xt7ttd9n4p2b https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7ttd9n4p2b/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1922 journals kaes_circulars_001_2_123 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 123 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 123 1922 2014 true xt7ttd9n4p2b section xt7ttd9n4p2b ..£}2L’·E'”N R<><>M  
RY. UNIVERSITY FARM
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
CIRCULAR NO. 123
PHOSPHATE AND LIMESTONE FOR KENTUCKY
SOILS.
• By
S. C. JONES and R. E. STEPHENSON
Lexington, Ky.
March, 1922 `
i‘uhii:1lll1tlI1!tl1t* lilueerass region are aeid and are naturally
tleIi¤·ient in phosphorus. More than half ot tl1e soils within the
lilnegrass region respond prolitaldy to phosphate treatment,
l’erhaps more than halt` ol` the liluegrass soils would respond
to limestone treatment when legumes, espeeially sweet. elover
and alt`alt'a, are grown.
Un all the outlying experiment lields in the state. inelutl—
ing the l.ineoln llidge experiment tield. whieh is in western
Shelhy t`ounty on the edge ot` the liluegrass region, phosphate,
when properly used. has given hiuhly profitahle results.
'l`he tahles in this eireular give the inereases protlueecl by
A phosphates and limestone and the average yields of the ehe;k
plots; that is. those not treated with phosphate or limestone but
l otherwise managed in the same way. -\ tour-year rotation of
t‘tu‘11_ St)_\`llt‘1lllS. \\`llt‘tll illltl t'l00 pounds; the roel; MPM
phosphate at $l0.00 per ton, or $8.00 per aere l'or the 1000 I-
° pounds, and the limestone at $2.50 per ton. or $3.00 per aere _
for the two tons per rotation. .  
p For eaeh treatment reported, the total value ol` the erop ins iwfxsl
ll creases is given, the value ol` the inerease less the eost ot` the I-UNH
Z treatment", and the net return per dollar invested. tlly net re- {Ul!.)
T ‘ turn is meant the return per dollar invested alter deduetine the
? cost of tl1e treatment.t Net returns are based upon the above mph.
priees ot erops and fertilizers, and will vary with varying priees.
_ No charge is made for labor in applying limestone aml phos· I,],,,\
" phate, but neither is any value assigned to the inerease in the
T straw and stover. The eost of one should about oltset. the value
of the other.
Beginning in 1016, manure was used at the rate of 6 tons
. per aere on the cheek plots and on the plots treated with lime- {gn,].
stone. phosphate and the eombination ot' limestone and phos- ]~,.;»j.
phate, on the Maylield, l,one Oak. llussellville and tlreenville mm.
Experinient tields. The manure was applied on the plots that
were planted to eorn.
4 ` This rate ot applieation was eontinued on these tields l`or A _
one round of the rotation. the manure being applied on the eorn
plots. Since then. manure has been applied on the llussellville
and Blaylield lields at the rate ol` one ton ol` manure tor eaeh
ton of produee tiexeept the wheat grain; removed, exeept. in
1020 when 1ll2l]1lll'tj was lel`t ol`t' ol` the Maylield lield, but that . 
I year the residues——eornstallis and wheat straw ~were returned.   _
After using nianure one round ol` the rotation, it has been lel't L
off at Greenville and at .l.one (lah, but the eornstalks and the M, in
wheat straw have been retu1·ned. RP .
Six eorn erops. live soybean erops, l`our wheat. erops aml T I‘·\l`
three elover erops ol` the number reported in the averages have `  
been alleeted by manure or erop residues. ’l`l1e inereases shown i (Bil

 [IIN/<[}]lll[(‘ and I./Iucsluizc for ]fc11t11<·l.·y Sails 5
f01· li1110»10m: uml pl10spl1u1e ure i11 uddition 10 any i11e1·ez1seS
p1·0Ilm·0Il l1_1· lll&llllll'C uml 1'l‘SlIlIl(}S,
'l`l1·- me 111. lIlillllll`IJ i11 llllf Silllltt wuy wusbeg1111 011 the Berea
ll<·l¤l lll l$IlT.
No IIl2llIlll`1‘ lius lI1'1*ll used 011 1l1e l~`u1·isto11 field, but the
{Il'1>lllIl'll lius l1e011 lIlillllL‘ll llilSl)CU1l plowed up the
I>1‘1'\'l]Il'lll;I.
