xt7vdn3zts86 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7vdn3zts86/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1959 journals ky_farm_home_science_v1_8_num_3_5_2_spring_1959 English Lexington, KY : Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky farm and home science. Special progress report. v.5 n.2 spring 1959. text Kentucky farm and home science. Special progress report. v.5 n.2 spring 1959. 1959 2014 true xt7vdn3zts86 section xt7vdn3zts86   .'» .     R 4 R `
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\'ol. 5, No. 2 ......................... Spring 1959 II
KA.‘\
A report of progress published quarterly by the Kentucky Agricultural W`,
Experiment Station, University of Kentucky, Lexington _
KENTUCKY AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT Material appearing in this publication may be  
STATION re roduced without further ermission, rovided __
_ P _ P P _ _
FRANK   \VELCH .........................l...............   ..... Dll‘€CtO1‘ that   acknoyvlgdgmgnt IS made Of [hc g()uy(·@
;;iié.ir;;xi .\. biuxi .,.......,,..,.,..........   ....   ;·lCC[;)ll;€E[Ol12 and that no Change in headings Or text is made QQ V
. mei; ................       tmims ra ive ssns ·m ·
‘ " ‘   _ A ‘ rthout a roval b the author.
W. P. Gxmmcus ................................ Associate Director M PP Y _ _ _ AI
I. ALLAN SM1r1-1 ................................ Agricultural Editor Address correspondence about articles 1n this pub- •‘<’
Kentucky Farm and Home Science hcation to either the authors or·the Department ol  
_ . Public Information and Educational Aids, Expert- "'
loswn G. DUNCAN ......................,....................,.... Editor S . B .1d. U .Y . [K kr L
NI. Nlxsn (fox .....,.......... . .............l............... Assistant Editor Fnent muon ul mg’ nllersltyo enum l’ cxi 4
llomzur C. l\dAY ..........................,............. Photographer mgmn
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The Cover _ _ _ ____
_ _ A A l hese llerelord cows and calves on the Nlereworth l·`:n‘in in l·`;ix’ette eonnixi
= A €·'*.<·· . A ‘ . . . ‘
  i>·*"· ure mrt ol ann Sill)-cow eoin1ner<·1;1l herd. 'l he cows are used )l`ll]\lll`ll\' lor .•:—:
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  *€°j`” the nodnction ol leeder calves. 'l`he Nlereworth herd is one ol more than
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_   · A, · t- Illll herds enrolled in the lilx heel herd )Cl`lUl`lll1lll(`C testin r )l`()*"l`1llIl. l lns
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i   _;*p_ progruni ollers lientncky heel producers their greatest opportunity lor in- Apex
 t `—  - `i`i i `` `  `  A rre;¤sin¤ arohis ru >idl\ und C(`Ull(>llll(`2\ll\'. lix >erience indicates that the
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A °   year through use ol ;i hreednig progrsnn hused on perlorniiniee testing. ts.-
(l‘l1oiogr;npl1 hx Roherl (l. Xlnir.)
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1%.-

  
·-~>   • • _
entuek Research Results 1n B1‘l€f
I HI By FRANK B. BORRIES, JR.
ml PESTICIDES DID NOT HURT eals were used, each mixed with (laptan, a lungi-
""`° FLAVOR OF STRAWBERRIES eide; later, eight more materials were added to the I
y _*__ P€g[iCid(-js usgd 01] S[]·u“rb€1·1~i€g g1·O“vu ut [hg K6;]- Sl)I`ily 1)l`()g1`il]H ill](l Silllll)lCS Cll€CI{€(l. r\SS()(Tlil[€(l \\`lLll
I Llltiliy .-\gt‘i(1ultu1`al Experiment Station had no “ap- KITS. Tl(Tl1€Il0l` lll (TOIl(lll(`[ll1g this project were Carl
h* parent detrimental ellect" on the llavor ol the berries, E- Cl*¢*]>l***» D€]>i**`i***€*** Ol- H01`**F**l***1`€, uml _I· (ii-
i r Il r@g@;[]·(jh [;[g[€-1);u]€l d€(·id€d_ l{()(ll`lgl.l€l, l)€l)2ll`ll11€ll[ ol` EIlL()lll()lOgy illltl BOLJIII}'. .
