xt7tht2gbn5n https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7tht2gbn5n/data/mets.xml Kentucky Negro Education Association Kentucky Kentucky Negro Education Association 1952 The most complete set of originals are at Kentucky State University Library. Call Number 370.62 K4198k journals  English Kentucky Negro Educational Association: Louisville, Kentucky  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal African Americans -- Education -- Kentucky -- Periodicals The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.23 n.1, March, 1952 text The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.23 n.1, March, 1952 1952 1952 2020 true xt7tht2gbn5n section xt7tht2gbn5n  




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VOL. XXIII March 1952, N0. 1

Published by the Kentucky Negro Education Association

1740 West Dumesnil Street, Louisville 10, Kentucky

EDITOR: W. L SPEARMAN, Executive Seaman, Louisville

PRESIDENT K. N. E. A.: D. L. DOWEIW, 5L, Shelbyville

ASSOCIATE EDITORS: E. K Glass, Hopkinsville; V E. Miller, Louisville; L. J. Twyman, Glas-
gow; W. M. Woods, Harlan; W. O. Whyte, Maysville .

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS: R. Br Atwood, Frankfort; E. T. Buford, Bowling Green; H. E.
Goodloe, Owensboro; Mary E Guy, Horse Cave; N. I. Passmore, Lexington; \W H. Perry, 111,
Louisville; Mrs. Lucy H. Smith, Lexington; C. L. Timberlalte, Pnducah; A. S. Wilson, Louisville;

W. M. Young, Lincoln Ridge

Membership in the K. N. E. A. includes subscription to the JOURNAL
Rates of advertising mailed on request



Table of Contents


Editorial Comments


Covet Picture
"The President's Letter, R. L. Bowery, Sn...
"Guidance in Negro High Schools of Kentucky, Haw)! Er Field
F. B. Simpson. Elkton, To Head TDTA for 1952-54
"Our School Newspaper,” Leslie Shively Smith .....
"Vocational Teachers and Public Relations,” Vernlm E. Miller ......
A. R. Lasley Presented for KNEA Presidency .
Dr, Givens, NEA Head, Retires—Associate Secretary Named to Top Post.







Book Nook
Pennyrile District YeTeen Clubs Meet at Western High



K.N.E.A. Kullings

 Editorial Gomment


We note with regret the passing of the All-State
Chorus. We are proud of the part that the
K.N.E.A. had in building it up to its present
stature. However, even the best of children
will run away from home. We do feel that
we need the support of all the teachers in Ken-
tucky. We feel that education as a whole is
being damaged when one group leaves the
fold. It seems unnecessary to have two groups
doing the same thing at the same time. Such
duplication of efforts should and must be com-
bined to develop one strong teacher-controlled

We the parents will wait for our children
to return to the fold.

Great plans are in the making for the 76th
meeting to be held in Louisville on April 16,
I7, 18.

The reception given to the work shop plan
last year was so great that we are again using
it as the basis for our meeting

The meeting will be centered around the
theme "Moral and Spiritual Values in Educa-
tion." This has long been a neglecred phase
of our educational program.

Last year the workshops were so successful
because of the contributions made by each
participant. If the idea is to have continued
success, you must again come with interest and
a willingness to make your contributions.


This is Election Year againt Only through
the vote of each member can we continue to
secure intelligent leadership for our organiza-

Decide early [D make your vote count. For-
ger petty politics and personalities. Help to
put the best we have in positions where they
are most needed.

Use your vote intelligently.


This issue's cover carries a picture of new
Western School, Owensboro, Kentucky,

The school, built at a cost of approximately
$200,000, twelve classrooms, administrative
oflices, health room, teacher’s lounge, cafeteria,
Science department, a library, and facilities for
the teaching of business education and home

In addition there has been etecred a trades
building in which agriculture and industrial
arts are taught


President’s Message

To the Oflicers and Members of the
Kentucky Negro Education Association
Ladies and Gentlemen:

Permit me to thank each and every one of
you for the unstinted support given for the
successful ending of the 75th Anniversary and
Diamond Jubilee Celebration April 11-13,

The privilege and honor of representing you
at the 89th Session of the N.EA., in San Fran-
cisco, California, July 1-6; at the NEA. Head-
quarters in Washington, D C, July 2728; and
the American Teachers' Association at Hamp-
ton Institute, Va, July 29, 30 and 51 was great-
Iy enjoyed by me.