'l`l1e i··»ll¤»\‘.‘lIIQ 1llIlll`k‘\'l2lll()llS uml S}'llllJ()lS 211*0 used ill the
lz1l1l0~0I`1·0s11l1<:
l.= = g1·011ml lllll1‘Sl
yi ,:.9 l :·’· fi ···· _ I -:;_, ‘ ZF
EI ;:’t ,.]:5 l ~¤— in F;} I-:9 `·;H
: F? E yi ,;. L_° T? f .; ` Z;
. E ai. ij?   i? E2 IE?iI _;
  E; i.—.».I   5:1    ;»»—I Z0
L ...,,....11....»..,,. I 5.1 I 709 I 2.6   1797 IS17.22 I$12.22 I $2.44
I AP _.______________,, I 0.1} I 51 I 1.9 `| 5S I 2.74 I—5.26 I LOSS
111· _____,____________ ‘ ::,1 I :192 I 2.1   706 9.29 1.29 .16
. 1,_\1· ______,_________ ’ 13.1 I 1141 I 7.2 I 2739 32.65 19.65 1.51
111111 _______________, I 12_I1I 11171I $.$I 2664I 33.47 29.47 1.56
Ave. yield of` »—-———· ~I-—- --—I--——*·I—·——I—tI#·;It*
I <·l1n·cl{ 11101sI 229.1 I 2049 I S.1 I SOG I I I
4  _ l
•

 I
6 ('irvu/zzr Nu. I2.?
. I RESULTS FROM LONE OAK EXPERIMENT FIELD .
·- I Average Crop Increases Per Acre
I I    
, 1 ih . : · ·Z ci _ —
.. I       l     E- 7ZE —
           
        1 i
4> , 3:; ;,-Ir. 7:;; , ,;.3 ` rtw- :-.-.1 =~'U . _
7 ‘ g 7 2. m ri 7 ; 7 ;» ;» 7 Z ‘ 7
. 1 ‘ = · ·1 ‘
A I L »,..........,...,....O I 4.3 I 2u; I 0.0 I $31   $7.32   $2,3;] I su,-16  
l AP .........,,....... 7 e,4 7 124 7 0.2 7 1311 7 1.67 6.;;:; 7 Less Fg
7 RP ____,__._._._._,.. 7 ee 7 S7 7 1,7 7 607 7 5,47 he 2,;:; 7 1,77%    
LRP .....,.......... 7 11,;) 7 T3;} 7   7 1520 7 22.01 7 0,01 7 neu .
LAP ................ 7 .,4 7 sie 7 U.4 7 14.2 7 EIIJJ4 7 7,;,4 7 ees 7,7:. ,
. Ave. yield of —»——7»/-#7- -——»—7»—~~7·#-~—~ —~———-7-~————»- =···r···
I cheek p10tsI7 33.5 I 2642 7 11.3 7 1770   7 7
I *-1-+ if IWW _ If` IHll`•‘
At present 11111-es fer lmlh ernps uml fertilizers, ueid yhus. #··il<
phute, when used ulene on the fI>lll'-}`L‘ill' I'l‘l>IlllI‘I*lI(‘-lllll`-wl1<·ul-<·llzlllI>ll, 2lI'lll phns- 7770
phute hus p1·0dm·ed u11 llII'l'<’2Iu··I·n, ILE! 7777*
7 bushels of wheut uml 604 ]>f>IlllIlS of l'lI)\'l‘l`, u nel. 1·1-turn ul 770777
present I)l`l<‘I*S for lhese ’p1·<>lll2llll>Il el` linixestmie
and ueid phosphute hus gxiven un lllI'l‘l‘2lSl‘ el` 388 pnnmls ol` IIII I
teliueee, 15 l>nsln·ls of wlieul uml 2020 7><»nmls el` 1·l1w1·1· huy IIIIIII
per u<·1·e, er 1n01·e lhun $4.00 for euvh dnllur inves11·d in lime- IIIIII
stone uml ueid phesphule. This does nel luke inte (‘OllSlll<‘l';lll(1ll , IIIII
the vulne of lhe 1`(‘Sl(lll(¥ el' llllll*SlI>ll<¥ uml plmspliute left; in the ;_II_II
I soil, which will he eflevlive l`ill 2li'illl'·}`&‘2lI‘ l`0iilil0ll. have Pl'O(lllCC‘(l
very lll1ll`l{t‘ll (‘l`UI) llll‘l't‘2lS&‘S; iii l`il(“l. the yields 0f 1*01*11, SO}'ll(‘8l1
liziy Zlllll \\`ll(‘ilt lizive been i111·1·e;1sed 11101·e lh:111 0110-f0111·tl1 and
tlie yields 0l` ('l(l\'t‘l` ll2l}' l1:11·0 l1ee11 11101*11 ll1z111 ll0llllll‘(l. H0w-
ever. 0l` the 1110. I`Ul'l{ plinsplizile l1:1s ]\l'0 IW
. . I ;_ I U. I L. ·
II 3   I I gf I ,2 I   I   ;II<
· II. I 6: I   H.? I 2 I gi I J ‘ 00
·~ 5. I ii I $7 I   I   2*-: I FE III
E 5: I~:.I -:» I E; I if :‘ ~€.
