xt7w6m334682 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7w6m334682/data/mets.xml Alabama Alabama Museum of Natural History 1922 Other titles include: Alabama Museum of Natural History museum paper, Geological Survey of Alabama, Museum of the Geological Survey of Alabama. Other creators include: United States. Work Projects Administration, Geological Survey of Alabama, Tennessee Valley Authority. Issues for 1, 3 carry no series numbering. No. 2 also as Education papers no. 1. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call number  AS36 .A2. journals  English University, Ala. : Alabama Museum of Natural History, 1910-1960 This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Alabama Works Progress Administration Publications Museum Paper, no. 5, 1922 - including "The Anculosae of the Alabama River Drainage" by Calvin Goodrich text Museum Paper, no. 5, 1922 - including "The Anculosae of the Alabama River Drainage" by Calvin Goodrich 1922 1922 2015 true xt7w6m334682 section xt7w6m334682 gt    *‘ H   P   A     A *
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  EUGENE ALLEN SMI'1`H_, State Geologist
2%% `
    MUsEUM PAPER NO. 6  
  Alabama Museum of Natural History A
 _ li The Anculosae of the Alabama
  River Drainage A
Zi  BY _
  Published iu C0-operation with the Museum of Zoology,
i`  ‘ V. University of Michigan,
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“ _ 1922

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  n the fall of 1904, Mr. Herbert H. Snn h gan sy` ematic collecting of the fresh warn
  shells of the family Pleuroceridae of the Coosa River a11d its tributaries, for a syndicate of ·
  four naturalists: Hon. Truman H. Aldrich of Birmingham, Mr. George H. Clapp of Pitts-
if burgh, Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, and Mr. Bryan;
·;. Walker of Detroit. Later Mr. ]ohn B. Henderson, of Washington, took Dr. Pi1sbry's place
  From the very beginning of the work Mr. Smith’s fixed idea was to make as complete
  a collection of Pleuroceridae as possible and-as customary with him—to study carefully as
QQ; he collected; his notes show this. `
`SQ Early in the fall of 1908, Mr. Smith came to the University at the request of Mr. Walk-
i; er, to study the fresh—water shells of the Schowalter collection in the Museum of the Geo-
Zi logical Survey of Alabama (as it was then known) and, shortly afterward, accepted a po-
ii sition as Curator of the Museum. From that time until his death (March 22, 1919) he re-
  tained this position, devoting much of his time to study of the Pleuroceridae.
  The working up of groups was divided between Mr. Walker, who took the Unionidae and `
  families of fresh-water shells other than the Pleuroceridae; Dr. Pilsbry, the Pleuroceridae; V
  and Mr. Clapp the land shells. Pressure of other work soon caused Dr. Pilsbry to drop .
li? out and Mr. Smith took over the Pleuroceridae. ‘
  He had been working a long time on the genus Anculosa preparatory to monographing
` ° ‘ it, but this work was cut short by his death.
ii At the suggestion of Dr. Walker, our specimens of Anculosa, with Mr. Smith’s notes. _
lgf were turned over to Mr. Calvin Goodrich of Detroit, who was making a study of this grong.
lf: The results of Mr. Goodrieh’s painstaking investigations appear in this pamphlet (basei
  almost entirely on Mr. 'Smith’s field work). In speaking of his own work Mr. Smith oftr 1
  said: "If I never monograph them myself, at least I will make it easier for my successor?
Q. In 1920 (writing of Mr. Goodrich’s pamphlet) Dr. Walker said: "It is a very fine piece _
it of work and will make an excellent monument for the work that Mr. Smith did in Alabama."
Ai The Geological Survey of Alabama had hoped to publish this monograph as one of a
gg. series of technical papers dealing with various groups of animals (others on birds, amplxi
  bians and reptiles having been published recently), but lack of funds has prevented. Owing. V
Q however, to Dr. Walker’s kind offices, the University of Michigan has published it (Muses lilll-ll
·i` of Zoology Miscellaneous Publications No. 7), without expense to the 'Survey, except  
1; the paper, press work and covers of 500 copies which were printed as an edition to bear our
  own cover and to be distributed by us.
