xt7vmc8rdc73 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7vmc8rdc73/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1946 journals 3_01 English Lexington, Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky fruit notes v.3 n.01. text Kentucky fruit notes v.3 n.01. 1946 2014 true xt7vmc8rdc73 section xt7vmc8rdc73  i Vol. 3 March, 1946 NO_ 1
  W. D. Armstrong, llorticulturist, Editor
. KENTUCKY CODLING MOTH program. The test was run in the
 · TEST WITH DDT__]g45 Park Orchard of the Kentucky Car-
 . dmal Farms at Henderson. This
_ w_ D_ AR]\1‘]S'[`R()NG orclglard has long been heavily dam-
. _ age by codling moth, with several
Codlmg moth 11*1S lmlg 1**11 111* crops virtually wiped out,
main insect problem in the produc- I M. I , _
tion of apples in western Kentucky. 11 S°_1111~ up me C’$1°CY1m€l11» ll
Because Of hop du, wcmncr and 3 was decided to use a mixture of ar-
light cron in lg_H_ many Kentucky senate of lead, DDT and summer oil
1 apple crops were literally eaten up 111 111<‘ f11`$1·1¤1`00d SDYHYS, and mco-
4 that year. In 1945 it was highly de- 11110. DDT and summer oil in the
 _ sirable to get SOmC KCI1tl1Cky rCSl1ltS F<Ԥ"111<1-1>1`00d sprays, since these
with DDT because many schedules mixtures had shown up well in 1944
using arsenate of lead or nicotine in Steiners tests at Vincennes lab-
had not stopped the worm attack in (1l`21l<1l`)' of the Federal Bureau of
1944. By setting up a cooperative Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
. Experiment Station proJect, one A check plot left for comparison got
grower was authorized to purchase arsenate of lead and summer oil in
enough DDT to spray a siaable com- the first brood and nicotine and sum-
mercial block with a fortified DDT mer oil in the second brood. The
. Table 1. Spray Schedules Used in 1945 DDT Spray Tests at Henderson,
Z 7 WMV 7 1 4`ht·t1k l‘l··ts DDT Area
  Spray 1SFrn-at:'d` Mnlwini, \,,.,» 1..1*1 any S11»l;;`;nd }l;itt-ri;rls]n’·1`1(1(l gal.
` 7 rrkr 7 1 1 1 ` ' 7 7
lst Cover 1 4—l¤ 4 lhs. 1ll`S¤·ll:11» of 1l·;nl. -t-1< 1 lhs. arsenztte of lead.
1 1 lhs., limo 1-l-1101 1 lhs. lime; l-1-100 hor-
1 lu·rd¤·uux; r¤¤¤‘ of llw DOT viii~it~iy ima to mia imiivititmi tm. large!
area. _ etitmts in the DDT and non—DD'l` msu
All llllansa 1¤1‘€l>l<>¤¤l slJl`aY and areas. From each tree sampled, 50 lfnlm
dust Pl`O§l`am was Calllcd Olll that apples were picked at random from · lnw
gal"? good scan (`Onll`Ol· A CalYX the top fourth ofthe tree. 100 apples plot
sPl`aY Ol alsanala <>f_l€·¤’ was also records from each part of each tree splal
allkfsi and ls SWEO l?al$"“'- The DDT were kept separate as to the number · lm l
sprays W€‘F€ slsllsd lll lh€ socood of worms and stings and other dt-— false
cover and Cnnllnuad =r¤¢<>¤‘di¤s to lhs fects. It was interesting to ohst~i·t~q· l`al€·
schedule OO 19386 Ons- that the largest, best—colored fruits clcar
_ came from the upper portions of the nald}
S€a$Olml 0b$€l'V¤UO¤$ trees and that this is where most of Emp
During most of the summer the the insect-injured and diseased fruit as 3
DDT area was virtually free of was also found (soo Table 3>. at
worms and it was difficult to find _ _ _ _ golm
even a stung fruit. At thinning time Téllllé 3- Cmlllllg Moth I¤.l¤l`l0S m H;
a wormy apple was very rarely en- Dil`l€l`€¤f Ports of Tl'€€S. All  
countered and the arsenate of lead Varieties Averaged Together. . Elmnq
plot was almost as clean. The sprays —·i -——— ~ ——— x A
Y . _ _ r Non-DDT Rcd
were continued at ten day to two ` DDT Program pmgram Son
week internals until late July. In- `? é,T"_qb" i`”q[" DDT
spections early in August uncovered iwormy Stung iwormyt Sturig
practically no worms at all and this . D   F'“‘* i_ Fran F'“" _ F'l"* ‘ Tl