ln |`aet, the panel lound t;hat when taste dillerenees "N<>**€ 0* *l*€ ******€*`*1*l5 *€$*€¢l hull 11**Y 1¤]>]>111`€***
R") wgye ()l)S€yy€(t iu two jmmmgesy nw 1)€S[j(;j(t€.U·€ut€(] detrimental elleet on the llavor ol` lrozen strawberries,
»_),_ S;[]]]l)I€S yygyg judged l)€[{€1·.{uS[ing than [hg O[hg]·S_ €\'€ll Oll [ll()S€ SZIIIIPICS llill`\'CS[C(l ()ll€ (lily ill`L€l` Sl)1`ily-
ur, The tasting work was carried out last year by Mrs. ***gy *]*6 l*¥***€l *`€l*O*`*€€$**<`*\\' ('Xt`(‘ll('lIl ll`<‘('\
The taste panel in atlion. )IClIll)€l`S Oli llllS IIISIC ]1i!l1Cl tlnntgli stnne ol lltettt Ilil\'(' lt)\\'·(‘llt>lIglI ltll ks lt> l`(‘tllIt‘(‘
<*•* c`·;,|u;nc(1 [mica and preserved stl‘aWl>0¤`1`*¢S l`*`<>*** 1******** tlwiy nst·l`nIness as ltttnbet 111*0*.
A that·received various pesticide treatments: Purpose ol` the A
partitions was to promote objective reactions. tt.mt/nitro! on Page sl
. l(l{N'll`(jK\' I‘·\I{Xl .xst> lloxna $(1|l·ZN(2l·Z—$l’RlN(} 1955) 3

 66 I`0l'I1 OW 3Il 3 311 p€I°3t10IlS as
B f f C d C lf Pl O ' I
O I O I -
Has POSS]lI)ll1tl€S, Research W ork Shows
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  Ijricc collccssiollsg conslllllcrs O1` ()llOlC€, (lO(;‘S 1]Ot l]€LVC S() II]llCl] ]I]$T1'l)llII§.{ Ol` tllC~  
· • dee) rel eolo· of choi· atu·e beef. Because ol
indieate they would take large _ l .° _ I °€ m I . ,,.-._
( udntit. S f 461 l b f,, this, often it does not fit the present beef grade ‘
' l€.` O )H J €€ . “ » . ~
I y standards and 1S graded heavy-calf 1DSt€i`l(l of beef. ,;».i
_ Many retail stores which handled beef from the ,_
By (.. I). PHILLIPS and W. Y. VARNEY .. ,, » - . . 1+*
cow and calf plan of beef production have dis-
(Ionsuniers` taste in beef can change rapidly. For continued its sale. Many store operators say that ¤·•*;‘
example, beef produced from heavy milk-fed calves buyers complained that the meat was tasteless. tough, ,.7
weighing from -150 to 650 pounds sold readily at and dry and, consequently, were not repeat buyers. I
irices et ual to the more mature beef during \Vorld Meat market oierators also said the beef from the *`*
\Var ll. lloweyer, such beef sold only at a distinct milk-fat calf was strictly a seasonal product as it was *4
discount when meat became more plentiful after the available only during the fall months. Because of V
war. Many recent studies have shown that the demand these reasons, many stores have not handled this beef * V
has changed from highly finished or prime beef cuts in recent years. {
T-
l" ll"‘ l*`**'“"` CMS- At the University of Kentucky, “palatability panels" '
The lower price received by producers for the milk- were conducted in an endeavor to find out just how *7
fat calf was a blow to many Kentucky farmers who satisfactor such beef is in com yarison with more ~·».
. ,, · . 2 . I . * ‘
had slnfted to the cow and calf vlan of beef uroduc- mature beef. Flavor tenderness, and `tucmess of meat
l l. 7 l
ttou during and following \Vorld \Var II. The grass produced from 400 to 475, 5()() to 575, and 600 to 700 i““"`
economy on most Kentucky farms, with a shortage of pound milk-fat calves were compared with beef from M,. ,
concentrate feeds, is admirably suited to the “eow a 1,000 pound fed steer of similar grade. These tests __
and call" plan of beef production. The carcass from did not prove conclusively that one was more accept- ""‘°.
such a milk-lat calf, which usually grades high, good, able to the “panel” members than the others in the gn,
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(Qrade beet rows and their calves raised on the Kentucky valves. without creep feeding. averaged over 050 pounds at A
(Ion and (Zalf l’|an in \\'oodi`ord tounty. These ehoiee market timc.