  Our sincere thanks are due to the University of Michigan for its friendly co-operatic.
gi with the Geological Survey: to Dr. Walker for his kindly efforts to aid us in a time of ritzw
  and to Mr. Calvin Goodrich for his generous appreciation of Mr. Smith’s work and his in.-
  selfishness in elfacing himself as the describer of new species. It remains to add that Il I
  Goodrich is at work on another genus of the Pleuroceridae, Gyrotoma, which will be cla?
if. published.
gr Unfortunately, the opportunities for studying these and other shells in the Coosa Rive. ‘.
," which has probably had the richest molluscan fauna of any stream in the world, (as sta- l
it on p. 7), may be at an end after a few years, on account of the flooding of the shoals  
  dams for navigation and power.
f For about 30 years past there have been four locks and dams for navigation on the ri< *
  in the Paleozoic region, between Greensport and Riverside. A seventy-foot dam for por.  
  purposes was built in the region of the crystalline schists in 1914, backing the water for mz. ‘
1;; miles, and another large dam just below (at Dunean’s Riffle) is now nearing completion. ‘
  November, 1922. EUGENE A, SMITH, l
ii; ·

IINI\‘I·iIeeasi<>nal l’apers_ publication nl whieh was begun in 1913, se at Vimui
‘   Q as a inediuni for the publication of brief original papers based prineip; ll for l_
lr   ' upon the eiilleetitins in the Museum. 'l`he papers are issued separately t €I_iL__ ‘
i_   p libraries and speeialists. and, when a suilieient number el pages have b~   the  
  li j printed in make a mluine, a title page and table oi etiintents are supp   y IQ
  5 L to libraries and individuals on the mailing list for the series. Of UN
  . 2 The Eliseellanenus l’ublieatit>ns include papers tin tield ;ii.d must ·· infml
‘ _l ‘ teehnitgue. intinrigraphie studies and other papers not within the seope M msg ]_
.i . ’ the tjeeasienal l’apers. 'l`he papers are published separately, and, as i i fm; ll`
  y _ ° net intended that they shall be grouped inte yelunies, eaeh number- hg. cmmp
li; title page and table til eetntents. `
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'l.`leflZ .»\NC`L'LOS.~\l{ (Jl? THE AT,:\Bi\)i;\ RIYER DR;\TX.·\GE
llr C,vLv1N Gooniucu
This study deals with a collection of Anculosae made by Mr. Herbert
H. Smith within the drainage of the Alabama River between the years
IQOI and IQIS for the i·\labama Geological Survey. The new species, with
one exception, were named by him. The classitication follows that which .
he had in mind. .·\fter a year’s examination of the collection, the writer feels
toward Mr. Smith only the greatest respect for his industry in the lield and
_ the kecnness of his observations. It was Mr. Smith’s intention to prepare
ilttst ’* this paper himself. Death directed otherwise. His life spared, errors which
ullll   possibly have crept into this paper wottld most certainly have been avoided.
limi   The Anculosae vary exceedingly. They give the student the impress-
ion of an adaptive family that is constantly struggling with ill] altering en-
· W-) yl" vironment. They are recommended to the scientist particularly as objects
l“ll”’ `l- for tracing the geographical distribution of life in middle North Am-
lwlsi L erica. 1 believe them to be no less valuable in this regard than the mammals,
VC " `ri the cravtishes and the Naiades,
“l‘l’i   ~ For help with this paper. the writer is indebted to Mrs. Daisy Smith,
of the i\labatna Museum of Natural llistory. who supplied a great deal of
lm‘“ i`_ information about her husband’s work and performed most of the thank-
COPV `_i less labor connected with handling the collection; to Xliss Mina \\iinslow
asli “ for the illustrations of the shells; to .Dr. liryant \\'alker for unwearying
*1‘ V-` counsel.