continued until late in the month. Tm ` - H. U W 0 . 1- 4 Qual
However, when Grimes harvest got iiiliai.-O ih? ziji ilu · ii}; lar
under way late in August there was Hortoin Ji •¢.<> j 3.2 19.2 spla
a surprising number of tiny worms l ‘ lnni
entering the fruit in both the arse- _ _ _ lllg‘
nate—nicotine plot and the DDT area Dl$€¤s$lO¤ tuck
and another spray was decided upon, Excellent codling moth control greg
which was applied from August 29 was obtained using a small quantity was
to September 1. This effectively of DDT (six ounces of actual DDT lllgl
stopped the late worm attack and no per hundred gallons of material) in FF)
Table 2. Comparison of Codling Moth Injury to Apples in 1945 Spray Q that
U i www V i   Tests. _j gim
l ,7   ,, l lnjl1ries4pt·r too i flCU
Variety i llate·ri:lls   \\'oiFniy   Stiillg {Hum _ C
l‘lllll   l*l'll|l “_m_mS ' www `
Grimes Goldenilieail Arsenar•r-Nicotine only l l3.ll 25,o 17.11   35.0
__w_AW_ H M rtg l_ilifrVa·ltlt·ii 1::,o tsro t;.o Lli,0
Turley   ,,,_,_____ ||l,t·a¢] Arsellntt--Nil-otin4· only; is 17411 !•_t}   QT.2  .
*71**** i7*[mlf>rlr>il` rllllilrlj-'Q ` .3 6.22 ,5 TJ  
t 1 l 1 r ‘ T
Golden }l.ea'l` added ,N l 5,7 ‘ ,S l 6,0 .
·—~~-~#—r~-—~|——— A A ~ I 4 . ’  ` bee
Stayman  Il l>l>'l‘ zulileil I ;,l1 j t3_o , i - SEV
_   __ _, V l __ _ l _' l l
l 2

 combination with summer oil and have suffered considerable damage
e lead arsenate in the first brood and to the Elberta crop. Oriental moth
`- combined with fixed nicotine (14%) injury in a few orchards in western
Y in the second and third brood sprays. Kentucky has amounted to as much
ri This area produced the finest crop as 25 to 50 percent of the crop in
S of sound apples that has been grown some years from 1942 to 1945.
there since the orchard reached full An attempt was made in 1945 to
production. Very good control was see what control of oriental moth
also obtained where the arsenate of could be had under Kentucky condi-
lead and nicotine schedule was used tions with DDT. Driggers (1944), in
{ without DDT, but it is thought that New Jersey, had found that one
i the nearness to the check plot of the spray of DDT (Gesarol), using 1 `
i larger DDT sprayed area influenced pound of actual DDT to 100 gallons,
— results in the check plot perhaps by applied at inc beginning Of tnn.d_
] killing some adult m0thS that flew brood oriental moth larval entry_ re-
i into the DDT area from the check duccd Worm injury greatly
; plot. It is 8150 Umught that m?mY For this experiment a uniform
i adults entered the DDT block in mid block or young einem trees, in their
. to late August i`l`0m H lZ1_1‘g€. DODYIY sixth growing season, was selected
i sprayed block one-half mile south of in inc Bison and Sons Orchard at
— the test Dl0€k which WHS hffavlly 1¤· Ledbetter, Kentucky. This orchard
. tested with €0dl1¤g m0ll`¤- At any had suffered severe fruit injury in
. rate, the fact that the DDT ¤1`€3 WGS previous years and injured twigs
; clean OD August 8 amd WGS being were abundant in 1945. A latin
hard hit by the Chd Of Thi? m0¤th square was laid out using 5 replica-
` emphasizes the fad that Om? must tions each of 5 treatments. Each plot
bf? OD the 1¤¤k¤¤i Y0? it Worm OUV contained a single row of six trees
break up to harvest time, regardless and Each pint was Separated both
of ·th€ PFOEYMD u$€d- A blt YDOYB ways from adjacent plots by a buffer
f0l18g€ Bhd {Nui i`u$$€t IDJUYY row which received two nicotine
seemed to be present on the DDT iginck Leaf 155) _ Sulfur Sprays
areas: but this will doubtless VHYY identical with that used in Treat-
from year to year. Some European ment 5 (See Table I) Harvest
Red Mites developed late in the sea- Hinged {min 31., in 4 nusneis nel.
