xt7vx05x8270 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7vx05x8270/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1933 journals kaes_circulars_001_4_184_02 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 184 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 184 1933 2014 true xt7vx05x8270 section xt7vx05x8270 E U 1. i
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Extension Division i-{1
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director I · i  
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_` — - ` V i  
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CIRCULAR NO. 184 I _ _  
(REVISED) *· V . `  
Lexington, Ky.  
June, was  
——— Y  
l"ublislied in connection with the zigrioulturzil extension work carried  
Oli by cooperation of the College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky,  
with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and distributed in further-  
Mite of the work provided for in the Act of Congress of May S, 1914.  

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CIRCULAR NO. 184 ' l   -   _ 3
¤  lmavnseo) · Z l 1 il i i  
Q Color and Its Application to Dress A l ; _   i
  By :sABei.i.E M. sronv i ~ §
Revised by MARY PURCELL _ I  
Q  Color is a quality belonging to everything we can see. It l V I " l V »    
Q contributes largely to the beauty or ugliness of an object, and li. 4· Q . · ‘l
  thereby helps to determine whether or not one likes it. A color   _ i '  
if which is interesting or pretty in itself may be combined with   ` i · U V;. .   
{ other colors in sucl1 a way as to produce a displeasing effect. — `·_ `   _§
i E  The colors of our clothing and house furnishings usually are p , l ,i   ' p w fbi
  those of our choice, and speak for or against our good taste in ·, ‘ . · i _>${
  such matters. We should, therefore, endeavor to use colors so i l '. ~ l ` ` _  
  as to secure pleasing and harmonious effects. i   l
  The costume designer recognizes five principal. colors: Yel— ifi
  low, green, blue, purple and red. lf these are arranged in  
a circle in the order in which they appear in the rainbow, we l    
 _ have what is called a color circle. _  
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. Fig. 1, Color Circle. z i?
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  4 Iientzicky E1JJll(%’I?-S"l·O7l Circular N0. 184 i
  -*5 ‘ .
p _   i COLOR CIRCLE ·
  A complete color circle is a continuous ring of color in which
    y ‘ each principal color blends evenly into the colors which are next
    y to it. Colors at any two points directly opposite on this circle .
    . p are called complementary colors.
i_   '. _ Half way between the principal colors on the circle are V
  °   i colors which are made by blending equal amounts of two princi-
  I   A pal colors. These are called secondary colors. They are: Yel-
    ` low-green, green-blue, blue-purple, purple-red, and red-yellow.
yi?  V Each principal color has for its coniplement one of these second-
  ifl T . ary colors. The five pairs of complements thus formed are;
ii  ` 4
§ » Yellow and Blue-purple i
ie ‘~ j- i Green and Purple-red 1
i   - i Blue and Red—ye1l0w `
in ‘i‘_ ki]. Purple and Yellow-green `
g 7 Q-L1 .- V ` ~ Red and Green-blue i
  ` A color has tln·ee qualities, called dimensions. by which it is i
Q   T ~ '_ A distinguished from other colors. These qualities are, Hue,
  »   ‘ Value and Chroma. V
  · ··—· Qt _ · _ _
  if Hue is the quality described by the name of the color. as
j   l blue, red, yellow, and so on.
I     V V clue is the quality by which we distinguish a light color
{     from a dark one. It ranges in any color from white at one ex-
  i treme to black at the other. Values of colors are called "tints"
li`;. ``‘'· _ " and "shades." Used correctly, a shade is a dark value and H
L.   l * . . . . . .
  sill ~ tint is a light value. Cream is a tint of yellow, navy is a shad0
i_   i · of blue. -
  " C'l1r0ima. or intensity is the quality by which we distinguish _ .