Tuti (iil<()l`T’ Ayn irs ENvi11y
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 .·\xct‘1.os,xi·i or ’rni·; ,·\r,A1zr\xr.\ l{l\'l·]l{ Dl{i\lN.\(]I·] 5
tht _ , ., . . . ,
Sac, particle (lrlanmbal, 1912,). -\s Nr. bmith saw it, and as I see it n~yselr now,
md. ` the undesirable conclusion is forced on one that there are far more exist-
,,1 Q ing species than have been described, that it may be a very long time before
jms the last one has been found and the books closed.
am? The reason lies in the manner of life of the .l`leuroceridae for one thing
nlaiiw and for another in the apparent fact that the family is in the active fer-
ment of evolution. The greater number of the species. in other genera as
dea. well as the .»\uculosae, inhabit rocks and gravel bars in swift—moving
» tht streams, The migrating impulse   absent. Observation leads to the con-
art viction that in the case of a species of the r\nculosa, as already mentioned,
abit every moment of living may be spent upon a single spot of a single stone.
ani Not only do the ordinarily recognized barriers restrict the spread of the
;\n animals, but the deep water of a river turns back creek forms, the deep
xm! Witter l><3t\\'CC11 liars in the Same strcitni interrupts dispersal, in inlstances
f tht quite narrow rifts on a single group of shoals serve as effectual barriers.
id it The influences of isolation working from without thus exercise their
qovt- greatest powers. \\`orking from within the forces of evolution carry on
ocer differentiation still farther.
. .”\i¤ Speaking of one group of this family, Dr. Lewis {18;;;,) made the des-
n th~ pairing remark: "C)ne cannot tell where to assign limits. Limits are appar-
wliei ently obliterated and species have no existence. They are a confused mass
and must be referred to one type." I believe it is true that species in this
gl- ft ~ family, except occasionally, do not exist as Dr. Lewis and his contempor-
mt I aries wished to define the word species. One is lost who tries to think of
imen. these animals as having any such hxity of characters as occur in other
to l families and orders. '\\fe have rather to think of the characters as overlap-
wan ping from one race to another, even from genus to genus. That collection
ulos;. ~ of individuals in the l’leuroceridae may be called a species whose predomin-
r that ant characters are not the predominant characters of another collection of
n gee- individuals. If we see only a few specimens of a single species its own
ces ( i peculiar characters may often seem to be submerged by characters linking
wht 1 it with another species. But in a long series the individual characters stand
Out, and we are compelled then to recognize the existence of definable dif-
, 8],,, _ ferences and to proceed to describe them and provide the label of a name.
hwg, s If we adopt the policy—the tempting course—of referring all these many
)f A, A collections to one or several types we surrender whatever value there is in
the defining of local races and lose with it the means of tracing geographical
{ tha, distribution. Dr. Lewis` "c.onfused mass"·would become more confused
rk_Cw._ than ever. r\ll.the.tr1bes of j\1llC1'1C€ll`l T1`l(l1€l11S—fO go far afield for an
amt h analogy—are alike in certain- regards, tribal characters overlap tribal char-
I fom,] actersx yet it is possible to dinelrentiate trrbe from tribe, and the right and
Sumo , necessity or the scientist and lu·storian·to speak of these collections of in-
Ad pc A dividuals as separate, distinct, dnterentiated, are not to be questioned.
Ibm. , { \Yith the method of evolution in this family, the writer is incompetent
mw it to deal. There has been so far no intensive study of the anatomy, no broad
O,. hip,. inquiry into the rules or rhythm of variation if any such things exist, no
_, nm 1, breeding and interbreeding to discover whether known rules of heredity
apply here. It is a lield still fallow for the experimenter.