E F.? I 32 I   5, I Z? IIE *5 =···
CEI €Z I?éiI   I   ii Iiiiil 2E I‘··
I EI - Q I i I ; LI I I} ~ I’ I Z I1:1
I I
· L ........,,..........I. I 3,4   654 I 1.6 I 623   $0.08   $-1.08   $II·$I?I  
AP _________________, I 7.4 I 730   3.3 I 1002 I 15.00 I 7.00 I 0.00 I_'
I RP _,_____,_________, I 7,0 I 1021 I 4.0 I 1315   20,08 I 12.08 I 1,51 II
I LAP ___,____________ I 15,7   1076 I 7,9 I 1800 1i4.0T I 21.07 I 1.09 II<
LHP ______________   13_3   1;;;,5 I 511 I 1405 25,13 I 12.18   0.00 III.
Ave. yield 0f I--—I———·—I-——K   ~ ··I--Y-· 7 j ·-~# ~ ~’·~ I_I·
I check pl0tsI 28.1 I 1708 I 6.3 I 758 I I I In
RESULTS FROM FARISTON EXPERIMENT FIELD II.!II
· Average Crop Increases Per Acre.
  I I > h VI I I 2 I1;
I   I . I   .   I   E? I0
I c: _.J   Z; _ 'T; jj
·; I     I     12.; E: EE III
E I L?   I   I Zi I ?? ?e iz
i I :2  L     25   5 I
iv I Z; §‘;>. I F: ,;: _:-F _:2: _:·:
Q   L, 1 I S C / I ./ A
I I I I I I I
L ......·.-............. I 4.$ . 244   0.7 I 286 $5.75 $0.75 I $0.15
AP .........,........ I 19.6 ‘ 677 I 4.3 I 603 I 20.80 I 12.80 I 1.00
RP ..................   10.4 1112 I 3.0   404 I 20.08 ‘ 12.78   1,00
LAP ................ I 31.6 I 2006   7.7   1038 I 41,57 I 28.57 I 2.20
LRP .............. I 14,3   987 2.8 I 743   18.00 I 5.00   0.411 5
Bone Meal   19.4 I 1007 6.8 I 505 I 24.05 I 10.05   2.00 IL
I Ave. yield 0f   -—-——»I—·—/-I 7- -— 4 II
check pl0tsI 11.6 I 1165 I 3.2 I 134 I I I
I III
At Fziristmi, acid pI10sI»I1:1II> 211I:I 1·t‘n. donl>led the yield
ot` wheat and lllt‘l't‘2tSt’tl the yield ot. eloyer hay more than ten-
l`ol·l. ll¢»\\'t·\’<·l`. the inerease tint' limestone and roelc phosphate
on this tield has fallen lielow that ot` rowlc pliosphate alone. In
t`a··t. lllll•‘~lt>lt<‘ when used with roelc phosphate has harely
paid its eost at (iireenyille, and has heen used at a eonsiderahle
loes at l·`a1·iston when eompared with roeli pliosphate alone.
RESULTS FROM THE THREE-YEAR ROTATION AT GREENVILLE
Average Crop Yields Per Acre
  é?   E id Eg
E   ”_.Z   zi E`; . ·EZ
             
  E`:   5: gs; . gse :21
1,.xP ..,. . ....., . ......~ ions t 20.4 t 3560 I
tt .,  ...... . . .... . 42-t t ti.7 l 727 l t (
i A ____t__r___i4__{_i4;t_________
tiierease .......... ` 579 i 13.7 [ 2833 i$114.17*E $103.17 l $9.38
*Tohaeeo valued at 15e per pound.