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l l{l·1N‘I`t`(;I&Y l·`.um xxn llour SCIl·Z\(Zl·Z~—Sl’l{|X(i H)50
<`*

 case of flavor and juiciness. Beef from the lighter   ,‘`_°   ·`»‘ Q `       7 l
. weight animals usually was more tender.   ; ~    .   .V—.  · *   H  U Q
` Several years ago one large chain store organization   V 4   K it ’‘’i`   Q-    __
carried on a merchandizing experiment with this milk-      N IW      
` fed calf beef. This organization advertised special     __    g_  " `
sales of “Baby Beef” and priced various cuts from 5   `.>il__   ’‘t'_   ii _, _  
to 10 cents below similar cuts of mature choice grade   _:__;  ;   . , · ’`‘‘   Q_- `“~ .    
~ . A   [ew  t ~     ` ·   ·rr. .
beef. The sales were quite successful. 3 Fi   .   ,          V:==,,_      
— zzz, ger     ·,‘      ;- _. _,·`Qt.,.., °    
Arrangements were made with one large chain         1   gy         t      
. . . areal <~  ·    A , v,"`' i  ;;. , V     `~ i_-._  
organization and several 1ndependent grocery stores   al. ; »-V_     gl   V
_ _ , .     ‘ -‘ ‘   -»-  ,  .l>:V»  J ·r  % "  ·~’i    z 1 s   i
located m Owensboro, Louisvrlle, and Lexington to  @r;»AA»T};;,&._;g    
. . .  ~   ii ,.  .2% --r· = R   ·»’`.      
attach a questionnaire on prepacka ged meat advertised   ,6 ._cc     ·   {  Vb}   __c= A
tt ~» . . * 7    TQ";;E_i’.  ···_  ;·:T `'`.`,’=     =__—   ` _
V as Baby Beef. Over 2,000 such questionnaires were   ··=·   =·:   _,‘__ q   ;=_;      »»··. .  
  =·`     ·=». M? `‘‘`     i . “’=A~»  ?"  .»:. AA `.»..  
placed in packages. A total of 257 or about 14 percent   ;._    _Icr._;._.   =.»   V__—_k   _ . I   »p»V_
a -»   =·“   ‘',‘"i    l  .§ · .— ·¤..L°   .
were returned. The Baby Beef was sold at all stores  ZL;   r·»:   ‘._.   M;}  
as a   Weekélld sale, at I-)[`iC€S ]‘a[]gi]]g {roll-I   ``v' ’° '°iii‘:""'**"’  ""'m`·(~·*""`    »»s ·.t  ·  ·. ·>:,. :~- ·—·» . _·   ;·;     . ___, _ __  E .  
to 15 Cents below the price Of regular mature beef A typical product of the Kentucky (row and Calf·Plan
ready for market at over /00 rounds and grading Choice.
cuts * I
More than 87 percent of those answering the
€lu€Stl0mmll`€ illdlctltml that this was 3 (1`€P€at PUV chase. About the same percentage indicated that the
main reason for purchase of the “Baby Beef” was the
 V  0   lower Jrice. Some ave two reasons for )urchasin f
      the Baby Beef. About 35 percent gave size of cut
A    Qi  as the second reason for purchasing "Baby Beet."
 [ ti?    ~. »-==   . . - .
 J, A    The t said the smaller sized cuts from the smaller am-
  7 Ae     AA
    ' mals more nearly fitted their demand than the larger
.,E.     »’'l       . . .
*   if t  Ygtgla   sized cuts from the more mature animals.
  ly, 4  I       é` ` 2
    »         The majority of the respondents, 75 percent, indi-
 et 0~.~tA, _ -··‘ 2 wt;.     cated that they thou tht that the vrice for sumlar cuts
1 M “ , M . ‘<¤ V W ' . T . .
    ]    e._   ` _ l of ‘Baby Beef should be less than for mature heel'.
i,       qi? ,,[. >   Only 14 percent stated that the price should be about
  B  ii ,   `Z  ‘‘‘=   ig  ,_‘'? A the same, while 2 percent indicated they would be
  Q Y~   e,   _ _ _ _ '
  slp     V J   willing to pay a lngher price.
'   _  i`   sg {ii  Flavor was rated excellent by 21 percent and good
 ,Tg%l,,>   V 2   by 57 percent of the respondents. Several of the
    A ·‘ i ,     res Jondents made the comment that they could see no
-§ At tt t       . . · .
