01"¤ of
sfy trees, large and small, have been DQ1‘t€1bl0 WHX l1€P1t€1‘ is 11€€d€d ;
to injured by mice and rabbits dur- 1*1111 these 1_?1$t two, but t11€S€ 31`G
ing this time when their other €11$}' U1 d€Y1$€- A$I111?11t11111 P1`l111·
§]i€ foods were scarce and hard to 1118 P§1111t 1$ €11$0 115611 f01‘ $11€11 P1
for reach. The alert fruit ma11 in €01'€1‘111S W1'f11 good 1`€S111'fS· Y
big many cases pruned off a number Treatment as described above
of small limbs on the snow so they should keep the wounds in good
_in would be eaten instead of the condition until spring. In the
gted tree trunks. He also went to look meantime preparation for addi-
link lns trees over for injury as soon tional repzurs should be made.
as the snow went away. If this During February and early March
tl _ has not been done it would be well lopg water sprouts should be ·
11S to do so. ta {en and buried in the soil in
the Often rabbits and mice take off l11`€`l1*11`?1t1011 f01` b1`1€1H€ €§1`_aft_1¤{,’-
wks only the outer bark. On other AS 1S {%'€11€1`?111}’ 1{110“i11 t111$_1$ 8
Qin occasions they take 0E the bark 111‘?i11°d of $1'&ft111§ 111 11111011 6
5 r" in splotches clear into the wood. YO1~111S $1100Y 1§ ?1'¤'f21€11€d b€10_“' €111d g
ten- In other cases, large Sections of above the injured area, bridging Q
mt the trunks are entirely denuded the ]1°a1t11Y bark 111 these two V
Err}. of their bark. The first two con- 1`€S1011S·   ,
M0 ditions are often not serious and Even very seriously injured   ‘
10m` with some extra encouragement, trees can be repaired by a good i
mty if not alone, the tree will regen- job of bridge grafting. The work i_
1`OUS crate bark and cambium enough should be done as soon in the ·
I11l1 to effectively heal the scars and spring as the bark on the tree   it
1110* the tree will soon be normal again. trunks starts to "slip?’. This will ,   [
it-aio However, in the third case, where be about the time the leaves start   3 f
the bark is completely removed ont. Experience has shown that 3   -
ei-by in areas, these rarely heal over bridge grafting rarely pays on —_
tied, and the tree is set back, stnnted or trees under two or three inches Q
1 by eventually dies in acco1·dancc to in diameter at the base. It is with §   ‘
glp- the severity of thc injury. the large trees that success is to     i
uber In any case drying out of the be had with bridge grafting;    
injured tissues can be prevented When seriously injured, the small    
sm and recovery aided by brushing a trees referred to above had best    

 be removed and replaced or if o1·chard were actually several l
good bark is intact at the base, degrees colder than official gov- l
the tree can be cut otf and grafted Cl`lll1l01ll`, reports in various towns.
i to HIIOIl1€1` O1` tll€ SHIHC VilI`lCty. 1)CaCh gl-Oyyers are uygcd to (
Dllo to tlls “'€ll ostllllllsllorl root delay any winter pruning until I
J ·~ systom tllo llowly grattotl tot) will the extent of this inju1·y can be (
. , usually lllllké Pl slll`Pl'lslll{Il}' last determined, and above all consid- (
growtlr _ erations not to dehorn any trees t
'J wvlloro mollso llllllry ooollrs until after time for the growth to l
low oll tllo tlalllli of tllo ll`€€ Ol` start in the early spring. Many l
.` sllglltly lm€lol`Sl`ollll i' ,_,, tremely hardy of bud, are under ‘
. ·t The extent of injury to peach trial. '
I .   trees from the sub-zero weather '
    throughout the state this week A FIELD MICE CONTROL
  r e   — £;§li§ii§‘§Li if §Zt2litC°aiii2$lil§§0i€; "R°"‘RAM i
    ` . indicate that temperature at Paw G. C. ODERKltlK, associate Biologist
i Q " ducah reached 10 below; Owens- U' S` Bmlogmal Smiley  
Q l: l b01°{>, 18, mid LeXingt0n, 12. Ex- The relatively high infestation
‘ l` _ " pemence in the past has shown of field mice prevailing in orchard l
h that the temperatures in the, areas during the past year has l
  of 2
-1;: l

 I uv
ll resulted in severe injury to trees tect bait during the winter but
'._ in many orchards. in other periods it is advisable
S Various factors favored the in- to bait the mouse rimways. If
_' crease of mice during the fall holes are evident, drop bait in
  months a year ago, resulting in them. Two to four bait place-
tl the carry-over of a large number ments in active runways near a
E10 of mice during the winter and tree should be suificient.