From each of these meetings, information
and inspiration were received that has enabled
me to be of greater service to the teaching pro-

This Fall was used attending the District
Teachets'yAssociations, either in person or by
proxy. The reception given by all Associations
of the plans for 1951-52 were gratifying. En-
dorsements were given the Centennial Action
Program of the N.E.A., the requested budgets
of Kentucky State College, Lincoln Institute and
West Kentucky Vocational Training School,
and endorsement of "Integration In," which in-
cludes pupils and teachers, rather than "Integra-
tion Out," that only takes the pupils and one or
two teachers.

Unified dues—Local, State and National—
were also endorsed. A quesrionnaire was sent
the candidates for Governor and Superintendent
of Public Instruction on seven important educa-
tional questions. Your continued support to
the K.N.E.A, is urgently needed.

The representatives of the fifteen southern
states attending the meeting in Washington,
D. C. were assured that each association would
receive between $250.00 and $300.00 to assist
with publishing the official organ of each asso-

We are hopeful that the retired teachers of
the K.N.E.A. will become active, since an
amendment to the constitution at the 1951
session made this possible,

We have kept a watchful eye on the happen
ings of the General Assembly of 1952, and have
registered protesr againSt measures we felt not
beneficial to us as a group.

If there were any changes in the official
families of the District Teachers’ Associations,
we first want to thank the out going officers of

Comma! an Page 16

 “Guidance in Negro lligli Schools of Kentucky”

Guidance should become a viral and living part
of the curriculum in our schools. Pupils and
their maximum growth as well adjusted in-
dividuals and members of groups are our chief
concern. It is agreed that a well organized pro»
gram of guidance is that part of the curriculum
which is concerned with helping pupils attain
that maximum degree of adjustment as in-
dividuals and as members of groups. It was
with this point of view that the study which
constitutes the basis of this report was made.
It sought an answer to the question: What is
the status of guidance in Negro high schools
of Kentucky? In order to answer this quesrion
more adequately, it was proposed to show:

1. The extent and nature of the guidance
programs in the Negro high schools of Ken-

2. Those guidance practices that exist in
schools that have no organized programs of

Guidance check lists were prepared and sent
to each principal of the 60 Negro high schools
on the roster for the school year of 1949-50,


This article reports, in part, the findings on the
problem proposed above. The survey was
based on reports from 37 of the 60 Negro high
schools of Kentucky. The returns appeared
to be a representative sampling of the Negro
high schools since the replies concerned
schools widi enrollments ranging from ten to
1360 pupils. Further, the replies from the
37 responding schools concerned 8,341 of the
11,999 Negro pupils, or roughly 75 per cent of
the Negro high school population in Kentucky.

In general, it was found that elements of
guidance were carried out by all Negro high
schools but in an unorganized manner. It also
pointed out that guidance was most often the
responsibility of the classroom teacher where
no definite outline of procedure was followed,
the method used being left to the discretion
of the teacher.

Weaknesses of guidance practices in the
school were noted in the areas of curriculum
revision, pupil information, training of teachers
for guidance, scheduled time and the area for
counseling, diagnosis and treatment of atypical
children, the use of community survey for pupil
needs and follow-up studies of former pupils.

Curriculum revision—Continuous revision
of the curriculum to meet the needs and in-

terests of the pupils is a conducive element for
guidance in a high school. Yet, it was found
that 25 of the 37 high schools maintain the
college preparatory curriculum. Only 38 per
cent have shown concern for the general, en-
riched subject«matter, or the social living type
curricula. The small percentage of our gradu-
ates who enter college is evidence of the fact
that college preparatory curriculum is least
funCtional to the needs and interest of our
pupils. Authorities in the field have pointed
out that the secondary school curriculum has
acquired an unfortunate rigidity, an undesirable
complexity, is wide separation between the
difletent subjects, and a lack of reality in terms
of the needs, interests and abilities of the pupils.