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  _   l 6 Ci·\I,\`I,N Goomucti
      'l`ni·; Giaorotzicxe Paoiztizxt 35 an
  T i ln Cretaceous times, Georgia from Columbus northward and part tif 3 mn,.
    eastern and northern Alabama constituted a peneplain, The line westwawi the \‘
  V . . t t . , _ __ _ _ _ . Black
Q] .·   from Columbus, Creorgia, to \\ etumplta aud thence noithxxest thiou;r It mq
  V r i Centerville, Tuscaloosa and Fayetteville was the shore ot the gulf wht it ‘v
  i I, T stretched as far as Cairo, Illinois, covered the western thirds of Tennese   IU. cli
i· · = - - . - · · _ . . Wl arr
g = and lxeutucltv, the greater part ot Mississippi, part ot .»\rl
L C·   The Coosa is said to have the most diversilied molluscan life of any
mi;   stream in the world. It has long been a classical collecting stream. X et
id we not until Mr. Smith undertook the labor was the collecting carried out in
fan ;. any systematic way. Concerning the reasons for the extensive animal popu-
w· rt lation, Mr. Smith—so far as I can discover—has ventured to say nothing.
o lt   But of the character of the Coosa and other ,·\labama streams, there occur
Ctiti is many illuminating passages in his correspondence with Dr. \\Ialker. Some
t lit [zi of these are here printed in their chronological order.
From `\\Ietumpka, he wrote toward the end of loot:
C Ci llr
ne. yi; "'l`here is an island half a mile up the river. and we tried vainly to reach
t s<   it for a long time. the water was too deep and swift. After awhile I man-
leon is aged to get a boat, and since then most of my collecting has been on the
’tno· is;. island. It is rocky and intersected by a number of small water channels,
cour i. with numerous back—water pools. This island has turned out an astonish—
s Ut l`· in¤· number of suecies. Blanv of the forms are extremely rare and local.
_ b { ,
Rr <·" I One pool is crowded with small species, some not over one—half inch. and _
ie Cl or it is about the only place in which I have found small ones at all."
ns i 1.~
K, C p \\‘riting from Gadsden in October. IQO4. Mr. Smith said:
A "From Rome to Gadsden we found a constant succession of shoals,
lllll `· either along the shores or forming islands in the river. I think that the
¤ · 4* in · .
 li`; l‘1\'Cl' shells are substantially the same down to the mouth of the Chat-
‘ ‘ J, ..‘ ' ‘ ‘
i_ll tooga River. ;\t hrst I thought there was a gradual change, but I found
ri uu:   . . t * i _
T ly VN that a recurrence of the same conditions brought the same species. Below
jcrlk. M the (hattooga there are few shoals for ten or twelve miles; then a succession
mc y   of rock and shingle shoals clear down to Gadsden; and on these we found
hwg N; a good many forms not seen above. I think, however, that this is onlv be-
biy . up CEUSC lllc fdlllm SUS Yl€ll€1`§ 11105Y of the species seen above persist H; fm-
er {U W as Gadsden. ’
eptp li' In November of the same year he was at Riverside, writing;
’ Wl   ..» r . . .
but   I`he Coosa below Gadsden is at hrst like the upper reaches. At the
d tO yy upper end of Minnesota Bend there are limestone rocks and shoals, Fol-
lowing this is a long stretch. eight or ten miles. in which the river is broad
is tmp and lake-like with muddy bottom and low shores. I should think such
[L em. reaches would be a pretty effectual bar to the migration of rock lovinv

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j -     Pleuroceridae, either up or down. Following this stretch come Leoto hr
  _ ; t g \Vhistlenaut shoals, the hrst of the rock shoals which characterize the Th
  y j T middle Coosa. These are really reefs of rocks extending quite across tl  Plum,
EE- ,   2 river or leaving only a narrow channel. The river makes a strong currext an _l_ T
T ‘ { - · . . V » 5 > t
  ;· E T wherever lt can hnd a passage. Two miles larther down and probably cozs Cv N
  . . , V . X 5 U
    t y nected by rocks on the river bottom are the extensive fen Island shoa ¤. Of TV
  · i The }:‘leuroceridae show the rreatest changes as we descend that is, the ii
i T   ,r` D y s .    