i spring. Conditions have been Rolled oats is a preferred food
is more or less ideal for mice to for mice. Steam crushed oats and
ti breed and increase this year and wheat are taken readily although
It at this writing a warning is in the latter two seem to be more
nl order to bait and rebait the readily accepted by meadow mice
as orchard particularly during the than pine mice. A bait consisting
to next few months. of rolled oats and wheat has
lol During the period lwhcn tl1e Pvrolloo "ot`Yv_aoo€Ptab1o attd _1t
tv nonulollon of llolll nnoo ls out woud be advisable to use it m
do proachmg or at the cyclic peak lot lato Sttmmor or early fall, follow-
ch abundance,. ll lo obvlously dosne ing with steam crushed oats. _ 1
IH; able to bait more freuently than A Seasonal _Pt`ogt'am,_mVo1V1¤g
l during periods when the infesta- tho ooo of poisoned baits as fol-
tx tion is atafairly low point. How- lows, would be Worth considera-
lho ever, it would pay to lay out a tion: V
do program of field 111100 control and Fa·u· _Mako a thorough ooV· '
wd follow It consistently from year orago with rolled Oats and Whoat
538 lo yoon If Suoll o program is not or with steam crushed oats _the
followod’ thoro ls o lonolouoy to last week lIl·OCtOb(?I‘. Rebait a
apply control measures only when Wook later with l)o1$o¤od aPPl_o· .
cky mice are numerous and in the S“'_oot Potato ot` oat`I`ot· Gram
aI’}' maj0rit§r of onsos llloso onnlloo_ bait may be placed in asphalt .
utls tlons oro mollo oflol. lllo groolol. pape1· tubes and left in the orchard
4 it but of lllo damage hos boon du1·i11g December and January.
lach lolllololl l llovo Suooosloll lo Place paper bait stations in run-
ter- many growors lllot ll would bc ways Hlld cover them lightly with · `
the worth while to bait the orchards gtaos- Ooo Station Po? t1‘€ <>~‘a· them .6 table- ESIFEI;°§§§;°‘ty“‘E.-.“‘i?.°%.°¥ttEZ?.2‘§,ii;
_ l spoonfuls of a mixture ot 3 parts W,.,Sl€,.,, Kcmucky la
, of melted beef fatland 1 part of _ Sl]
melted paraffin, mixing until the S11I111118·1°Y of Ktmtllcky Buhétm re
oats are evenly coated. \Vhen the 389 I.,
. grain is cool it is ready for usc. THE STRAWBERRY CROWN il,
If larger quantities of the bait BORER b,
are needed, use in the proportion of P- O· RITCHER bl
. 1 ounce of strychnine, 1 ounce of The strawberry crown borcr, in
` . soda, 8 quarts of rolled oats, and Tylodcrina fragarite (Riley) has tu
‘ A _ 1% pints of beef-fat paraffin ini;- been a se1·ious pest of strawberries bc
ii ture. In applying th_e coating it is in western Kentucky for the past Y
l . very important that thc beef-fat forty years. ln this state, in addi- I{
` 1 paraffin mixture be hot and the tion to the cultivated strawberry, ‘_
l  ` poisoned rolled oats th0rOiiL·]i]y CI‘O\\`Lt l)O1`CI` \\‘z1S fOll11(l bfcetlillg (gl
l l. W3.1'D1, otherwise it will not be pos- in connnon cinqtiefoil and the wild ta
V sible to obtain an even coating. strawberry. Common einquefoil is l
i Starch-coated wheat bait, Mix abundant and often is the source of E {