Pupil information—An examination of the
records most often kept by our high schools
revealed that the majority of high schools con-
fine the data to attendance, scholastic progress,
health, and names and occupations of parents.
While these data are considered routine and
essential in carrying out the policies of admin-
istration, they are inadequate as pupil informa-
tion for guidance purposes Few data were
recorded pertaining to the total social growth
of the pupil which includes his behavior, in-
terests, activities, family background, and out-
of-school experiences. The economic and cul-
tural background of pupils infects their at-
titude among their associates and it also in-
fluences their plan for continued education
and training Ambrose Caliver (1:99) reports
that more Negro boys and girls leave school
before finishing because of low family income
than for any other reason. The success of pupil
adjustment in many situations may be traced
to his interests, likes and dislikes; thus, interest
patterns of pupils are helpful to the teacher or
counselor in citing to the pupil the most valu-
able and helpful experiences, The anecdotal
journal can provide a cumulative body of evi-
dence relating to pupils' activities, behavior and
out-of-school experiences. The study revealed
that anecdotes pertaining to school situations
were most frequently used while out-of-school
situations were less frequently recorded This
limited use of anecdotes is not in accord with
the recommendation of writers in this field. In
fact, they have agreed that sources of anecdotes
should go beyond the schoolroom and the
school; that any significant behavior, wherever
it may be observed, may well be recorded.

Counselor qualifications—In the selection
of secondary school counselors, care should


 be given to their training and qualification to
insure an efficient service Sources of guidance
literature outline the qualifications of counsel-
ors as having (I) at least ten years teaching
experience; (2) a knowledge of mental test-
ing; (3) extended training in psychology;
(4) training in gathering and analyzing data;
(5) training in occupational, vocational, and
educational opportunities; (6) desirable per-
sonality traits. Puls (4:45) discovered in
Louisiana that almost every faculty had a person
with personal qualifications, basic training, and
experience sufficient to assume guidance duties
in their schools Teaching experience rep
resented the counselor qualification most often
met by teachers of Kentucky high schools. in
less than so per cent of the schools were
persons with extended training in psychology,
in gathering and analyzing data and training in
vocational and educational opportunities Since
guidance in our schools is a responsibility of
the classroom teacher and since only a few
teachers have training in the field of guidance,
it is seen that the lack of training of teachers
presents a serious problem Hines and Manly
(2:113) report that two-thirds of the schools
have all teacher-participation guidance pro-
grams; however, two thirds of all teachers have
had no guidance training, which they termed
a critical guidance situation among Negro high
schools of the southeastern area of the United

Time for counseling—To carry on a guid-
ance program effectively, time must be given
for counseling with pupils, conferring with
teachers and parents, and for compiling pupil
information. Puls (4:45) found drat in small-
er schools, one period per day was sufficient
for guidance with more time being allotted
as the program expands. This study revealed
that only fourteen or 38 per cent of the schools
surveyed allow time for counseling with pupils
Time for conferring with teachers and parents
and for compiling pupil information was re-
ported by only twelve or 32 per cent of the

Counseling area—It was found that coun-
seling with pupils was most often carried out
in the principal's office along with other ad-
ministrative duties. In only four or eleven per
cent of the schools was there found counseling
offices for counselors. The most desirable area
for counseling is one where privacy exists and
yet without the emptiness which may be found
in the clusrooms, Walquist (6:24) points out
that there should be a waiting room for students
with magazines and comfortable seating, and
that counseling should take place in an office


adjacent to the record vaultr A comparison
of the counseling areas of our schools with
those recommended by authorities indicates that
counseling does not proceed under the most
conducive situations

Atypical children—By virtue of his close
contact with pupils daily, the teacher is an
important person in carrying out the guidance
program, Strang (5:18) says that there is no
one in the school who has so good an oppor-
tunity as the teacher to learn the individual
pupils, to observe them and to adjust the school
situation to their needs. In the survey, the
teachers were considered in the role of (1)
gathering pupil information; (2) assisting with
the testing program; (3) doing remedial teach-
ing; (4) making socifl adjustment; (5) vary-
ing their teaching methods to fit the learning
situation, Data compiled in this phase of the
guidance work indicated that teachers were
doing a commendable job as revealed by the
consistent high frequency of response to the
following characteristics:

Home visitation
Keeping attendance records
Talks with patens
Administering tests
Discovering trons und weak Inns of pupils
Giving indi ual help to pupils
Diagnosing difficulty of low pupils
Assisting pupils with personal and social
9. Encouraging pupil pnrtiriprtiun in elrssmrn
10. Making educational and vocational ap-
proaches to subject matter
it. Planning democratically
12. Planning interesting projects
Weaknesses persrsted in the characteristics

of the following:

Using anecdotal records and pupil auto-

Making use studies

Evaluating tests in terms of the course

Determining the level and aptitude of (nin-
ing of pupils (or various courses
Surveying records run low nnd exceptional

6. Referring unusual cases to specialists





Community maley— The guidance pro-
gram in its maximum efl’ect reaches beyond
the limits of the school. Rapidly shifting social
and occupational changes are a challenge to the
school's attempt to adjust pupils to life
Changes such as these suggest a variety of
explorations in actual life experiences In the
preparation of the school to meet the needs of
pupils, wide use of community resources should
be utilized.

Weakness seemed to prevail in the use of
the community survey for guidance practices
in the high schools The study showed that 0(-

 cupational opportunities and the availability of
community agencies were surveyed by fewer
than 50 per cent of the responding schools.

Placement and follow-up studies — A
study of characteristics of placement showed
that the schools reported a favorable program
of articulation from schoolrto-school and class-
to—class, and planning educational futures with
pupils. However, only a limited number oi
the reporting schools surveyed former pupils
with regard to such items as additional training,
present family and economic status, work ex-
periences, recreational and social life, health,
personal desires and opinions, and religion.
Each of the characteristics mentioned above
showed a low frequency in response. Jager
( 3:471) states that follow-up studies of former
pupils are means of continued appraisal and
evaluation of pupil adjustment; they are means
of furnishing data for continuous curriculum

CMdrm'am—On the basis of the informa-
tion obtained and of the findings of this study
of guidance it may be asserted that the mosr
overall weakness of guidance in the high
schools is the absence of trained personnel
designated to co-ordinate the existing guidance
practices of the schools. These data further
imply that administrators concerned should
institute a definite program of guidance in
charge of qualified persons and to include ap-
plicable trends for:

l. The study of individual needs, interests
and aptitudes leading toward curriculum re-

2. Student counseling with approved pro-

3. Surveying occupational and employment
trends of Negroes in the community, state, and

4. The evaluation and appraisal of former
pupil adjustment through follow—up studies,

1. Caliver, Ambrose. "Vocational Education and
cuidnnoe of Negroes." Office of edutrrion,
Bulletin No. 33,1937. U. S. Oiice of Educa-
tion, Washington, D. C., 1957.

2, Hines, J. 5. and Manly, A. E. "Guidance in
Negro Secondary Schools in the Southeastern
Region." Jamaal of Negro Education, 17
Spring, 1948).

3. Jager, Harry A. "Guidance Program Broadens
It: Ease." Occupations, 27 (April, 1949).

A. Puls, a. a. "Louisiana's Guidance Program."
School Exscariw, 64 (April, 1945).

5. Strong, Ruth. "Guiding the Guidance Program
in Our Smaller Schools." The Nation?
Srlaoalr, 17 (Jan, 1936).

6. Walquist, G. L. "Your Guidance oats."

The Scboal Executive, 62 (July, 1950).

F. B. Simpson, Elkioll,
ill lleall 'l‘li'l‘A for 1952-54

F. B. Simpson, principal, Todd County
Training School at Elkton, was elected to serve
as president of the Third District Teachers As-
sociation for the next two years. The TDTA
held its annual session at Glasgow on October

Retiring officers included 1.. J. Twyn-lan,
Glasgow, president; Mrs. Iola P. Morrow, Elit-
ton, recording secretary; Mrs. Hattie Gonzales,
Russellville, financial secretary; and Mrs.
Blanche G. Elliott, Drakesboro, treasurer.

Mrs. Vadie E. Denning, Warren County,
head of the primary-elementary department of
the TDTA, presented M.ts. Eloise W. Mathis
of Drakesboro and Mrs. Mary E. Martin, Todd
County, who discussed "Correlating the Social
Studies," They emphasized the fact that social
studies should acquaint the pupil with present
day living.

One of the highlights of the meeting was
an address by Mrs. Estelle E. Lasley, Barren
County, who told of her experiences as a
teacher in Japan.

Memorial services were conducred by the
Rev. E. T. Buford and Mrs. Henrietta Anderson
was in charge of the story-telling contest. Prize
winners were Cherilie Freeling, Lincoln School,
Franklin, first; Annette Todd, Knob City
School, Russellville, second; and Frances C.
Dickerson, Community School, Drakesboro.