. son on a part of the trees in the ii.L.(._ '
DDT Plot- but caused D0 will lnlurl'- Two applications were made of
This test showed that a small each treatment. These were timed
quantity of DDT added to the regu- at one month and two weeks ahead
lar arsenate of lead and nicotine of harvest. respectively. Wettable
spray program and continued over sulfur or sulfur dust for the control
the season could give excellent codl- of brown rot was included on all
ing-moth control in western Ken- plots. The first application, on
tucky. As shown in Table 3 the July l0. was made in the after-
greater percentage of wormy apples noon of a clear, dry, warm, quiet
was found in the tops of trees. The day with a maximum tempera-
higher percentage of worms in ture of about 80°F. The second
Stayman fruits is thought to be due application, July 24 was made in
to the fact that that portion of the afternoon of a clear, very hot,
the orchard was not pruned as well rather humid, quiet day with a max-
as the Golden Delicious and Turley imum temperature of about l00°F.
— portions and was therefore more dif- Sprays were applied by two men rid-
ficult to spray well. ing non-stop on a platform behind a
tractor-drawn power take-off spray
ORIENTAL FRUIT MQTH rig, using single-nozzle guns with
rather large openings and operating
CONTROL at 500-600 pounds pressure. One side
. EXPERIMENTS IN 1945 of a plgt was sprayedtat a tame wifh ·
  a roun trip giving a wo-si e app 1-
W· D· ARMSTRONG and cation of all sprays and dusts. Dusts
P·O·RITCHER were applied with a small power
Though the oriental fruit moth rotary duster mounted on the
Grapholitha molesta (Busck) has sprayer. The foliage on the trees
been in Kentucky less than 20 years, was dense and very vigorous but the
‘ several commercial peach orchards trees were beginning to spread due

 to the heavy crop of fruit. The were taken. Counts were based ona havel
sprays were well-applied, but it was random picked sample of 200 Fruit l
thought that a bit more power was peaches, usually 100 fruits from each of goo
needed for fully satisfactory dust of trees 3 and 4 in the center of each seemel
applications. 6-tree plot. Where trees 3 and 4 have E
_ _ were not uniform or did not have a sect ir
Description of Treatments full crop, sornploo from adjacent . Nof
Treatment 1-Two DDT-sulfur trees in thc plot were substituted. fg jury w
sprays. July 10 application consisted No estimate of injury to drops was  1 terials
of 125 gallons of spray containing 4 possible because of the large number V. sect pl
pounds DuPont 25'Q DDT and 7 of pigs roaming the orchard. 0. was a
' pounds "Mike" (Dow) wettable sul- _` _ . - · `. all plc
nn. ner 1* deposit- hssh soirgewhat hi hs? had all fruit; the 5.
