xt7v154drt2z https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7v154drt2z/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1964-12 bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Educational Change in Kentucky Public Schools", vol. XXXII, no. 12, December 1964 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Educational Change in Kentucky Public Schools", vol. XXXII, no. 12, December 1964 1964 1964-12 2022 true xt7v154drt2z section xt7v154drt2z A 43“

.33.. A‘ A .A


0 Commonwealth of Kentucky 0








Published by


Superintendent of Public Instruction



Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

{gnggIASTEltz Return undelivered copies of EDUCATIONAL BUL-
to Commonwealth of Kentucky, Department of Education,












0 Curriculum Innovations
0 Newer Media

0 Administrative Practices



Prepared by

Division of Research in Cooperation with
Division of Instructional Services

Kentucky Department of Education




FOREWORD _________________________________________ iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS _______________________________ iv ‘

I. INTRODUCTION _____________________________________ 1 l


H. CURRICULUM INNOVATIONS ________________________ 4 ‘

1. Modern Foreign Languages ___________________________ 4 l
2. New Mathematics __________________________________ 5

3. New Biology _______________________________________ 6 l

4. Non-graded Programs _______________________________ 7 l
5. Core ______________________________________________ 8
6. Other _____________________________________________ 9

III. NEWER INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA _____________________ 10 l

1. Instructional Television ______________________________ 10 l

, 2. Programed Instruction _______________________________ 12 v
3. Team Teaching ______________________________________ 14
4. Language Laboratory ________________________________ 15
y 5. Differentiated Curriculum _____________________________ 16
6. Other _____________________________________________ 18



El IV. ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES ________________________ 20



l VI. SELECTED PROGRAM ABSTRACTS ____________________ 52 l

APPENDIXES _________________________________________ 114

l A. Questionnaire _____________________________________ 114

l 119

B. Glossary of Terms-Newer Media _____________________









The planned introduction of new and experimental programs in
Kentucky schools reflects both an awareness of new opportunity and
acceptance of the role of responsible leadership at the local level.
However. responsibility for educational change does not rest on local
leadership alone. Educational change has broad dimensions and may
be introduced in many ways. It is generally recognized that teacher-
training institutions, professional organizations, and the State Depart-
ment of Education have a common responsibility to project a program,
to provide consultant services, and to lend assistance to local dis-
tricts in bringing about educational change.

This Bulletin is a joint effort of several divisions and many indi—
viduals in the State Department of Education to catalogue educational
change in Kentucky. Further efforts will be made periodically to
provide needed supplements and to up—date the information.

The joint State and local effort will be considered extremely
Worthwhile if the survey can provide needed perspective, contributes
to the sharing of ideas, and lends support and encouragement to
schools desirous of further closing the gap between questionable
“old” programs and desirable “new” practices. The further develop—
ment and continuous refinement of a “strategy of innovation” can
make a significant contribution to the advancement of education in


Superintendent of Public Instruction









Special thanks are extended to Kentucky superintendents, cen-
tral office staff, principals and teachers for making possible this
Bulletin which helps to record the establishment of a new benchmark
of educational change in the schools of the State.

The planning, collecting, recording, analyzing, and reporting of
the voluminous data received from principals was a joint effOrt of
three divisions of the Department of Education—Research Services,
Instructional Services, and Computer Services.

Special recognition is also extended to the Kentucky ASCD
Research Commission and its Research Seminar Planning Committee
for an active program of stimulation and promotion of research
activities among the schools of the state. Individually and collec-
tively, the members of the State sub—committee are dedicated to
fostering a research climate, providing for an exchange of ideas, and
giving general support to the research activities of the Kentucky
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, an affiliate
of the Kentucky Education Association.



I 3 L F

Unprecedented change, mainly of post-VVorld War II origin, continues
to broaden and enrich the areas of science, technology, and the changing
social order. The frequency of spectacular developments in the Space Age
has tended to reduce the bold headlines of yesterday to commonplace
treatment of comparable events today. Worthy of special mention, how-
ever, is the accelerated tcmpo of change which tends to widen the gap
between physical change and social change, basic research and applied
research, and theory and practice generally. The implications for education
and other social services are great and challenging.