  _ a strong color from a weak one. It refers to the intensity Of
  V the hue or departure from gray. Any color, light or dark, IIIHY
  ‘ vary in chroma from the most intense of that value to a iiciit-ral  _
  .· The qualities of a color are modified by the colors which MG
{ `-,1, . V ' I ·
  near it. For example, when green is placed by the side of pu1‘pi€ ·
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Color and Its ielpplicoiien to Dress 5 ‘ ‘ ` Q  
. it i I ;
the green will appear more yellow and the purple more red. · _ i ·  
ich p Coinplementary colors appear stronger, or more intense, when · p ‘ 4      
ext . placed side by side. . p A A ‘ i  
·cle  r When complementary colors are mixed or blended, as with Q A i · A   A;
ll  paints or by the overlapping of thin materials, they neutralize i i `   j
are  t each other. producing gray or gray color, the chroma depend- A ’ ,_ i Q
ici- ’ ing upon the proportions used. I   Y  
rel- ° A color placed near or on black will appear. clearer and _ A · _    
uw. briglitcr. · “_ ` "   T ‘~    
id- A color used with white will appear darker and duller. ·' I ‘ ~ l  
*`  " A. l A ' l I. Y
  (`olors in which red and yellow predominate give a feeling   ` T · `_ _   
l of warmth; the more brilliant the color the warmer it appears A ~ p K A    
` ` to bc. p ‘ ( it ` p A {Zigi
  t'olors in which blue predominates give the impression of y »  
  coolness. ` ' ~ ` Z  
· jg   All brilliant colors are stimulating and seem to thrust them- T  
my   selves forward. This is especially true of the narm colors. For p  
 V this reason they are called advancing colors.  
as 1  The dark or neutral shades of a color, especially of the cool `  
colors. are called receding colors because they make an object . tail
lm -_  so colored appear to be farther away. . , ‘t  
B? ~ cocoa i-iARivi0Nv » ' it `  
ra A \\'ben colors are combined inla wiay that produces pleasing p t  
de and harnionions eltects the combination is called a color har- J  
l llltill}'. Six simple color ll&ll'l1101llt*S 211*0:  
V A Alle ’ H> red-yellow (orangel and blue. `  

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F ._.  ll 6 Iremfucky Extemslzon Cercular N0. 184 —
Y   A split complementary harmony differs from a simple com-  V
  pjl " plementary harmony in that several colors, or at least two
T ‘ _|
s gl . , colors, com Jlemcnt one color. Red- fellow and *ellow—red or fl
1- · . l l
    combination of colors between these on the color wheel com-  l
fj? i`e_  ll · plement blue. This is an example of a split complementary  _
f   — l harmony. ·
    A triad harmony in which three colors which are equidis-
y ·     - V tant on the color circle are combined together. An example of .
  1 _ ’l ‘ a triad harmony is red-purple, green—blue and yellow.
  Combination of color harmonies. In printed dress mate- _
    _ . T p rials, cretonnes or chintzes one does not find a one-color harm-
l ' ··e_ I ony, a neighboring harmony or a complementary always used ,
    T alone. Pleasing results may be obtained by combining two or _
,   ·__. lp ` three of these harmonies together. -
  l ' Color balance and proportion. A color harmony should ·
l,_Q·=;-_;, have variety, contrast, accent and balance. These may be at- »
=`r · ` l, ~ ‘· . .
1  l, _ tained bv t.he use of different colors values chromas and areas.
. U L; i • 7 7
5 » ~ .e.. . • l
i· ?*_ _—ll . ‘
  ’  gl _ Some contrast in value should always be present.
    , A small area of a bright color will balance a large area of
I   . M a. dull or neutral color and give accent.
l_ i¥`*i A A A small area of a light color will balance a large area of a
    i . dark color, or a small a1·ea of a dark color will balance a large
l   ' p area of light color.
  ,·.-all A ·‘ Equal areas of two colors diifering greatly in value and
l   _ chroma produce a displeasing eltect because they lack balance.
    l· The more nearly two colors approach each other in value
    _ and chroma the more nearly their areas may be the same. A
“‘ ‘ V . . .
  Vllhen three or more colors are used together then· areas
  T should decrease relatively; that is, there should be a la1‘Q§€ —
 il amount of one, a much smaller amount of another, and a VGYY
  small amount of another. ,
 ji I The brightest colors in a costume should be confined to fllfi
    smaller areas.