Treatment 2 —-Two DDT dusts been Cut g practil
following soon after two wettable ` ~ The
sulfur sprays. July 10 application 1 these
was 24 pounds of Gesarol A3 oil dust Table I—0ricntal Fruit Moth Con- L. treats.
g%e'%`gy;) ucontaining H3 percent fo'; trol Experiments Ledbetter,   of the
, o owing a su ur spray o - Y inc s
pounds of wettable sulfur per 100 Kentucky 1945 Y in the
gallons. July 24 application was 20 V V V NuVrnb}Vr‘ 0FiV¤VBtal M65? , Of Cl
pounds of Gesarol A5 dust contain- »l·l·snrn,n,.l {°f"“'*“ - "‘°"‘d "‘°°° : good ·
ing 5 percent of DDT following a sul- l anifn-ed Igdrliddnt p;:ri:t:¤lV ~ moth
fur spray of 8 pounds of wettable l rpg}., l‘n_»T"l i' ’ "|'“i`“ “"" . nicotil
sulfur. Sprays dried before dusting. sulflu·siu·aysi 1000 4.6 5.2 `j  vuhigh
Treatment 3—Two oil-sulfur dusts. 2 'P"¥,i’ PQ)? I ,  V. other
July 10 application was 45 pounds of ;; Hii{~.iullli'”tS| 1000 H"` H >·  wsrs
5 percent oil-sulfur dust (Yopp’s). sulfur lluszsl 1000 21.3 4.7 5 molly
July 24 application was 45 pounds 2* 2"‘}l_$¤lllll` ; 10 0 l
of Niagara oil-bentonite-sulfur dust. s jill.]? ”M’C,i l 0 2**6 3* ;
Treatment 4-Two sulfur sprays. nlcotins l G  Dril
July 10 application was 125 gallons il‘*_'V?f $¤‘f¤i°|  i of di
of spray containing 7 pounds of -—il"¥‘&e_;.·--l09Q. .J°4$.. ...D}r?,.  l (DDT
“Mike" wettable sulfur per 100 gal- . .  . moth.
lons. July 24 application was 125 Dlscussmn of Results  _;
gallons of spray containing 8 pounds Rgsults Of the 0 ·· _
of "Mike" wettable sulfur D€‘l` 100 marized in Tablg)? 1lgl0i§t1`i;ii§/Lid; ¥ SUGl
gallons. Treatment 4, sulfur sprays were  
Treatment 5—'l`wo fixed nicotine considered snsslr plots. Tasks noo  . DD'
(Block Leaf 155>-sulfur sprays- July ins heaviest loss with 23.6 percent  i oss lr
10 application wes 125 gallons of ofthe fruit lnjnrsol. rrlross receiving . amou
spray containing 7 pounds of "Mike" oil-sulfur dusts were only slightly  i many
wettable sulfur end 3 pounds of the oslnna lhs snssir plots, with 21.3   lt cvs
14 Defeellt fixed ¤lQ0'tll}€ Def 100 percent ofthe fruit injured by orion- ..  is sti
gau0¤S· July 24 ¤DDl1€81l0ll Was 106 tal moth. Best control was had in 1 DDT
sonic except that it included 8 the DDT spray plots where only   form
Pounds of the wettable Sulfur- 4.6 percent of the fruit was injured e must
On August 1 ell plots and buffer by oriental moth. rns 1:>m~-dust   growl
YOWS received on additional sulfur plots gave much poorer control with  V on ju
dust for brdwnddt Condo]- l4.51percent of the fruit injured.   gontr
_ Fair y good control was obtained in   orme
Method of Samldlmg the fixed nicotine plots where 9.8   Some
Counts were made August 7 and 8 percent of the fruit was damaged. -.  Grl
to determine the percentages of in- Records were kept as to fruit size,   do wl
jured fruits in each of the twenty- color and maturity, but no great dif-   insec
five plots. At this time harvest was ferences showed up on the various   uctst
well under way in the whole orchard plots. The oil-sulfur plots had   ily tk
but of course no fruits had been slightly more mature fruit of high sg table
picked from the plots before samples color, at least part of which, may   50 pl
. 4 <·

 H have been due to the insect injury. solved in highly refined oil is for
00 Fruit on the DDT-sprayed plots was household use). In all cases use
Yh of good size and medium color but your material according to the
Th seemed slightly immature. This may manufacturer’s direction and be
4 have been due to the absence of in- sure the DDT content is stated on
il sect injuries. the container.
nt No foliage or any other kind of in- There is no good reason for using
d. . jury was noticed from any of the ma- DDT sprays on early varieties of
as terials used, nor did any other in- fruit. Growers using DDT are ad-
BY sect pests increase noticeably. There vised to try it only on August varie-
was a small amount of cat—facing in ties of peaches and on late varieties
St all plots and, as was to be expected of apples. It should be kept in mind
,11 {mm the lateness of the applications, that DDT kills beneficial insects and
ut little or no reduction in injury from often allows other injurious pests to
ut ` the various treatments resulted. multiply unchecked, after spraying
y_ Only two peaches injured by plum is discontinued. Do not use DDT near .