¤.t,A; ,__.  ./ s ,     thllerence between the liayor ol the Baby Beef anti
v 2,,;;,   .vv.. A-c·;_  q V ,,2; .  -2% ` ·
  ‘  .,.2.,% t Qi; ‘,,A   mature beef when both were properly seasoned. As
"~,»As%“'x "»},a_ I s. pl, '/Y,   _ I ' I
’     _   " ’.·  _ far as tenderness was concerned, 36 percent replied
' `  I  _’ ·-   '”/ic `   A 25*   “yery tender" and -13 percent replied that it was
`   V   lx ,._,   _' 5 l · f ‘ 0%  tender. Several stated that they used tenderizer and
A Q. e ’`‘'    i e A. ,   ~ `   ’  '
  . · za  _. gy * V ’    [ _, the meat was excellent.
  .y ·¢ 4   .r ' tt ·~» . .
  E AA      `?"-m,,,·£   { The cow and call plan hts well mto the grass
{ · mf _, ;  ·¤ ·       , , I J economy of the state. ll such Baby Beet calves can
*-4;, 5. *   V  V_. At. W A`  A.;  ·»A_ be sold at satisfactory prices an expanded program
_     ¤ _ ~ _ t `         ·e·~e     would substantially increase larm income. \lany stores
{   A ~, A · A  rf ‘ Ii¤””’   4 ‘ '
;     ‘’’` ‘  · ·‘   at present are not handling tl1e product. lloweyer,
O A A.   ‘lz"·*t` "z "1' t` ‘ · ·-
‘ A' The meat lrom heavy milk-lat calves produtrctl by the Ken- this _ (hh hl"( hh hh (hhhhnhhh h lh lhmq h Um
A tucky (low and Calf Plan has the size, tenderness, and free- °l“““'*’l}’ that Wltll Solllh l)l`lf"` C‘”lC"SSl"ll U(’ll$l'lll"l`$
ll()l]I l`I`()]I] ¥\'1lS(C {Ht that I]l()S[ lIOlIS€\\'iVCS )1`C[CI`. \Vill UCCC )t i.lll(l l)ll\’ lilI'i’(¥ ( ll£llIlltl(’S ol “l;il.l)V l;(*(`l.“
l . r» l .
l{l·ZN'l`l`(IKY lixaxi xxn Home S<:u·;xt:1·;—S1·iuxt; M50 5
 
•¤'i

 Efficient use of solar and ground heat enables
raising of crop in plastic greenhouse when ’
• 6 O *"
()lltSl(l€ t€IllI)€1‘2,ltlll`€S RPC (lOWI1 to 5 F.
Lettuce Grown -— No Heat Cost
By FRANK li. BORRIES. JR.
Vegetables need heat—~natural or artificial—to grow air space between the two sheets which acted as a heat .
bttt Kentucky ,\gricultural Experiment Station horti- cover. (See drawing on opposite page.) _
cttltttrists had surprisingly good results: this year with The whole greenhouse was about 5 feet high.
a plastic field greenhouse that got a crop of` lettuce though limmert now recommends a height of 5% to
simply by trapping solar and ground heat and con- (5% feet. The roof covering consisted of a dottble
serving it. layer of plastic, one fyi-lllll thick inside the frame and
li. Nl. limmert, who conducted the trial, found that another 2 mils thick outside. l·l is rafter spacing origi-
once, when the temperature outside the house was nally was —f feet apart; however. this retptires a heavier {
onli Fi de trees l·`., the tetn >eratttre under an inner >lastic, the ·f—mil thick toe. Two-foot raf`terin¤· can
) D
floor covering of plastic was 38 degrees l·`., or 35 de- use the 2-mil thick plastic, Emmert says.
trees hi ther. He used no artificial heat at all. Instead, he utilized
fw
The plastic ground cover inside the greenhouse con- sunny days (for solar heat) for the initial warming:
sisted of two sheets of 2%-mil thick plastic stretched compacted the soil by watering, which allowed trans-
fer of` heat much better than loose soil; and took ad- _
· . ‘‘‘     - .  -~¢=     ,,, .,.·.· , ..·_ I _,_.... .     .._, _ __,_,,   vanta ·e of >‘rottnd heat arisin ‘ from de >ths of a foot
. awc -   .r... 1 -.-. V -.... . V to rvzr V.V··~V Ii. V     ,-..t..,- .V./ . V. g h c
` . i»V; v ·t ·tI»"/-‘ lt ’ [til; 'f’·'VV‘·`4:l i’'. EMI,. ·l»€V?§>r¤*‘- LA   J   f     » . I I,I‘ I ., I , . I I A. . , , I · I , —
      . I ~r__   I   _.:_   ,_:=_—_= ;   up ant c t oosc, ttc gtount 1(att stayet in Llc
`— = ». w.     “ " '/,. . '   —--· ;.V1§‘XEJ.T—.‘é¤5§;.`: · —
— lt/V s·i5*~` y~     (       jgj ..·- 1 —_-=  gxricgg  -,_ ground. \\’hen the soil was compacted bv watering, ;
I f/pt ‘ t ~ . .   if _:     _,,_     ' _ ’ _ _ ‘
  »»._   _     :,··-;   the heat filtered through and heated the air nnme- .