Visitors attending the session were Robert
L. Dowery of Shelbyville and J. Bryant Cooper
of Louisville, who gave reports of the National
Educational Association, which met in San
Francisco. William L. Spearman, Louisville,
Mrs. Brodie, supervisor of the Logan County
Schools, and Miss Osceola A. Dawson, registrar
of the West Kentucky Vocational Training
School of Paducah were also present and each
brought greetings to the organization.

Other officers eleCted to serve for the next
two years are Hughland H. Gumm, Franklin,
vice-president; Mrs. Hattie L. Gonzales, Russell-
ville, secretary; and Mrs. C. A. Hutchinson,
Bowling Green, treasurer. Members of the
board of direcrors are the president, secretary,
Mrs Blanche G. Elliott, Drakesboro; L. J. Twy-
rnan, Glasgow, and Miss ChriStine Barlow,
Bowling Green.

The 1952 session will convene at the Todd
County Training School, Elkton, Friday, No-
vember 7. Mrs. Leslie Shively Smith, Drakes-
boro, was appointed reporter of the meeting.

 “0ur School Newspaper”


The Students of the Drakesboro Commun-
ity High Sdiool, Drakesboro, Kentucky, are
justly proud of their newspaper—The DCHS
NEWS. This publication is of the stencil-
duplicated type and is issued monthly while
school is in session.

The first issue appeared in March, 1946.
It was the outgrowth of a project sponsored
by the Current Events Club, an extra-curricular
activity at Drakesboro Community High
School. One of the objectives of this organ-
ization was the publication of school news in
the papers which were most widely read in this
area. The students were fascinated by the
expectation of seeing their names in print and
were enthusiastic as they gathered and submit-
ted news to the local papers.

This question was brought up in a business
meeting of the club, “Why can’t we have a
paper and publish our own news?" At this
time there were no facilities for this kind of
work, but interest was so great that two of
the best penmen prepared to write the copies
in long hand!

The first issue consisted of only three pages,
each of which was printed on one side. Since
that time THE DCHS NEWS has grown and
it now consists of eight pages, written on both
sides of legal-size paper. The two outer pages
—the cover pages—are gold and the other two
are white. It is printed in green ink, thus carry-
ing out the school colors of green and gold.

During the six years of its publication, THE
DCHS NEWS staff and supervising editor
have learned about newspaper publishing
from experience. The adviser had had no par-
ticular training in journalism aside from a keen
interest in the subject. A number of good
books were purchased and studied, other
student newspapers which were received on an
exchange basis were examined, and membership
was taken in the Columbia Scholastic Press

However, suggestions found in textbooks
about school publications cannot fit the situa-
tion found in any particular school, The ad-
viser has to adjust the material to meet prob-
lems peculiar to her school.

A small room adjacent to the administrative
oflice of the school was set aside for the use
of the news staff. Shelves and cabinets were
built for the storage of supplies and equip-
ment and desk space provided for workers on
the editorial staff.



'pment purchased in connection with the
duplicating of the newspaper included a rub-neo-
graph, illuminated drawing board, lettering
guides, styli, screen~plates (shading devices),
several well-constructed rulers, scimrs, staples,
stapler, sets of illustrations, and a paper cutter.
Other necessary supplies are mimeograph ink,
regular stencil sheets, special newspaper stencils,
correction fluid, low quality paper for mis-
cellaneous uses, and best quality mimeograph
paper for duplicating. Of course, one or more
good typewriters is a must in the publication
of the mimeographed newspaper.

Manufacturers of mimeograph and duplicator
supplies advertise a number of helps for those
who use their products, Suggestions are made
for more efficient stencil duplicating and bulle-
tins containing seasonal illustrations are sent
periodically to customers. A set of illustra-
tions which can be cemented to the stencil
sheet and removed for future use is a new

The staff is divided into three groups; the
editorial stafl, the reportarirl staff, and the
circulation department. The reporters gather
the news and submit it to the editors. Mem-
bers of the circulation department are respon-
sible for the sale of subscriptions as well as for
the distribution of the papers.