,·€ . curculio were found in examining blooming time, because of danger to
ts the 5,000 peaches, and there was bees.
practically no brown rot.
The owners of the orchard where APPR SDNY Schedules
these experiments were made Repeated tests by the USDA and
a' treated a large part of the remainder various states, including Kentucky,
of the orchard with two fixed nico- have shown that DDT is very effec-
tine sprays, similar to Treatment 5 tive in controlling codling moth
-. in the tests, and also sprayed a block when added to an arsenate of lead
of Champions with DDT. Quite program or to a fixed nicotine pro-
, good commercial control of oriental gram or used alone. By combining
if moth was secured where the fixed DDT with other insecticides, reduced
nicotine was used. The Champions, amounts of all materials can be used.
( which had been wormier than any Straight DDT apple schedule. Use
" other variety in previous years, same material for calyx and first
were practically free of oriental cover spray as formerly—4 pounds
moth. lead arsenate, 4 pounds lime, 6
_ _ _ pounds wettable sulfur per 100 gal-
Llterature Cried lons. In second, third and fourth
Driggers, B. F. 1942. Performance cover sprays use 1 pound actual DDT
` of dichlordiphenyl trichloroethane (equals 4 pounds of 25% DDT or 2
4* ; (DDT) used against the oriental fruit pounds of 50% DDT spray material),
V. moth. Jour. Econ. Ent. 37 (1):120-121. 2 ounces of lime, 2 ounces of soy-
bean flour, and 1 quart of summer
1- ` SUGGESTIONS ON THE USE oil per_ 100 gallons. Use wettable
g OF DDT sulfur 1n_second cover 1f scab con-
‘€ trol is still needed, but do not use
d DDT will be available for general summer oil with sulfur. Earlier cover
it use in 1946 By reason of the great sprays with DDT can be 10 days
g amount of publicity it has received, apart and later ones l2 to 14 days
y _ many fruit growers will use some of apart. Begin second-brood sprays in
3   it even though its use on fruit trees mid to late June, in western Ken-
.- ‘ is still in the experimental stage. tucky, using % pound actual DDT
n DDT should not be expected to per- per 100 gallons and the same other
y ·· form miracles. For best results it materials as above. Use 2 or 3 sprays
d ‘ must be applied thoroughly, and at 2 or 3 week intervals depending
at growers will find it necessary to put upon codling moth severity. Add
h on just as many sprays of DDT to bordeaux mixture as needed for con-
1. control codling moth as they did trol of bitter rot.
n formerly with lead arsenate—and Combination lead arsenate, fixed .