At (`lreenville, in a tlu·ee-year rotation ot` tohaeeo, wheat and
elover. limestone aud avid pliosphate have more than donhled the
yield ot` tohaeeo. trehled the yield ot` wheat, and quardrupled
•

 _ `
I
10 (vl.)`<'ll[llI' No. I2.?
1 ». ., Y . _
” _ .   rj-; . —  '·; ·;
. _ ` Ax _    A   . tr" . ..
1 x ·__g-Qt" g. T.¤_ `  , ~ » I · j` .` ` l I ~
~ ·.,  _,,‘·‘._   ·· . is _"
i .. if ..,. » . _ IIN:  ~ _,·`,: .  ••••··..»·»."_ ¤_ { ·  ll ,'
rv i" ` ' _v _ TJ s:   { -? ·  E   _.·j;§,_;,` . ` ...;_`_`1-2:;    
E ,·_;__W__   _` _     ·   .  _L_.._ ,_·_
‘ :1 ·1 e·1‘,#`~  ·  · s , ’_* v  ~'· >.,_   . , ag   c
,. Vi  we -   .~»- ,_  ~; ·‘ ·_   » · '--_~···$‘··i»._%’= , _ ·»~ <·.*
A   . $5 Q'     \v•»· » `*\'{_    " .•nra1j·’- >.
1   I _ _v2, • `8{_ T ..,:·___,._kg   ‘,   .; ,:5, · ¤ _ ` I iv-·,·._•;_ ,
. Ii? < ·—=·¤=·s-iY:·,’ex?~z~,¤i.*E#¤ £*'<· ¤».iz£*?¤ »·?'- · 1. A J1 5 T  .-;» .    
* J ' °’...C\:°j!.`g{f.$`i.` _,;.‘B$»_, ·,__
' · in-i ·1=—»>·‘>*!·· T..`-ur t‘.v&—~ •-hai ·‘ i *s\•i»?.*··x;· . ‘ 4. ( "··¢ AP
· _ ,9. 1;;,1,_-_}·;»-i-;;;;?*g;j;%,·§_._»;__? ,_;___·;S_, 1;,   MM .·  (E i elk; 1%,, )
1 ==¤E,¥" "i$ `   { r.  .·'"°’Z..`°   ».  `~ ’   vi LM
I,l{l
Fi;. 2. Plover 011 G1·<·~~11\·ill¤· l‘:X]N`·l`llIl¤’ll( l·`i»·l·l. l'11t`i·1·liliz·»·l 1·l··L A-,-C
Q 590 lbs. per L1(‘l'0§ plot 11m;1u·d vriih liniesioiie and iieid pliosiiliiiie [Aim lhs.
1* per acre. ('l
the yield of clover hay. In fact, the ]ll0lll‘}' invested iii lime- Hm]
i stone a11d acid pliospliate in this l`(1l7lll0ll, at ]Wl`l‘<¢‘lll lll`ll'<‘S for frm
l these erops, has 1'()lll1'llC1`l‘$l‘lllS some 5000
square miles of lQl‘l`llll<’ and 1·<11·k wh
phosphate, the acid pliospliale and lllll<‘Sl4)lll‘ ]1I‘l>lllll‘lll§ 11111l·h
` The larger i11ereas<·s. The ll('l l'l‘llll'll per dollar iiiveslenl is EM
l i practically the same from rock phosphate alone and limesloiie agi

 _ 
1'hl/SII]l(l{I` and ]lI'IIl('S,f}}II‘ for I{rI1!I1oky Soi/s 11
RESULTS FROM RUSSELLVILLE EXPERIMENT FIELD
Average Crop Increases Per Acre
2; j L. 7 rn   rrr :..___;
: , . i . $2 I   ga
»· I ,.1 I   Z; , I F: *2
· t '   · `     Z`! I ff.-! :2
- .   . #3 zz   -5. ‘ ·=- :5
5 I £ i : = . .- ¤.- 2 2 I - = Q
E I     .& J L ' E ° .; 5 2
5 I si. iz;   ?¢ 35 I 2*2; E
  I L- >.; .· ; * f > Z .1 : .:' 44 2
.' I PA 2-·’*‘ ;,: I.: TZ-7* EUS 'L"J
; I .. 7. I .» L2 P I P Z
· ,_ I , _ I   ii I  7'747 
I. ..I..I....., . IIII,. . 5.2 505 —r0.2 I 1108 I$10.91 I $5.91 $1.18
- . . ~ . . ~ . I .