In recent years the gap between the promise of education and its
\ 4 achievement, particularly in the post-Sputnik era, has been a matter of

increasing concern. Growing out of the reawakening of public interest,
a variety of new programs and reform movements both within and without
the profession were instituted. Among the many national efforts designed
to upgrade education, the following programs appear to be most directly
concerned with producing educational change:

1. The channeling of increased public and private funds into educa-
' tional research and program development.

. 2. The promotion of, and programs for, the improvement of cur-
, nculum content and methodology at national, state, and local _ 1
levels. ' ' l‘ l 9


3- The total effort directed toward instructional materials develop-

4. The continuing education movement.
5. The new strategy and tactics of educational leadership.

T FOI‘ the most part, the local effectiveness of the aforementioned de-
l Y510pments will depend on the quality of educational leadership provided
l In Item Five. In the past, due to limited staffing, the administrative and
‘ sul'-’el‘Vlsor‘y leadership at the district and school levels, many times, has
ad to favor operational practices over planning and development. Under
l the fullY‘financed Foundation Program of 1956 significant changes in staff-

mg Patterns, both in number and assignment of staff personnel, now make

I It P-Ossible for the superintendent to free himself from many conventional 1;
r'uues and devote more time to administrative duties in the area of cur- i
”“11"” and instruction. -







Statement of Purpose

The purpose of the survey was to obtain statewide data from principals
and program directors at the school and district level as to the extent and
type of educational change that is taking place in the public schools of
the state. In the past, partial surveys either by region or statewide surveys
by single programs have revealed wide variability in the introduction of
new and experimental practices in curriculum and instruction.

Specific objectives set forth for the comprehensive survey and ways
to implement the findings were:

1. to provide a catalogue of educational change underway and in

process which will serve as a sort of benchmark for future periodic


to provide encouragement and reinforcement to local schools and
school districts through an exchange of ideas and recognition of

efforts to improve curriculum and instruction in the schools of

3. to improve attitudes and understandings of the strategy of innova-
tion; particularly, the necessity for sound planning and optimum
conditions for the introduction of new programs;

4. to improve communication and to point up the need to establish
reasonably adequate standards whereby the new practice can be
tried out and assessed on its true merits;

5. to encourage cooperative and continuous self-evaluation of existing
practices leading to organized study of innovations with a VIeW
to reducing educational lag when the new practice seems to be
worthy of full-scale experimentation.


Annual elementary and secondary school reports to the State Depal‘t‘
ment of Education for the year 1964 did not provide adequate data for
a comprehensive report on educational change. Thus, the need arose £01
a questionnaire survey in response to the interest expressed by several
agencies across the state. While the questionnaire tends to be time con—
suming at its best and subject to communication errors, it does possess
redeeming qualities such as rccency of data, depth of informatlon .011
specific topics and relatively easy quantification of data by 111210111116;
processing. The Division of Computer Services of the Department 01
Education provided the necessary programing. General procedures ant
brief suggestions for completing the Form were attached to the questIOH'
naire. (See Appendix A).




my: mflm

Scope of Survey

The questionnaire was directed to principals of all public elementary
and secondary schools in the state having a supervising principal. Admin-
istratively in Kentucky this means all high schools and those elementary
schools having eight or more teachers. Schools of less than eight teachers
were not included. The distribution of public schools as defined above and
by grade organization is as follows:



Grade Pattern No. of Schools No. Respond'ng Per cent Response

Secondary Schools


Grades 7-12 124 ) 184 56%
Grades 9-12 207 )
Grades 8-12 6 4 67
Grades 10-12 13 11 85
Grades 7-9 47 35 74
Other 8 5 68
Total 405 239 59
Elementary Schools
Grades K-6 17 4 24
Grades 1-6 294 232 79
Grades 1—8 475 219 46
Other 82 48 59
Total 868 503 58
Total—All Schools 1278 742 58



General Outline

The findings of the survey including much of the basic data reported
under State Summaries are presented in five subsequent parts.