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T T t ll i
T Color and Its Application to Dress 7 ‘ i T T `   ,
. T ` 2 V i  
,0m_ PERSONAL c0LOR|NG. T , M ‘ A  A,
two The skin is the ilirst consideration in the selection of be- _ y · , Q .· , l  
n` tl Coming colors. Both its color and texture must be studied and , T i ‘ T ' i  
Xml  i colors selected that emphasize or subdue its qualities, according pi V · V A   A
ml`), i to the need. ` _ = A _ if  
, _ " The color of the skin includes, on the color circle, yellow 4 " .   ’
All of the sallow complexion, red-orange or red of the florid bru- i A . _    
Q of J ncttc_ and pink of the blonde. There is always, too, a fore- ·, _ , . __   ,~:  
ground coloring which consists of rosy tints of the lips and i , T , I   ,4 E ,
Hm  T cheeks and the brown or tan of freckles. Skin shadows are _   . .,    
TVN} found about the nostrils, eyes and mouth. They may be brown-   ` · i ,  
Tx   ish, gi-ayish or purplish, depending upon the general skin tone i i V T y    
i of the individual. All these qualities must be considered if   · ` I ,  l
mm A   one would select the most becoming; colors. ii , -     ’ 4 li; 
3, , Color qualities of the skin may be empliasixed in two ways; n ·, A l  
Cas, by repetition and by contrast. The complement. of a color offers l , i i ,  
Y the extreme of contrast and emphasis that color in the skin,  
K desirable or undesirable. Yellow-green and drab colors are s  
- similar in quality to a sallow complexion and emphasize it by  
repetition, while purple and blue—purple are the complements' V  
mf of these colors and emphasize by contrast. Blue—green is the A p ' T  
i complemeiit. of red and emphasizes the red or pink of the skin, ' ‘    
)f tl i while green, especially of a yellowish tinge, emphasizes the plll'- , »  
1`QJC · plish complexion. T    
md Types of Coloring. It is impossible to classify individuals .`  
T ` with reference to particular types aud then give a deliuite list  
m` of colors that may or may not be worn by each, because of the p P  
[hm _ Wide variation of colors found in the eoinplexiou. hair and eyes -  
, and their coiubination in different individuals. The safest way , ; , i  
eas . to determine which colors are becoming and which are not is I.  
1'§€ to TIT Various colors next to the face. Certain generalizations ._  
ery may be made, however, which will be helpful to the average  
llldlyidllal in selecting colors for her Cloillillg. i ·  
tht? Four general types arc; The blonde, the brunette. the red- ,  
. haired and the white-haired woman. i i  
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_   8 Ircntuelm Ewtcnslon Cwcular N0. 184
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ii ·;2
,_   , VVithin each of these four types there is a wide variation »
    in skin coloring. Some may have a very clear complexion,
l` —   ` 11 Others may have a very sallow c0111pl€Xl0D, Bild still 0'£l1CI'S may
  F have a. great deal of red in their skin coloring which may mako .
;1 1   1 the complexion appear tlorid. Those 111 any of the four typos
;_   1 . who have a clear complexion will find they have a wider choice
  all 1 of colors than those whose skin colorin is definite] sallow or
. ,1 Y
  il U florid.
  , Persons whose skin is deiinitely sallow or those who have
QQ., _ 1no1·e yellow than red in their skin coloring will tind that colors ,
' *='! . . . . . ,
3   1 . which emphasize the yellow lll their skin tones are unbecommg,
t J “; ` '
E Q Thus yellow, yellow-green a11d blue—purple are generally con—
  Y_¥‘,, ‘ “ ceded to be poor color choices for these people. Red-yellow,
f . ‘‘.· 51. because it is ayt to brine out red rather than yellow tones in
  V, l D ·
=   X ' the skin coloring usually is becoming, as are blue, green-blne
  , and reen. Black 1S cnerallv a voor color choice for >ersons
t—   . ,_ .. 1 1
E   1 with a sallow complexion.
· -~`, 111.*i ’ . . . . .
  SS,  , lt 1s generally becoming tor tl1ose with a clear Sl(lH or those ·
Q1  11 wl1o have more red than yellow i11 their skin coloring.
  »` l i - . . . . 1
; . ·   , Those who have more red than yellow 1n their skin coloring
    _ will nnd that colo1·s which bring out tl1e red in their skin are
  to be avoided. Dull colors and those of medium value in thc
  =- ’
1   · 1 hues which are becoming, will be tl1e wisest choice. 1
  1 The white o1· gray-haired woman of mature years may have
1   a sallow com 1lexion with 110 eoloriney or a fair com lexion with
, i _, _, l D.
l l`_r,,,• 1 1 slight or good coloring. As a 1·ule, colors which have been worn
ii   l satisfactorily in }'OlllTil may be wor11 in advanced years, provided
’ {fs ‘· . . . _
  ,, they are grayed to keep pace \\'1’[ll the increasing amount of gra} i
  · ».·i..   in the hair. For exan1ple, the bright brow11 which is becoming ,
l   · , T to the young woman with fresh, brilliant skin and auburn hall'
s?   will be altogether unsuited to her when both skin and hair haw
EE‘2lii" faded. so must. be ‘l'l'&l\'(‘(l to a dullness in harmon r with them. .
F,. f ,_ V Z3 a
  The sallow gray-haired woman will find her best color lll
  · midnight and navy blues, warm grays, dull purple, or dllll
    shades ot red, but in each instance the efteet is best it rehexed
  by cream at the throat.