AP .....   ......I, :1.0 1:14 .1.1 121 I 11.57 I 3.87 0.48
111* .... . .......   4.3 ` 438 I 4.6 1213 15.01 ` 7.01 I 0.88
I..\I’ ...... .. .... 8.2 638 ` 7.5 1052 24.55 I 11.55 I 0.89
LHP .. ............ 5.6 I 590 ‘ 5.0 1555 20.03 I 7.03 I 0.54
Ave. yield of — ———` — —— ` A »--—— --;I»é4 ...—-‘.....
eheek plots 34.9 I 1979 12.1 1578 I I I
uml ueill phosphule. but the l`t‘lIll'lIS per m·1·e ure mmrh greater
fI`Ulll li1m·>1011e uml u¤·i¤l pliospliute <·<»111bim·¢l,
l.i1m~sI<»11e Iiswl ulome hus lN‘I’ll highly profiluble. but when
used with 1·<»7·k pliospliule. it hus barely puiil its wuy when emu-
pu1·e
1 L __,__,__,,,,......__._   S.-1 621) 11 5.7   382 1 $11.91 1 $9.91 1 $1.9%
1 1 AP ________,_.,....__ 1 6.9 Y 706 1 2.6   3113   11.1-1 1 11.14 11.39 111
1 RP ____._,,_..,______ 1 5.S 5513 1 2.3 l 2131   9.28 1 1.28 . 11.111 111
~1 1 LAP ...._......... 1 13.5 11911 1 S.13   19119 1 32.511 ` 19.511   1.511 111
LHP _________,_,,_,_ 15.0 1111:1     17117 211.1111 111.1111 1 1.2N ,,1
1 Ave. 5*10111 ef `——~`————1—-—Y——-1·-4—·- ··-- -· 1 ·~———-*_ ·—~--~ 1 U1
*1 cheek 11 ` 1 29.2   2634   5.2   2S;] 1 1   II
1  1·g1=01·i111·11t 1i··l1l is 1·1111·i111·1»1l 111 1·0·~1»1·1:11i1·11 with l1··1·1-zi
(2111101:0 1111 1:11111 I·»l··11;1z1e; 111 1111- 1'11ll~·;0. *11
Q1
has l)CC11 g`1'O\\'11. \\`h0:1t 11111*5 11111 $00111 10 l10 :111:11111-11 111 this s11il l1l_
1 :11111 it will 110 (11.l.`(111l1l`11 f1·11111 1110 1‘111iI1l111l i1ll11 1·_v0 will 111- s11l1~1i- M
tuted for it. 111 f:11·111 111·:11·1is, 1110 rye (*011111 110 111l$11ll1(`11. m
WAVERLY LIMESTONE AND FREESTONE SOILS l']
Results from the Campbellsville Experiment Field 11°
. 1 1“Y(11'1{ 011 the C:1111pl10llsvill1- 1i0l1l, 111 1112I}`l111' 1`11111111‘. was 111-. 1S
gum in 1920. R0s1111s0l11:1i111-11 (111 1his 110111 :11·0 :11111li11:1l1l1- 10 1111- _
1il'CCS1<)l1(} :11111 11111(*S1f1ll(.‘ mils l1(11`111*l'lll;[` (1ll 1110 1l1l111·u‘1‘:1ss l'1*§l11ll. 111
These seils CO111111'lS1} :111 :11·0:1 0f :1110111* 451111 s1111:11·e 111111*5}. 21
The r0t:1ti011 used is 1‘(1l`Il7 11*111-:11 :11111 l‘l11\`1‘1'. 1l1\\'11 1‘11l`ll 11.1
01·0ps, 0110 11*110:11 01011 :11111 0110 1·l0v1-1- 1-1-1111 l1:1v0 111-011 1.i`l`l1\\'l1. 11
Beth 2l(‘1(1 phesphzxle :11111 1'111‘l( ]1ll11S]1ll2I11} 1l2I\'1‘ §.{`l\'1‘ll @(11111 1·1-— 1
1 sults \\'110l1 11S0l1 \\'111l11111 1ll1l1*S1f>l1(‘. ]1111'l( 11ll11$11ll2I11§ :110111- has 111
L`1\'Cl1l1(}11C1` results 1112111 :11-111 11ll(1N11ll2l11B :1111111-. l‘_
1t1si111e1·esti11g 10 11010 111211 1'(11'l{11l111S11ll2l11‘ :1111110 has LY1\'1‘l1 ll
3 bushels 0f PO1'11, 1.1 1l11l¥11l‘lS 01 11*111-:11* :11111 171111 111)llll11S 0l` 111
<·10ve1· Q'1'C2l1C1' 111(f1`CEIS1‘S 111:111 1`111°1{ ]1l10s11l1:110 im-11 \1*i1l1 111111-- 11
S1'O11(}. 11imest011e :11111 :11·i1l pl10s1>l1:1l0 l1:1v0 {l`l\'1‘ll 110 §Il`(‘}l1l‘I` A
1 i11e1·e:1s1-S 0f 0101*01* 111:111 1r01·l< 111l(1S11l12I1() :110111-. 11111111-sl0110 :11111 1"