In Part II, some characteristics of new and experimental programs in
Kentucky schools are described.

Part III presents the type and extent of some developments in the use
Of newer instructional media in the schools of the state.

In Part IV is presented a brief report of administrative practices which
tend to facilitate or otherwise influence educational change in the schools.

In Part V is presented a listing of 932 abstracts of new and experi—
mental PIOgTarns arranged by school districts and reported by regions.

In Part V 1, approximately 15 per cent or one hundred and fifty
selected abstracts of new and experimental programs are reproduced.

.111 Appendix B, special attention is called to the section on Selected
Definitions and a Glossary of Related Terms.








In the survey of public schools having a principal, information was
requested on five specific areas of curriculum content or organization. Also,
space was provided for the write—in of other programs introduced, either
new or experimentally, since 1959-60. The specific areas on which a de-
scription of program was requested are: (1) modern foreign language in
the elementary school, (2) “new” mathematics, (3) “new” biology, (4) non-
graded program, and (5) core of block-time programs. The Survey ques-
tionnaire is reproduced in Appendix A.

1. Modern Foreign Language in the Elementary School

Of 503 elementary schools participating in the survey, 192 or 38.2
per cent reported a modern foreign language at one or more instruction
levels. General program characteristics are summarized below.

Table 1. Program Characteristics—MFLES










~ - Factors Influencin
Descriptlon and Number of Schools Change g E
Grade Level For Pupils of: Grouping Patterns #3 ll:
or.» Class | Basis q A ‘ 'U 8
I Size for Grouping m a: E 5 IN
H ‘ S: --‘ no p {:1
“P a, a 53 f“ B G .E
% r a a a e e 6 °’ .- fi .
n1 . .n m '0 r.‘ .... o g r-i cu :—«
N 0 - "‘ 3 L4 9‘ l3 “ o H v H “l > a
o a. . 0 Q: q, : ... x: o 7;; us ° '2:
m E o > m o O Q! J: .,_. Q. Q NJ 5
- 36' cu ‘1 <1 3 “ an E E a Q o o ._. a. 9*
bgfih’sto swag-Salas: wufingg ..
m "‘4 Sq a.) L1 0
’ngufl.“ age: 5%“ as 5 3g 35 ggogasa o
(D no “1
aasaaara‘aaapaweeaeaam 5;
H F1 H a
























It will be observed that the frequency of responses tends to reflCCt
the following practices: (1) major opportunity provided at intermeduite
grade level, (2) regular class grouping is preferred, and (3) when spec1al
grouping is used teacher judgment and achievement are considered equally
important by the respondents. The frequency of factors influencing Chfmge
in terms of the total factors listed indicates that a local school plan smgly
or strongly reinforced by a school district plan serves as the source of mO'
tivation for most of the new or experimental programs in this currlculum

The approximate number Of pupils enrolled in a modern foreign lalll‘
guage in the 192 Schools reporting this item was 29,815. Of the 166 schoog
providing data on enrollment, the average enrollment per school was 18
pupils. Other sections of this report reveal a Significant relationship be-
tween instructional television and modern foreign language in the elemen-
tary school.




PROGRAM CONTINUITY. A brief analysis of the data for individual
schools provides additional information on the important characteristic of
program continuity. These types of organization practices are identified
from the individual reports:

61 schools provide a program for primary and intermediate grades
(largely the 6-year elementary schools)

55 schools, grade level 4—6 only

34 schools, grade level 7—8 only (mainly junior high and 6-year high
schools, continuing in most cases, to the 9-12 level)

17 schools, grade level 1—8 only

9 schools, grade levels 4-6 and 7-8

4 schools (other than 6-year schools), all grade levels.

Analysis of individual reports reveals that the “high school” programs
reported apply to the transitional grades 7-8 and are reported, for the most
part, by junior high and six-year high schools.