V. »   Y    ‘ V  I-   ;’=--¥     - - -
‘— · , · V   ~_,·   —.         ._-_     dtatelv above. Loose soils keep the ground heat from
  ` I [   — r  #r,J\.;e ”‘“`°`f“ "· —   ’ _ `
`hse °°```   `¢``` ·¢"   .   escaping. l·`or cxznnpfe, in the winter observers have Q
`     IT· noted that a plowed field will keep its snow cover
  c V ~ V" °-‘ ~ ·
6   N M. v   ¤VV longer than a compacted field for the same reasons,
.‘    
_._i   , (  I-   cw Z I
i   \ ·     ‘ °?°- ``»· .  
I Qt   ...,`.: ?   it   “       `
  { il     ?   T ...  I `r~. ` `i`;ff     V
  .   ‘ to °   ~ ~ A ."s. `’‘’    
  . ` V »·~  .Z"-·Y··*Y    c·r· t· ‘‘`=i  T V»“ t   `Qs `*\ `ll`i`i;     \
   sis     =»‘   est.   _ V I ~ »-=—- —   I \   ==¢ gi.
s as   . . . . x _ .. .
  its §? ;§~ ~.·`     ·= `     . `¢» `V  `xf `     x
 ?‘$’       Y ""‘~§`   .  ew » .  Q ‘   2*; s . V, l'‘’ * i*#%:Q?;;- V.,_ _
 +,:3  §_ _¤§§_— ¢=? § * `   js ` .-X; Ml" its *5 sl; ki;.  lf X V   \ `\   ,
Ilorticulttirtst limtnert inspecting evidence of possible snow   E;  * ` _ it R`? c \  
damage to plastic field greenhouse similar to one in which   _       V ¤ ‘. iii
lettuce was produced without use of ·trtifici·tl heat T ~   iiil * " ` T ·` hg`? ¥   r -.4 \"
  ···—        lr    l    
_ _ _ _ 4 ~·¥§ ,...:   -V·~     -·        > 2
on a ltght wire frame about IS inches above the { _ `   .  i_`*         { e.
ground. f`he cover could be lifted for inspecting the i . ,   ·~i il.    `    " ~*“ ii f   A
I I I I _ _ _ ‘_ __' . __,__Me I!   vaglll &n {M 4%,, v__V   I  —.V,  ,2;;  »V  
crop oi liatxesting. .\n aisle was left down the middle   _ ,» · ,  “·’.   ~.-`=,., ` "_j,;-#·_ Q
ol the house for access. lhe top sheet of the ground _ _ _ _ __ _ IV
_ _ _ _ . . ‘ Lettuce growing in a plastic greenhouse without artthcial `·
°W} · `
- lh '; "@°@f‘ »   #- *~·»*·..~- i
..,'_.‘ grow. Lettuce grown without the aid of any inner ‘ “ ’ ` W     ·_\ ·
ilastic rround cover browned u J c uickl t and lost
· ‘ . .
?V*" quality when it did grow. Under- ;t single luygy of This sketch (not to scale) shows the essential elements of the
VV_ · %_mil l)luSLiCV the lcuucc grew but had U tendency LO plastic greenhouse within a plastic greenhouse. lt is ietom-
I _ V _ V ._l V _ _[V` V N . I _ __ M I mended that the height be about (1 feet. each side of the
[mn )l()“m§ I (lt home 5 ‘lg€5' ’ VCH ml (lol) QOH ` )€ roof about fi feet, and the height of the sidewalls about
’ marketed. 2% [Cct-
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The lettuce grown in this plastic field greenhouse was mar- aisle to permit access and the plastic on each side, supported _
keted when produce was in short supply. Note the center by wire frames.
  7
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