8 = sometimes more. nicotine, DDT schedule. Starting
-j Growers planning to use DDT will with second-cover spray, apply the
3, . do well to buy products of a reliable following at 10-day intervals: Sec-
— - insecticide company and favor prod- ond and third covers-4 pounds lead
S ucts tested on fruit insects. Ordinar- arsenate, 2 pounds lime, 6 ounces
cl ily the best material to use is a wet- actual DDT per 100 gallons. Fourth
h table DDT powder containing 20 to and fifth covers—2A pounds lead
y 50 percent actual DDT (DDT dis- arsenate, 2 pounds lime, 6 ounces
4 5

 actual DDT per 100 gallons. Use problem that exists in much of Ken-
three second-brood sprays applied tucky. In most cases, because of the The
at 2 to 3 week intervals-6 ounces height or the dense foliage of the men of
actual DDT, 2 pounds fixed nicotine tree, it is virtually impossible to adioini
(14%), 2 ounces soybean flour, and spray adequately a mature apple trcc tucky's
_ tg quart summer oil per 100 gallons. that has not been pruned for a num. with tl
(If bordeaux mixture is needed for ber of years. what s
bitter-rot control substitute boi`- In an attempt to aascmble Same of should
deaux plus —·i pound actual DDT lor the hotter thoughts an apple n,·un_ _ too tal
the above SP‘?‘YS)· lllth lhls SCh°' ing, a leading horticulturist in thr . well-
dule an_ additional spray is usually Extensioll Sm-vice ax- the Exncn . lack of
¤€€d€d m western Kentucky late m ment Station in most of the states _ lml Sh'
August, for control of third-brood bordering Kcntncky was asked {0,. D i·\lsoéft
“’0¤`m$- his ideas on pruning of mature _ 0 l` il'
Cautions. Growers using DDT apple trees. The men contacted ‘ Sllakcn
· SDFHY D1`0g1‘HmS 011 ¤Dl>l€S should b€ were: Professor Frank Beach, Ohio; · l>F¤ll$€`€
on the lookout for an increase in Professor A. H. Teske, Virginia; Dr, · mg “`°
mites and realize that late sprays for N. D. Peacock, Tennessee; Professor I l>00l`l>"
mite control may be needed. To J. R. Cooper, Arkansas; Professor \\'_ K €0lll°,l'
avoid excessive residues of DDT at R, Martin, Jr., Missouri; Dr. V, \\’_ Q himlilll
harviegt, any very late mite spray Kelley, Illinois, and Professor C. L. I Clullltill
Sh0u be 6 QUHFIS of Sllmméf oi DGP Burkholder of Indiana. The pruning ¤ PVC Y
100 gallons or one of the dinitro ideas of these men were in general Q UlO"€d·
products may be used. agreement and the high points of l>_““"
Peach Spray Schedules their replies are about as follows;  
Dgggpyggsng;€g;_>¤;;¤1O;;;iie¤}j;g}ng;; is 1;r€E‘i¤};2¥2;E§‘“i {if O°l—a%?“{Z$SLL.2; r gigggg
for mist rm mar mroi. use ;,h;,;ggg§5;;f§g{g€$¤§*;,*;*,;¤§,,¤;,g;·¢;,l;; n ri—¤~~;§i
of DDT where beneficial parasites nge anus, .,,Ow··. but do not m,C,_dO . <`€m$l (
such as Macrocentrus ancylivorus this J g ‘ .; \'l{€;§VO;
. - - · · . p. s
gclgisvgkilelssin\eiHDl?§'l`aid1d;i1r€ci§*slspalggi t 2· Same ¤>{}¤¤i¤s ¤ff¤¤¤¤;¤‘¢ <¤¤;¤l<· 1 
- rees over ayearso age isa so-  - , .
Sues] lutely necessary but do just as little J  NEW
pO3;1g’g3{la{ué’]gl}I_ sggcgggiindgsaetl as possible to get the desired results. I  A
table Sum pe 100 ellone Apply atc? r§?a§2?é`° Oil°i§€i?RL‘i» ‘3u§l?€f  · ..§5‘i»§.
3§§i¤“§°T$§`€kZhF§21r.°ii Efiétiiii im; large Clem S¤¤¤d; W¤ll·¢¤l<>i‘¤<§ S ¤h¤mi<
problem add lead arsenate to the fum than t" posslblb ha`? m°YY“ r f8l"l`C¤
ara spray. If brown rot is reared, bushels <>f.S¤¤¤1l¢¤. ROOF-9l<2¤¤d· i¤· r me E
use additional sulfur sprays or dusts. BC? gigcglsggiilglluggd tglggéd and r izggx
opened up enough to permit all-over $ functic
DQIATUREI ‘?hPPLE _PRliNU`iG spaiayinrghwith   equipment avail-   and pr
n genera, e pruning o ma ure a e. is pom was s resse es- ; t e tr
apple trees has com; in for consid- pecially where codling moth and  A groivei
erable discussion an argument dur- scab are factors.) `  Som
ing the last few years. It is generally 5. Pruning can well be done every   Fern
accepted that severe pruning results other year if not convenient each , fluffy
in smaller trees and smaller yields, year. Many growers do this. In gen- j to hav
but larger fruits and better control eral, the pruning seems to do most _ cffceti
of insects and diseases. No pruning good just ahead of the heavy crop = blotch.