2. New Mathematics (SMSG or Other)

The second line item on the Survey form requested information on
new mathematics in the public elementary and secondary schools of the
State. To improve communication, an example of the new programs in
mathematics was provided—School Math Study Group (SMSG) or other.
Preliminary in—service activities by the Department of Education and the
COlleges working cooperatively with local school districts helped to pro-
vide a favorable climate for the introduction of the SMSG materials. How-
ever, as the narrative reports indicate, other innovations in mathematics
also are being tried out,

Of the 742 public schools responding, 200 schools, or 26 per cent, re—
ported one or more new or experimental programs in mathematics. Of
503 elementary schools, 142 or 28.2 per cent described newly-introduced
ngrams at one or more grade levels. Of 239 high schools, 58 or 24.3 per
Cent reported recent changes in the mathematics curriculum. A brief de-
scription of the overall program is provided in the following summary.

Table 2. New Mathematics (SMSG or Other)






















Descfiptiou and Number of Schools Factorz‘lnfluencmg
- E
W Forpupilsof: Grouping Patterns 6 S
Class Basis_ ‘5; 1:: :19.”
‘1‘ Size for Grouping 5 '8 - :3 m
H “3 5 E “0 *5 E51 “' a
§ v 3 g u) E a :‘5 cu Z. 3 -~
~ 6 a a it" a a ,J g .2 o g 2 g g
U T“ f o :1 L4 5 m E: o 33 V A “ ... Q
"" E 0 <1 0) m o '_‘ o o m m o u 5
‘ '5 o .C: > .—. N U E a. J: .... n. a m) n.
>1 m "‘ h ‘“ b” E o C1 0 o .4 94
k u a) 4 0 0:: cu 1—.
m k] w ‘9 m > "‘ H... o'” 1;; m _‘ ,x: Q as u «.4
E :4 oz 3 a) g A“ > 0 o m L: o L. o
Evsswa A0=w=.2e&..~~ £400.“,
' o no ... o a) as o H +4 ... .
¢mwo 'p.
O a '” 75 g is 5 2 8 8 1; V E o 'a :1
«35:3 >%80ma+a earlier?“ 9*
>~ a) H 0 ‘5 ‘11 <1 :> 0 2:: o 1-40,) 44 fi 3 g m H .H
a E [:1 (/2 ...¢ b0 ‘1) l3 QM > 05 w .—i ,,, s: o 5. o
;.‘ . l” E 3 ,J F) F‘ mil CD .G E H .—< O x a, o , a;
E a) > .L‘ '3) m o bl.) E5“ .~: E u DD 0) OJ n: O ,4 42 3;; 11 g 0'
'E ‘5 “U .5.” g‘ > E E a a; :2 0 $3 *5 '5 8 '5 o .‘E “3 °’ 0 z
moo fl 3 o q ._. s: "‘ :3. Q “0 D1 ,1,

>. 0 2 s.. <3 0 ‘ 0““ h a o D o a: ._t
(”Waste >Ossfl§$mfi “Henge ..
E a . L‘ S“ 3 3 d) "‘ «39‘ 0) SE ‘9 ’4 H 0 E q; o l“ o
a, 5 ,l: I 0.: a o m 5 .M .2 .H obs :4 o m o H a .~ - 0

fl __,__
mg: m N a: in N to
aim H H m m g goo l S? N LE 3 m 2 ks : <5 H H :3



















The typical non—graded program in Kentucky is reflected in these pro-
gram characteristics: primary grades, 50 per cent; for pupils of all ability
(fwd?) (3'5 per cent; increased flexibilitv as indicated by variable grouping,
'39 per cent; achievement and teacher" judgment—basis for grouping when
“59d, 76 per cent; and school district plant, major single factor influencing
Change, 44 per cent. Of 184 schools having a program, 106 or 79 per cent
lFPTOtGd 22,235 pupils enrolled. A description of several programs classi—
flfl‘d as non-graded is provided in Part IV.

The traditional instruction levels served by the non—graded program in

#eglllwky public schools as reported by 128 respondents is summarized in
a e 5.