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i T
Color and Its A pplicatioiz to .Dress 9 l G , i_ y i   {
I 1
ltl0ll G The white-haired wo1nan with fair complexion is best in ' T T  
xiou, soft pastel colors, and should avoid all colors in their full in- . , T ` l   ` ·    
may t€uSi1;y_ She should look to old rose, heliotrope, dark, dull pur— T T l   G    
mike  ` ples, dull old-blue, midnight blue, silver gray, or dark green f i I T   i
VYP€$ for her colors, and select those which best suit. her individual , l T ·   l
mlm F qualities. She 1nay also wear black if a creamy, thin material i` i ·_,
W OP is worn next to the face. V _ T l  
have y The Hem-. The various colors of human hair may be repre- l T · ,· AI TT ,   y
Ulm sented by different values and chromas of yellow and orange. ’ T T V    
mg. . Black hair is really a very dark brown. Red hair is a shade of T T f p ` gl T    
cm, f orange rather than of red. Gray, or white hair is due to a loss   . y   tj
HOW, of color. As gray appears in the hair less intense colors should ,_ i i _   -   
ls in   be worn, in order to avoid harsh contrasts and to make the gray , , `i· _  
lylml T  T of the hair less noticeable. Brown and yellow are always try- T · i   T T i " if
sous . ing to yellow hair, since they are apt to make it appear dull and y V I , `  
G faded. Blue, which is the complement of yellow, makes yellow . 4  
Those i hair appear at its best. Dark or middle value colors are more l ‘aii {  
T satisfactory with black hair than lighter values which make a;  
,,.1,,;, T stronger contrast. Green makes red hair appear redder, while l .  
[ are blue emphasizes the yellow in it. V  
l lim The Eyes. The range of colors found in the eyes includes , ,   lat
tints and shades of practically every color in the color circle and  
have ·_ rarics more than that of either the complexion or hair. Black I TT G  
with _ eyes are really a dark brown, and may be either yellowish or , G T  
Tl’01`ll orange in tinge, while brown eyes are higher values of the same ' T  
Tidel hues. Blue eyes may vary in hue from that of the violet tint to l  
%'l`*‘Y greenish, and in chroma from an almost neutral gray to deep T p T  
mllll   blue. Hazel eyes are made up of tlecks of blue, green and violet, , ,  
lm y and appear to be either blue, green, or violet, according to A i i -  
haw Wllieh of these colors is placed near them. Eyes of light COlO1‘    
"‘“· HP0 apt to appear weak and faded by the side oi? intense colors. 4  
lr ill _ To Strengthen the blue of the eyes and make it appear tleepef, T _ { ·
dllll li blue of the same general tone. as the eyes, but a little d£11‘l<€1‘  
evell g Sllllllld be worn. A sti-and of beads or a small area of trimlllillg i e
will suffice for this purpose.  

 . · a _ ~ t
    10 Jfezztzcclgzy ]JJ.'[GIZSl'O7'li Circular N0. 184
L ’ l
    Bright colors may be worn by the young and vivacious whose
    l coloring is good, but should be avoided by the mature woman l
  V They make a faded coloring appear more faded, and at the same L_
    » i i time detract from the dignity which a woman of advancing
      p ` years should cultivate. Small children may appropriately dress
    p p p in bright colors, because of their size and activity. The infant,
    · tho small, is inactive, therefore bright colors are inappropriate i
  wi * T to it. -
l.“Z.~ `
    A . Large persons, regardless of age, should wear subdued
  -°€*L colors, since bright colors increase apparent size. In nature
  ‘-‘- { T we find birds, bees and small insects in brilliant coloring, but ’
i T;_;_ the elephant and hippopotamus are taupc. Black decreases, ‘
{-I   _ }‘ size, but white increases it. I
  T I
E}     . Often colors which are rich and beautiful in one fabric ap-
    L N T pear harsh and cheap in another. Broadcloth, velvet and other
    I napped surfaces give a rich, deep color, but serge, Indian head
  I i and other plain, hard—weave materials give less interesting
  i eifects. Silk and rayon, especially in the satin weave, make all
Q   ’ it   colors appear more intense.
    . Light, delicate, or intense colors are suitable for evening
    l _ wear, bright colors for sports wear, but dark or neutral colors
    , are more appropriate for street, travel, or office. House dresses .