has often resulted in larger trees, year. g troubl·
higher yields of smaller, lower qual- 6. Very low limbs, drooping, hang- f cult tr
ity fruit and in severe insect and ing, shaded—out, thin, fruited-out v_  becam
disease losses in many problem wood on the inside of trees; excess V-C useful
orchards. In general, moderate to water sprouts; and very high limbs apple
light pruning seems to be favored. should be removed. aid in
Some pruning experiments further 7. During the war years apple r _ Of s
north have shown higher yields and pruning has been neglected due to _ is the
profits for non-pruned or very the labor shortage and many mature media
lightly pruned trees, but those states trees are now badly in need of clean- . In th
do not have the severe codling moth ing up. Sprays
` 6

hr The above suggestions come from wettable sulfur since this material
he men of long fruit experience in areas cannot be mixed with summer oil
to adjoining and comparable to Ken- and should not be used closer than
rec tucky’s apple sections and are in line 10 days or 2 weeks ahead of summer
m- _ with the general Kentucky idea of oil.
what should be done. Each grower Also, fermate can be used with
Og should know whether his trees are fixed nicotine sprays without releas-
m. too tall or too thick to be sprayed ing the nicotine, and this provides
im well. In fact. his recentsuccess or bitter-rot protection where needed
.,.i_ lack of it in insect and disease con- by those using a nicotine program.
{CS trol should tcllghim a lot about this. Fermate can also be used as a fungi-
{0,. Also. fruit that is too high for pickers eide with DDT,
HC I to reach ntaboge 2% feet) is Sfgcin All in all. fermate seems to be a
[ shaken o an en s up as a y very useful new material that can
li? bruised drops. By studying his fruit- fit in many special places. During
Dri lng wood and knowing that small. the war the supply was very limited
50,. poorly-colored apples, or none at all, but the information now is that sup-
W come from the small. slender, shaded. plies will be ample in 1946.
wi hlariging and fruitted-out wood that pumtjzed is another Vcry ngvrir
L_ C U GI`5 UD IIVIUY I`€€$- §iI`0W•i‘I`$ (Tim and very powerful fungicide that has
lng l>I`€lT)` well tell "V_ll3l II¤<‘dS to be _Y‘?· given outstanding results in limited
[.8] moved. \‘-'hcrc f81I`ly ll€3\'y'DI`UT)1¤8 apple spray tests and further tests
of is needed to correct had situations and USC vigil] bc vyatchcd with gn-
. this should be delayed until mid- rgmsy
A February or early l\larch to avoid · · - . _
`CC » danger of winter, injury to freshly ucggggi lgagngcgglgicuiigmgsggoil
ice ·   Each Kentucky apple i . ` · ~ Z _
lkg Pluneil Uftzd d V .1 - _, l_ the doimant spray. it helps to de
[hg ‘ g’O“_§‘L _“   *   _t_(? lS?‘“éu$} stroy certain aphls eggs on the trees.
.dO Cfmsl Cl} (_ “?°‘“ I¤i··t5¤I=I fm 1* It has also been used as a blossom
V new his piuning program in com- gpm}. to thm Off a part Of heavy
ll V Dawson bloom to thin the crop or to spray off
EJ a whole crop wherethat is desirable.
at I NEW THINGS IN DISEASE l?Jg?"f;"%§.ifi.ill?2.,L?3r‘E»"‘£?f‘$l}»tE**Q$5
_ ’ Y r < < — . r~ > <
hi ` AAD PEST CONTROL concerned. however. is   a ground
ive § Just as DDT is opening up a whole spray for the control of apple scab.