l 1 tablespoonful of gloss starch in crown-bo1·er infestation for nearby ,3
E, _ IA; teacup of cold water and stir berry patches. Other investigators  
. ~ `T into % pint of boiling water to have reported that the crown borcr ,,1
_ make a thin clear paste. Mix 1 has a single generation a year. ln (
I g   · ounce of powdered strychnine with 1937, a small second generation was lr
Z l ·_ 1 ounce baking sode and stir into reared at Princeton, Kentucky. tl,
· I V ._,. the starch to a smooth creamy mass The strawberry crown borcr W
  free of lumps. Stir in % pint of usually passes the winter in thc
i v_   heavy corn sirup and 1 tablespoon- adult stage under trash o1· in the
§; ful of glycerine. Apply to 12 soil. A very few crown borcrs pass hl
  · . quarts of wheat. the winter within infested plants A
l   _ Vegetable or fruit bait. Cut 2 and mature in February and
; t  ,, quarts of apple, sweet potato, or March. It is concluded that no al
i   __ carrots into half inch cubes. Mix crown borcr eggs are laid until h
( l -_ % ounce of powdered strychnine early March. It is also concluded tc
~ and % ounce of baking soda and, that the simplest way to secure data b'
’ . 4

er on early egg-laying is to follow egg can crawl 300 yards without a
is development by dissection of a source of food. .
g. sufficient number of females and 2. Plants for new patches
y- correlate this with air tempera- should be dug between December 1
is tures. Egg laying continues from and March 1. Plants dug after
it March until September. Eleven December 1 rarely contain crown-
le females laid an average of 62.7 borer larvaz, pupaz, or adults, and
ld eggs each during 1937. Some fe- when dug before March 1, will con-
id male crown borers laid eggs a sec- tain no eggs. Plants dug too early
ond year. Total maxiinum egg for setting should be heeled in at a
_n_ production for a female which laid distance of 350 yards from a source
in during the seasons of 1937 and of infestation.
as 1938 was 1-12. Crown-borer eggs 3. Certified plants are preferred
fly are always laid in the strawberry for setting new p3};ch€g_ Plants
E; plant. They are usually deposited from infested patches can be used
m__ 111 €XC8VZ1tl0llS 1118tlC 111 1llO CI`O\Vll for Starting b01•g]_•-fI·g€ patchgs pro-
ng or old leaf bases slightly above the vided they arg dug before Mm~Ch 1
ky origin of the lateral 1·oots and gud pygpgrly cleaned and washed .
¤° close to the soil Surface. to rid of adhering adults. Plants `
rg Plants attacked by crown-borer from patches found to be free of
larvae are killed, stunted, or may crown-borer are preferred. Even
show no other eifccts except a certified plants should be dug early
ll reduction in number of runners and and cleaned. i
N runner plants. In di·y years, entire 4. Set strawberry patches only
fields are often wiped out by crown- on land in cultivation for one or
borer. Pupation of boi·cr larva: more years.
began between June 10 and June 16 5. Destroy all berry patches
me in 1937 and 1938 in western Ken- after the second year of picking.