The Current Events Club meets twice each
month during Extra-Curricular—Activity Period.
At the first meeting assignments are made by
the adviser and deadlines set for the various
types of news. These articles are edited1 the
pages of the paper balanced and planned, and
the dummy made up, Later the stencils are
typed, the illusrrations put on, and the mimeo-
graph operators begin their work. The printed
sheets are proofed, the pages assembled and
stapled together, and THE DCHS NEWS is
ready for distribution.

More than 100 copies of each issue are
mailed to out-of-county subscribers. These
are wrapped, addressed, and stamped for

Soon after the beginning of each school year
a lively subscription campaign is launched by
members of the Circulation Department. A
survey is made of each of the eleven communi-
ties which are served by our consolidated school
Agents are assigned to secrions of their home
communities. They contact every family along
their route using tactful sales talks The agents
are responsible for the delivery of papers to all
subscribers whom they have contacted.

THE DCHS NEWS goes into the homes of
90% of the Negroes in Muhlenberg Countyi
Copies are sent to officials and other well-


wishers of the school, as well as to the firms
whose advertisements appear in the paper. The
mailing list is made up of alumni and former
students of the school, boys in the armed forces,
former residents of Muhlenberg County, and
relatives and friends of students oow attending
this school. Last year the Circulation Depart»
ment sent papers to subscribers in all sections
of our country, to Puerto Rico, japan, Korea,
and even to faraway Germany. Several copies
were also sent to schools with whom papers are

The financing of the newspaper is another
important factor in its publication. Money
received from subscriptions alone will not de-
fray the many expenses involved in the acrual
production of the newspaper. Business firms
whose services are offered in the various com-
munities where our newspaper circulates have
been very cooperative in the purchase of ad-
vertising space There is a basic rate for ads
and also a cheaper late for those which will
appear more than once. Far~sighted business
men realize that their profits are increased by
properly directed advertising and also that high
school students will soon be heads of families.
The friendship of these young people should be
gained so as to insure future customers

Space devoted to advertising takes up about

A portion of the exhibit shown at
rht Third Dislricl Teachets' Asso<
ciarion which met recently at the
Ralph Bunch: High School at
Glasgow. The above picture
show an illustrated display in the
publication or a stencil-duplicated
newspaper which was brought
iron the Drakesbnro Community
High School,

Art and handicraft exhibits
were brought from the following
schon l s : Greenville Training
School, Smith's Grove and Oak-
land Schools, both in Warren
County, and Lincoln High School.
at Franklin.

25% of each issue. Ads are placed on pages
where news is printed so that the reader's at-
tention will be drawn to them.

From fifty to sixty students have taken part
in the publication of THE DCHS NEWS each
year. All of this work is on a voluntary basis.
Any student in grades 7-12 who is interested
may take a part. in the organization of the
staff each year key positions are given students
who have shown a real interest in the projecr
for at least one year. These important Stafi
members are usually seni rs and each one has
assistants who are in training for his position
for the following year.

Since our school does not have a Journalism
Department in its course of study, most of the
work involved in the publication of the school
newspaper is done on the student‘s time. Aside
from the brief ECA. Period, work must be
done before and after school, at lunch time,
or at odd times during the day. Yet there has
been little difficulty in keeping alive student
interest and enthusiasm for the school news-

The time element involved in this extra»
curricular activity has not permitted any great
effort toward rating the newspaper. Copies
have been sent to one of the nationally recog-
nized school newspaper accrediting agencies


 for a critical analysis The conclusions were
favorable and the paper has been improved
because of their suggestions.

The content of the newspaper centers around
the various inteteSts of the students. Seasonal
illustrations selected from portfolios designed
especially for school work are placed through»
out each copy. These give the newspaper a
more attractive appearance and permit "white
space" to show. Otherwise the pages look too
"compact." Original cartoons and illustrations
drawn by the students are sometimes used.
Humor is included in the form of jokes and
anecdotes which are used as fillers, but the
warning has been given that “there is no place
for gossip in a modern high school newspaper."

We do not feel that the many hours of
sacrificial work which have gone into the pro-
duction of 48 regular issues of THE DCHS
NEWS have been in vain. Aside from these
regular issues, many special issues, bulletins,
programs, and announcements have been made
up and distributed by the staff members. Also
news of achievements of individual studens and
groups of students and other interesdng ac-

counts of school activities has been gathered
by star? members and published in