tty. [ new field in insect control. other new As is well known. apple scab lives
red   chemicals and fungicides are making over winter on the old fallen apple
gre far-reaching changes in plant dis- leaves on the ground. In the early
III- ‘ ease and pest control. even if in spring. scab spore producing per-
somewhat less flashy ways. An im- ithecia develop on these leaves and
ind portant part of this publication`s these spores in turn are discharged
ver function is to mention new materials and float about in the air to infect
1il- 5 alnd practices even while they are in the young tender foliage. It hzilbefit
GS- tc trial stage so that Kentucky found that I; percent ngeo
md   gl`O\\`Cl`S can have more facts. sprayed over these old apple l€€t\`€S
 — Some new materials are: in the very early spring will kill the
EFX Fermate—a new fungicide. a black scalp spore producing perithecia that
1ClI fluffy powder that has been found are covered and. hence. g1‘eHllY Y0-
cn- to have many uses. It is especially duce the crop of spores that are pro-
ost effective in the control of apple duced to infect the new apple leaves
iop blotch, cedar and quince rust. and young fruits. lt takes from 300
tI‘0ubles that have been very diffi- to 500 gallons of this spray per HOPE
ng- _ cult to control until this material to give an effective ground spray
out ‘ became available. Fcrmate also is and while one cannot depend on that ·
css useful in the control program for alone to control scab. it does cut
abs apcple scab and is mentioned as an down the innoculationlto the poipt
ai in bitter-rot control. where scab can be muci more easi y
DF _   Special interest about formate controlled bylthe usual slgfng sjprays
0 is e fact that it can be used im- or even one ess spray. so. y ro-
.1re lnediately before or with summer oil ducing the scab attacks with a
an- in thc very early codling-moth ground spray it is possible theirto
‘ sprays, where late scab protection is control scab m ore s u rely with
needed. This could not be done with the milder sulfur sprays which are
. l
..   -* - . , ,r

 known to be less caustic to foliage In fact, it is doubtful if any other
and cause less injury than the potent fruit would succeed so well with so *
lime sulfur, long in use. Where much little care. From this, one could con- `
of this "ground spraying" is to be clude that except for the blight, _
done a special boom is recommended. pears are adapted to our climate and ,
These can be home made with one that what we need is a pear as resist- .» '
foot joints of three-fourths inch pipe ant to disease as Kieffer and as good
screwed together with nozzels every as Bartlett. It seems reasonable to »
foot and attached to the rear of the believe that such a variety could be . ..
spray machine so that a broad strip found. The Kentucky Agricultural 1
can be sprayed by this ground boom Experiment Station started a pro- , A
while the spray tank is driven be- ject with this objective in 1944. In- P
tween the trees. This "ground spray" corporated with this is a test planting
development has now been tried of seedlings and new varieties re- K
long enough to establish the fact that ported to combine blight resistance Ci
it has definite merit in the scab- and good quality. Nineteen selections ` M
control program and should be a have been included in the test so far, A ,_,.
great help to many Kentucky grow- As soon as a variety appears to be _ J,
ers who have had such serious scab reasonably promising. tost troos will ia
losses in recent years. be grown in representative areas of  I in
vvccd Km€,.S_Th€,.€ are a $8,.,85 the state where its merit can be de-  2 D,
of new chemicals now on the market t€I`mm°d· i` sn
that will kill many kinds of weeds It should be pointed out that trees g W
and plant pests. Some of these will of unknown origin (often chance Y  P
kill poison ivy and there are many seedling) that possess desirable char- i if
Kentucky apple orchards seriously actcristics are to be found occasion- ; D
infested with poison ivy where these ally on old farmsteads. Such trees i D
materials could well be used. Some should be tested and introduced to  ¤ P
other very interesting weed killers the public if worthy, for otherwise a j ll
can be sprayed on bluegrass lawns valuable variety may be lost. If you ii
and will kill all sorts of weeds and know of a pear tree of this character. ~
dandelions and not injure the grass the Experiment Station will appre- S
in any way. Likewise, certain of ciate information about it and will F
these selective weed killers can be be glad to propagate it and add it to ii
sprayed in young fields of onions, the test planting. · P
carrgts anéi peas and will kill all the  ` E
wee s an grass and not injure the , ,
crops being grown. Needless to say, HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS il
these developments are of great im- By W. W. MAG