las tueky. First generation adults 6. Destroy the common wild V
{ii began emerging late in J niie. One host of the crown-borer, common
d. parasite. I\l1C1'Ol)1'21COl1 analeidis, (Zl11q11€fOll. (five Hnger),
    and tyq §1`°'%ut°rSd$}_(luOi Editor’s N0te.—Strawberry growers i
mn P1_1U5 &UI`i4U> €i st 611 MW! who stay in the business year after _
rig americanus Payk. were found at- year are the backbone of the industry. ,
fas mms the     ">Vl0~ §.¥;°ai’§?§‘tt.";‘;$.;“€l;i §.‘;i.f;€t2it  
; of . dellma fovcolam (S3‘y)’ a close rc` rounded production program regarding
pbv lem Of. the “`°“`“ b°1`°l`» was acreage, soil fertility, rnuleinng, variety- E _
· common in strawberry patches. It selection and insect control. In order {
  breeds in Oenothera laeiniata Hill lg b¤`i¤g0S0i§tl6 0fd¢h€S<*il;t€l§1}f¤ is minbd E
*` ° . . .. .. 1 VVHS C HSI €l`€ \VOI' \\` 1 · ·
In am? ‘S 1*9*; .“ S“""b“L’ Pfistg _ _ nsn are summary of urs roiioiarigliiirr- -
was _ Usectludes and mums “ me letin, which is based on an intensive ‘
1-I‘1€d 8S 111GB.llS of Cl‘O\\'l1-l)O1`0l‘ 0011- study of commercial strawberry grow- j V -
trol. Results of the tests do not ins in Kentucky, by Mr. W. W. Masill 5 _V I
uml warrant their reeonnnendation. who has Spam 17 Years in $m“"b€*"`Y if T ’
the . . work in Kentucky. g
thc Certain recommendations for · ; r. V
mss cr0wn—borer control are niadc as Summary of Kentucky Clxcular { _
mts a result ot tl11s investigation. N0. 295 ,
and 1. New strawberry p a t che s COMMERCIAL STRAWBERRY E Q _
,,0 should be set at least 350 yards GROWING IN KENTUCKY    F
mi] from a source of infestation. Field _ W- W- MAGILL   _jj ji
Ldcd tests with 1,038 marked erowii- kentucky g1`O\VS·6,000 to 10,000 g   i
iam borer adults showed that the beetles acres of commercial strawberries Q ··j;£  
5 .    

 ' annually. The berries are shipped crate for picking, grading, packing bm
by refrigerator express and trucks contginer and marketing expense mf
to many northern and eastern are air estimates.
V 1naI‘k€tS, including Canada- The crown-borer is the most de-  
T Ma1‘k€tlng 'dn`n €O0P€i'atlV€ a$$0· structive strawberry insect in Ken- we
K eiations has beell found to be the tucky. After a field becomes in- ml
' ‘ most satisfactory plan. festcd there is no control measure. `vi
’ ` ` The dread of ickinv is the out- infestation can he prevented by set- at
.. standing obstacllg confronting the ting clean plants some distance .,.0,
V prospective grower. This can be from old plantings. hs,
· 0V€1`00n1€ by d€P€ndlng on lined Grub worms can be prevented by Sht
. , , help to do the picking. using lzuid that has been cultivated Ca
Any good tobacco land will pro- two years before strawberries are lt,
` duce strawberries. Soil building set. tr:
Z _ with green manure and superphos- by
t phate is advisable. THE VEGETABLE GARDEN cii
. Preparation of the land in late JOHN S- GARDNER fo
· fall is desirable. Although admitting that this will de
. The Aroma variety leads ill Kell- fall under the eyes of men engaged Of
' · tueky. Blaliem01‘€ and P1'€111l€1` in the business of fruit-growing, it ou
` ‘ also are important. E\‘e1‘bea1‘l11{; is nevertheless fitting that it should th
` varieties have not proved success- appear here, for a good garden is at
ful good business. In fact, a good dc
Strawberry plants should be set garden may easily be the most im- L:
in March or ea1‘l}' April. Early portant piece of business on any ar
1‘l1Illl€I` plants are IHZIDY UIHBS HS farm, if 11ot for the money it may e!