  ; T · changes are more apparent. the assemblage (upper Coosa forms) is cha- give ,1
  t ‘·   tinued as far as Minnesota Bend. Here on the limestone rocks there is xt i(Ig7I·
  .   sudden and marked change. There is another marked change at the re 3 the ri]
gi · { T just above Leoto Shoals; and atter that one or two new forms come in at Yet lu
ji, T. J T )v_x_r _ V sy
  A V ever) shoal. two W
,1 y _ . . . . . . .
it T : = ln a letter of [une 6, 1907, Afr, Smith gives a brief picture ot colletn an Obe
{ ¤ · Y ` V, .
j t   , mg on the \\T eduska shoals: bOlTT*T
t t T é _ _ _ _ _ _ facts o
3;· ti T "\\ e could wade out halt a mile in the rapids, which in that place are in (rcs,
tl . . . "
  , y simply a succession of ledges with tlat rocks or gravel between, the wat  Of OPC
  i ` T   swift in places, but never strong enough to be dangerous. pl used to carry mm in
i-   _ a large bag, and generally this and my pockets were hlled in half an hotzt, FH
,T-     though hardly one specimen in ten was saved." Of Obg
*5 t ; Back in \\ etum Jka in Februar t NOS, Mr. Smith wrote: UGH TT
T T ’ ’ ru
¤. T E? T . . , . . . . O TC
g Q, t "r\ll this stretch tCedar Island to filiggtns Ferry, Chilton County,) and N
  W   is full of shoals except between Higgin’s Ferry and DuncanTs Riffle, wht-~·e Comm
gy t   the water is still and deep. The distribution is exceedingly mteresttr  than Q
` T g In very swift water we had to cling to rocks with one hand while hshirg Sort gm
T T T   t with the GENCY for stones; once I got a dowsing." fgrjygg;
  it   · Returned to University from Anita, he wrote of the Cahaba River; Opegu
tf t. 1 u
  " T T "The Cahaba physically is very ditterent from the Coosa. It is essentrf— glam,]
    ly a river of the Paleozoic limestone region. ilowing through a gorge, ant Spccics
5. T ,   generally deep, The shoals, where they do occur, have deep water abn Te iam Sh,
  T· j T and below. Stretches of deep water separate species of the Coosa, anil cm-]; O
l Tg   apparently this is so of the Cahaba too.T’ gf gm;
t . T. ’ . . . . . . L, .
{   l T Mr. Smith returned to the Middle Coosa in the summer of 191.;. l.e SC gu
2 r . A _ ·. · tortton
3. T t savs of liort Wtlham shoals: .
y . l t ' _ _ A C€I`1(l£tc
I. j T "Several reefs of rock cross the river diagonally, and on them we ma ;t tOg€'[h(
`g` A Q l our best hauls. It was exciting sometimes even for an old campaign. :1 specim
T T. `T There was one little ool under a fall which must have vielded over r.·1 <.* 1UOSt ti
_ 1 T hundred Gvrotomas. B ou would have lau hed to see 1ne sitting in the foal. tht
» · . · . . g . ¤
  <   holding on with one hand while I eroaed with the other brmeinv u thtge one an
tx L , ¤ _ ¤ ¤ ·¤ > P
  3 t or four every time; often they were washed out of my lingers, for the ctLt‘- regard
  T lh T rent was a caution. \\Te worked until the last possible moment. '\\Then K ¤; group,
  .T r left Fort \\Tilham Shoals were entirely covered by the backwater of “1»: the str
  5 . Y · t· U 0 erctt
i , _ pouet tam. p r
. , t `
,j·   g a great
;·· , _ l} E S]L0‘Z(T