:10111 ph0spl1:1teh:1vc given [11‘01111{ll)1C i111·1·0:1s0s, 1111\\'C\'(31‘. 11
1

 I'/tosphale and Lintestotze for Ifctztucky Soils 13
MORE PHOSPHATE IS APPLIED THAN CROPS USE
ltintestone attd fertilizers in the amounts noted have been
applied onee eaeh four years on tlte <·ot·n ground, but tlteir efteet
ts not exhausted eompletely itt tltat tittte. In faet qttite a large
1‘esillilIt‘S give little 1·etu1·11 wheu
, used 011 graius 01- grasses. 011 these soils, it` lIIlll‘Sl0llt‘ is used,
I legumes will respoud to phosphate because they eau tahe their
nitrogen from tl1e air. By growing leguuies to plow IIIl(ll‘l', 2IlI}'
L soil may be built up to a state of fertility sueh that phosphates
= eau be used protitably 011 tl1e ll(lll—lt‘§llIlll1l0llS erops.
SOURCES OF PHOSPHORUS
The co111111o11 sourees of }_)llO$[>ll()l`llS are aeid phosphate,
. basic slag, bone meal illltl grouud roek phosphate. The l`t\I'll1 of
phosphate to use depends both IIDOIX the eost ot the phosphate
aud 11po11 tl1e returus it will give.
Rock phosphate is by far Illl} eheapest source of pll0S[1ll()I`IlS.
but acid phosphate is lllll('ll 111o1·e ('()]llIllOIll}' IISIHI. Tl1e studies
made 011 tl1e Keutueky soil expe1·i111e11t fields have beeu made
principally witl1 tl1ese two fOI`lllS of pllOSI)lIOl`IIS.
Acid phosphate is made by treatiug :1 giveu weight ot` I'()t‘l{
phosphate with an equal weight of sult`urie aeid to t‘llIIIIQ`<‘ the
phosphate of the rock iuto a more soluble I`0l`Il1 of higher avail-
ability to erops. A {011 of raw roek phosphate of the grade geu-
. erally used eoutaius. il1("l`<‘I:Ul`<‘, twiee as 111ueh IIIIOSIIIIOPIIS (12
to 14 per eeut of the ele111<·11t) as a to11 of sta11da1·d aeid phos-
phate. The pl1OS'pl1OI`llS of the raw rock will beeo111e available
gradually, the only question beiug whether it will aet rapidly
enough to give profitable ]‘CIllI'll$.
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
It will be seeu fI`()Ill a study ot` the results ou tl1e \'III`IOIlS
fields that a knowledge of tl1e soils Illltl the erop rotatiou praetistt,

 1'hosphule and 1,t`nt¢slwze for Ifcnfzteky Soils 15
as well as a knowledge of tl1e systeni of farniing i11 use, is neces-
sary before reeonitnendations can be niade in regard to the use of
fertilizer.
Aeid phosphate alone has given satisfactory results 011 all
the experintent tields except those of the Purchase 1'(‘glO11. Any-
where that phosphate fertilizer is needed, therefore, acid phos-
phate has proved a prol`itable source of phosphorus. Notwith-
standing the 1'L’SllllS to the contrary 011 the CXl)€1`l111€1lt fields
i11 the l’urehase region, many fariners in Marshall, Carlisle,
tiraves and l·`ulton Counties of lllill section have found acid
phosphate profitable. Lighter applications of phosphate have
bee11 iuade by the fariners than were used 011 tl1e experiment
iields, whieh may aeeount for their niore profitable results.