productive as those formed in late earn, certainly for the real money re
` f August and September. it will save. Because the savings sa
' V` p Avllen plants are 1'eC€i\'ed they are day·by-day savings they are
t V if should be unpacked and heeled in not always appreciated, but taken pc
] . as soon as they arrive. in the gross, over the year, they are Og
‘ . The roots should be pruned be- found to be not inconsidcrable. Il
` g ` fore the plants are set, and the soil Now, gardens, like orchards, are as
V Q Sl1011ld be lifllled 211‘011l1d Tllem, ill "good" onl * to the extent they are S
I i setting. Blooms should be picked planned, aifd tended by program. ci
g y from the newly set plant as soon as A good garden can not more " just ll
t i they appeal'. happen" than can a successful W
· ·   , Frequent cultivation and hoeing fruit venture. But, gardens are so tl
l _' gj “` the first year are essential. often judged by what takes. plare 0
Y Q Mulching is necessary to keep the in one that was planted poll mell. l
l _   fruit clean and conserve soil mois- and tended as time permitted, or as S
Q ‘ Q , ture. mood dictated. Such a garden must t
> Q? ,,,. Grading berries by the pickers is behave spottily; there must be J
·   the most economical pla11 a.nd is periods of glut and waste, also l·
Q   used by a majority of Kentucky times of scarcity and famine, and e
  _   growers. then one wonders whether a garden ‘
,   4 _ A definite contract should be pays for all that has gone into it.
    _ made between tenant and owner. Wliilc a person who had such a gar- S
  ! · l, Yields of 100 24-quart crates per den might not really find himself 5
l   _ acre can bfe ggpected. A produc- "in the red", his pronts would be l
, Q -_ tion cost o per acre up to the meagre. j
V — beginning of harvest, and $1.25 per It would have been so much t
` . 6

 ng better to plan, starting with the ous vegetables from the several
we making of a list of the vegetables "truck patches" scattered over the
the family likes or will use, pro- farm. Making plans also gives the
1** ceeding with a schedule of times a gardener opportunity to consider
§¤· week they are to be used in season, what his fertilizing scheme shall be.
1** and through the winter, together Otfhand, this may be to turn under
re. with amounts used, finally to arrive manure, but fresh manure is not
i€l· at total amounts needed for the balanced for all the vegetables, for
[ict! year. A short cut to all this is to it contains an excess of nitrogen
use the list of winter vegetables which causes some of them to
by shown in the back of Kentucky "grow to top". As it happens,
ted Canning Circular 314 and doubling phosphorus is a most important
are it, for all-year totals. Next comes plant food for all the vegetables, C
translating these totals into bushels but particularly for those that are
by aid of another late page in this raised for their fruits and seed.
N circular. Then from a table in the Te baltmcti m8Hl1F€, Sl1P€i'Ph°$Ph3t€
forepart of Kentucky Home Gar- should be broadcast over the gar-
wm don Circular 309, the foot of row den after it is broken, at the rate of -
ged of all the vegetables can be worked 30 pounds to each ton of stable
g, it out. This total may seem greater 1¤&11111‘€ t111`¤€d 1111l)os la11·dtb1éox»;n—1-og ot
is filled with suggestions in that D°“°‘°S* *1 bo ‘"‘ 10 0 g °lp°‘ V
regard. This circular and the 3—   tffssib   §$`(‘;S;’gBlI:‘;)l;E "‘
_   _,_ ay s·s· ·
. others named aie fiec foi the ask in 1939 nm likely to hmm u heavy
` lng? the oouutr aS€HtS_ mid home carry-over of worms under the bark
clgmgiistratlou agents in all the scales of the trees. About two 'inin-
‘· counties have them for distribution. IMS of *’°"“l”“l5 °“ “ l"°° ‘“ il
. , heavily infested orchard at Paducah -—
· · tl )
In §h0l`t» Plmlnlngi m€¥mS l)l`€ll‘ revealed 22 worms spun up in a
., Z].1`3.lL1011S made "ou zlll trontsn small area near a crotch. This tree
` The time is now, before the rush wiltlollillrlt l1a\sOs:;re1·gllllgisitlmooltozliri P
` b€gmS‘ Sttuted Dowt ml cmlmd emerge next spring as adults to Still
__ through fzutlifully, a plan should altar-1; the young nuns. Many ot uic
yield. results, in 11101*8 vegetables these worms can be destroyed by our
. plvoduced io mom ordorly fashion, scraping this sealy bark oft the trunk hud
V d - _ _- U mr t- ,91, tl and as far up the limbs as can be
. _ an lll a“S"€“¤¤ 8 me “ l *0 rmciieti. A canvas snouia be placed #0*1
question \rheth,er a garden really about the page Og tho U-GG to com, HL.,
"pays". the scrapings, and these scrapings wo,
-‘ should then be burned in order to Lm
` kill the worms.