 ._  I may be of any color that is becoming to the wearer and launders _
  . , well. VVarm colors suggest warmth and are appropriate for
  wear on- cold, drab days. White and cool colors are best for
  warm, bright days. _
  ¤vE1 NG
  ` Many discarded garments can be given new usefulness by
  the application of dye. Select the kind of dye best suited to
  your materials. Some dye companies have placed on the H1a1`· i
ll `

 .` ‘ 1].23
. f A r
A Color and Its Application to Dress 11 ` · l    
A · . l at
` keg dyes which are to be used only for wool and silk, other , — p,      
YIIOSQ  ` dyes may be usedl equally well on all fibers. , — it y ~ ,··§
mm' _.  The color wheel 1nay be an aid in home dyeing, A l · A    
11];; ° Complementary colors, or those which are directly oppo- l f : l _    
hw  g site to each other on the color wheel, when put into a solution ·~ p gp
fam p in a dye bath or when top—dyed over·each other- gray or soften p , I _ I  
mm 1 each other.- IA bright blue dress might have its color dulled % 4 V p_ 1     ·__`,’ ,
by the addition of its complementary color, orange, in the dye . Y ' —. _ [ ,
A bath. ` , ` lil
ined i . . " i·· ,` C r A l l
hm  r When colors which are neighbors to each other on the color   V · { p,}
but *1  wheel are put into solution they blend together and form a new I L. r ¤ · J. l i  
MOS   color. p .g ‘  [T lil
’ , . Yellow plus blue produces green. T j ~ * ,  
L Yellow plus green produces yellow-green. A ,i AI _ V _  
i Yellow plus red produces orange. e l V ·_ ,  [Qs
.· Blue plus green produces blue-green. r '  lv.l    
Will-   Blue plus red produces purple.  
·ill€1' V Blue plus purple produces blue-purple. A  
head · Red plus orange produces red-orange. _ {Qi  
lling Yellow plus orange produces yellow-orange. _  
c all vi Yellow plus brown produces golden brown. _ -, Y  
Always test the color to determine if it- is the one desired, by  
2 dipping 3. Small sample of material, before immersing the en- - i ,~ I  
W tire garment. p Y A  
mug Wlicn a garment is to be dyed black, a more successful l ·  
MTS black will result if the original color of the garment is grayed  
EWS `— by the addition of its opposite color in the dye bath. For in- t - iii;
dew - Stance, a brown dress will take a better black it blue dye which l  
for   is Opposite to brown on the color wheel is added to the black i' ‘ A  
for   dye bath.    
— All dye companies give directions for using their products.  
To obtain the best results these directions should be followed ·  i "
E by Y carefully. I  
if  _ The following are important items in successful home dye-  »‘
nr ‘· * _  < `
_ lllg.  
_ . V
. ,  

  ri}! l '
l'   . 12 Kentucky .Exteozsi0n Circular N0. .184 Q
  `‘4`   _ 1. Have the material wet before placing it in the dyc
  _;;g . beat. _
  V 2. Strain the dye before using.  i
    » i l 3. Have large enough vessel so that goods is not crowded,
  .·»‘ .   V 4. Use plenty of water. »
i   · p 5. Keep goods moving while in dye bath. `
  6. Rinse thoroly.
  _.%`ii A WARDROBE
  ‘ Black, navy blue and gray are always good.
g _i·;.3, It is economical to key the wardrobe to one color each
  A season, as fewer hats, shoes and other accessories will then be
  A necessary in order to maintain harmony and unity of costume.  p
    , V l A hat of one color, a dress of another, and shoes and hose
lg  A A of another give a spotty and unsatisfactory effect. _
  “ ., A one—color costume is always distinctive.
  ' The color selected as the basis of one ’s costume should be
  `° becoming and appropriate to one’s age, size and personality.
  ' r Scarfs, ties, beads, collars and other accessories give one an ap-
  l l ` portunity to form interesting color combinations as well as to
  i“‘`   vary the costume thruout the season.
  A Colors are apt to appear different under artificial light from »
if-rijl what they are in daylight. In selecting colors, therefore, one
    . should see them in the light in which they are to be worn.
F   — Always keep in mind the other colors in the wardrobe with V
  l¤ which an article being selected must be worn. `
  Black is made more becoming to practically all persons by "
  A the addition of a collar of lace or some soft material of GCYU,
  light gray or egg shell. Black, because is offers such a contrast
  to the "freshness of youth" is a becoming color for young girls. A
  Light colors make one seem darker by contrast, dark colors
  ’ absorb the color of the face and make it appear paler.
  Becomingness rather than popularity in a particular scaSOH
  should always be the deciding factor in selecting colors for the ‘
  wardrobe. ‘
   il .
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