 Table 5. Non-Graded Programs by Grade Levels Served


Primary and intermediate grade levels __________ 53
Primary (1-3) only _________________________ 45
Primary, intermediate and advanced ____________
Intermediate (4—6) only ______________________
Advanced elementary (7—8) only ______________
“High school only __________________________
”Advanced elementary and high school _________
Not designated _____________________________


Total schools ___________________________ 134


*Junior high and six-year high schools

5. Core Program

Developments in the core program, particularly over the past four
years, are reported on by forty—four schools. By organization patterns, the
schools are distributed as follows: junior high schools, fifteen; six year high
schools, fourteen; grades one thru eight, eight; other elementaly, three;
senior high schools, two; and twelve—grade schools, two. Program char-
asteristics as revealed by frequency of responses by schools are shown in
Table 6.

Table 6. Characteristics of Core Programs












- - Factors Influencing
Description and Number of Schools Change
Grade Level ForPupilsot: Grouping Patterns :5 g
Class Basis. 713' *5 '31
K? Size for Grouping fl“ 3 <1 [3 a
H E: H be +4 [:1
a: ‘9 no >, .3 ‘1‘ 2 5 Z a, ‘1
v5 V‘ I 3:; a.» m as .3 . u ...t
m _ r~ .— no (I) o g m m w
u cu _ H 3 a: Q m +4 3 '3 U h a > m
(5 ‘8 - o 4: 3; =1 2 5 o 17, " m o 'E 9
"-1 E 0 p 2 8 O .9 5; -H a. D. b!) p. :1
. 'u c n H < a) be E g 0 Q o q, ._. £14
bwaaoa’o eosfifigeve wanes; .4
m "" m a; r—4 94 a) o W H 0
5555023?” aflé’ofié’fi‘égflegfig'fififiefid
M P H .4 H o m +-
L1 "3 ..-. > o ._. cu a) my 0 a) +- o o as m a)
m5o> H H z E
0 v 00 +4 0) m 44 ,_‘ OJ u; '
ru I :1 bl) u 0 g m“ a
a a; b .,r to a p .—« ...( U H a: £1
«we u as a oevumz -~
U m E' 8 < cu 5 r—< a) D m m 0 g. ‘3‘
_ "-1 > m o O 43 ,c H p. 9‘ b0 0-4 &
'5 ‘1’ #2 L4 <1 75 5“ a)“ E E1 0 Q o 0 -«
b ‘1’ "‘ " o ‘1’ > O H HF ‘11 Hm 1; U) g Q cu H
m E [:1 U) ._r 00 m ’5“ > u) .—« m g o u
H . h m 3 fl 0.) H «59‘ o :13 o 1.. .—t o x o u o
E Q, > .c: w E o no a] «:5 -~ 0 $ 0) cu o H g .a - a:
mH¢mmO1 H H 0) Z o 0-1
cu v u +2 a: 04 44 .3 E _ +2

“U . r- 2:: W m .2 O 2 “’ 2
32-33 2 g: *5 sbvggz a
U.£Eg< Sesame“ B-flagWEfij
égfifiéa<30gflagsfia finfiogg a
.H m ,Q'Q H m u 0
fig .4:aside635£5§02338ee26~.
':3%-¥%§e= 2329525 83355 350330.529

m5o < a». .50 ntmzrao
o m 1* 00 m
g E a m a to a 2 E :9 N fi 3 g m H H N {3























‘ . - 'n
1. The geographic distribution by counties of schools reporting ITV :5 shown 1
Chart 1.




' "‘- ruyu: l rrogram

L_'. H'— sdd LVI VKWNHAL’ " ' my.) \v

._a O a; H- 4‘ HflHCD mp

woman-Hag“, :U‘b“ §®¢E~-€_'
.—.-*<:m .1 ca 952%

(172) Schools Reporting Instructional Television



7 ‘ ‘\ ' 2.
._ I . SPENCER <9 ' 00
‘I ,0 MEADE WLUTT '\®(&) , . 1;; MEHI E
1‘ ‘ ~ \L - 5%: '9) (3) l w ‘\
,. HENDERSON ,. 1 NELSON, “66*“ch 7/ FWELL




H f 7;;
H . 4,” 3‘ (2f BUYLE 4%
_ 54/, MARION 0
. ,. OHIO

HOPKINS liar/4