ELY H1-NTS T0 FRUIT 4 (`rapt vines should be pruned bv (im
. BERRY GROWERS ' ' ` l i` ` · ‘ not
late in February, before bleeding
' l ‘ starts. lt should be remembered I
' Strawberry Growers that this yeai-'s fruit is borne on ot
1. Read the summaries of the two  t§g,.,;&t1t,l?§"$,£2,I:,ié);1S tglgasaugig “`°'
_ StI‘&T\'l)€1‘I‘Q' btl·ll€1lI1S that HTG pruning, four or six canes 0f this am
published in this issue. new wood should bo lett that lntx··· HF
2i Blake arrangenmnts for plants from 10 to lo buds each. wit
· fg? DEW PH£¤¤h€S—éS€o tho potoh RECENT BULLETINS or GENERAL :3,,
t ey come rom, i possible, and INTEREST ‘
· , , _ ath
z ‘ be Sum *1*65 me dug ahgad Of The Strawberry Crown Borer. P. O. for
t crown-borer egg-laying time. Ritchey-. (Ky. Agr. Exp. Bul. 389 me
_ - · 3. If the Blakemore variety is being 1939) L€Xl“gt°“· kn
. ` . Set—Specii°y Uonly ycllows-fi-cc Strawberry Varieties in the United de
1 plants will be 3_CC€ptCd" on tihc States. George M. Darrow and George  
. order F. Waldo. (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. “°
, 4 A ' f 1 I _ _ Farmers' Bulletin No. 1043) Rev. 1939. spi
D' .
' rganae dolt mu C 1mg_ lualigmal Grape and Small·Fruit Varieties for ml
all Sl?1'€3 1 BS $0011 65 P0SSlbl€, Kentucky. C. S. Waltman. (Ky. Aer. 0**
_ _ ; applying about 2 tons per acre. Exp. Sta. Bul. No. 396, 1939) Lexington. l
E, ’·‘ 5. Land that is to be set to berries Tree Fruit Varieties for Kentucky. sit
, o V should be plowed and fiittecl as C· S. Woltmeu- (Ky. Asrr Err- Sto- (ns
L q . soon as possible, to be ready for Bu]- 394- 1939) L°““g“’“·
1 l . early planting. Establishing The Orchard. T. J. B
i   · Talbert. (l\Io. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 292.
    Fruit Growors 1939) Columbia.
.   1·COrnDlBt8 ropairs on the Spray rig Apple Bitter Rot and Its Control. I
1 · gl  and order spray materials. Scale John W- Roberts **99 Leslm P‘O"“°; 2;;
, n and Peach Loaf Curl oro as much at (U. So Dept. of Agriculture, Farmers l ·
_   V . factor as ever, as are other insects Bulletm N°· 938J· Rev- 1935- of
. p _ and diseases. Growing Fruit for Home Use. (U. S. ce
  l'  A 2_RomoVo all mommiod fruits and Dept. of Agriculture, Farmers' Bul- bg
l g fruit stems that are hanging in the lem] NO- mol) H- P- G°“ld· 19%- K·
V { f ‘ trees and also remove those on the Bridge Grafting. (U. S. Dept. of M.
T ~ -· ground. These mummied fruits are Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletin 1369)
A · the chief means of carry-over of bit- Guy E. Yerkes, 1923. m
.   3