\\`hen used with limestone, aeid phosphate l12iS l)0C11 highly pro-
titable on tl1e soils of the l,llI‘t·ll2iSU 1·egio11.
Most soils that give satisfactory results with aeid phosphate
will give satisfaetory results front roek phosphate where 110 lime-
stone is used. In niost eases rock phosphate has l)C(311 111ore
protitable than aeid phosphate on u11lin1ed soil. \\`hen li111e-
stone is used with rock phosphate. (lll tl1e other hand. satisfae-
tory results have been obtained only (lll tl1e Maytield, Lone Oak
and Berea experiment iields. (ln the other tields lllt} use of
liniestone with roek phosphate renders tl1e roek phosphate less
S2lll$l`2lt'l(*l`}` with each sueeeeding applieation of limestone.
No soil eau be built up to a high state of produetiveness by
tl1e use of liniestone a11d phosphate alo11e. Legtnnes 111ust be
grown to supply tl1e nitrogen and organic matter. The poorest
soils need legumes ntost. To start a poor soil qttiekly 0110 or two
legtnne crops should be plowed under. On soils in a good state
of fertility the legutne ntay be grown as a part of the regular
rotation. fed to live stock and the inanure and residues eare-
fully returned to the soil, For pasture lands. legumes shottld
forin a part of the past u1·e erop mixture. lf 111uel1 grain and
tobaeeo is sold tllltl little live stoek is kept. it will be neeessary to
turn lllltlt‘l‘ leguntes regularly to 111aintain the supply of 11itro-
gen. l·`or a fuller diseussion of tl1e nitrogen problem, see Bul-
letin No. 228, whieh will be sent 011 request.
N ’
\

 I
» 16 ('irczzlur N0. 123 '_
_ , WHERE THE RESULTS ARE APPLICABLE   \\'i11·1
Q, , Tl1e results obtained on the Berea iield will apply to the ; lI1·‘
E knob regions of Bath, Bullitt, listill, Pleining, tta1·rard, Jef- ` l·>\\‘>
_ fcrson, Lewis, Madison, Marion, Nelson, Oldhain and Powell _ rolex
A counties. I corn
{ Those of the Russellville iield will apply to the liniestone essa
regio11 of southwestern Kentucky, which includes parts of Adair, i  lieei
Allen, Barren, Breckenridge. llnllitt, Caldwell, Casey, t`hristian, i has
l I Clinton, Crittenden, Cuinherland, lidinonson, (trayson, (lrecn, J
’ Hardin, Hart, Larue, Livingston, Logan, Lyon, Meade, Met- I nnan
t ealfe, Monroe, Pulaski, Rockcastle, Russell, Simpson, 'l`ayloi·, 1 who
, Todd, Trigg, \Yarren, and \\'ayne counties. . plac
t Those of the Mayfield and Lone Oak tields will apply to _ at-].!
the soils of Ballard, Calloway, Carlisle, l·`ulton, Crayes, llick- I give
  man, Marshall and McCracken counties.   of 1,
· The results from the Greenville tield will apply to the , th.-
Weste1‘11 Coal Field which includes parts of Butler, t`aldwell, ul. l·
° Christian, Daviess, Ednionson, Grayson, llaneock, llenderson, _
‘ Todd and Union counties and all of Hopkins, McLean, Mnhlen- ,,1,,,
l berg, Ohio and llvehster counties. ,.,,_,
Those from the Fariston field will apply to the western I \\·,,
part of the Eastern Coal Field and the worn lands of the eastern ,],,.
half ofthe Eastern Coal Field in the eounties of Bell. Breathitt. ,.,,,,,
_ Boyd, Carter, Clay, Elliott, Floyd, Greennp, llarlan, .Tackson, , ];,.,,_
Johnson, Knott, Knox, Laurel, Lawrence, Lee, Leslie, Leteher, _ so ,
McCreary, Magoffin, Martin, Menifee, Morgan, Cwsley, Perry, , ,,,,,,
Pike, Pulaski, Rockeastle, Rowan, \\'ayne, Whitley and `Wolfe. ,,,,,,
Those from the Cai