xt7w9g5gbx5p https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7w9g5gbx5p/data/mets.xml Emerson, Edwin, 1869- 1906  books b92-202-30752302v1 English P.F. Collier, : New York : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. History, Modern 19th century.Miller, Marion Mills. Nineteenth century and after  : a history year by year from A.D. 1800 to the present (vol. 1)/ by Edwin Emerson, Jr. and Marion Mills Miller ; illustrated with eight colored plates and sixteen full-page engravings and two maps. text Nineteenth century and after  : a history year by year from A.D. 1800 to the present (vol. 1)/ by Edwin Emerson, Jr. and Marion Mills Miller ; illustrated with eight colored plates and sixteen full-page engravings and two maps. 1906 2002 true xt7w9g5gbx5p section xt7w9g5gbx5p 






























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           anb     ffter

   A HISTORY YEAR BY YEAR FROM
   A. D. 1SOO TO THE PRESENT

     By EDWIN EMERSON, JiR.
Member of the American Historical Association, New York
Historical Society, the Franklin Jnstitute of Philadelphia, etc.
                  anti
     MARION MILL1S MILLER
            Litt.D. (Princeton)

ILLUSTRATED WITH EIGHT COLORED PLATES AND
SIXTEEN FULL-PAGE ENGRAVINGS AND TWO MAPS

           IN THREE VOLUM AES




             VOLUME ONE
             1 8 0 0-1 8 21



P. F. COLLIER  SON, PUBLISHERS
              NEW YORK



I I



---       -- --  ------                                       I

 





















































   COPYRIGHT, 1906

By P. F. COLLIER  SON


 

















            CONTENTS OF VOLUME ONE

                                                           PAGI
PREFACE ...................................................... 6
INTRODUCTION. Bv Georg Gottfried Gervinus .................... 13

THE CLOSING YEARS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY .....        .......... 15

EVENTS OF 1801 ............................................... 28

EVENTS OF 1802- .        ........................................... 39

EVENTS OF 1803 ............................................... 45

EVENTS OF 1804 ............................................... 54

E VEN TS OF 1805 ............................................... 61
EVENTS OF 1806 ............................................... 75

THE FAMILY OF NAPOLEON (GENEALOGICAL TABLE) ..............        77

EVENTS OF 1807 ............................................... 98

EVENTS OF 1808 ...........................    ........... 137

EVENTS OF 1809         ........................... 170

EVENTS OF 1810 ................................. I ............. 221

EVENTS OF 1811         ........................... 243

EVENTS OF 1812         ........................... 254

EVENTS OF 1813         .           .290

EVENTS OF 1814...              .     ...................... 317

EVENTS OF 1815         .           .342

EVENTS OF 1816         .           .378

EVENTS OF 1817         .           .385

EVENTS OF 1818         .           .396

EVENTS OF 1819         .           .402

EVENTS OF 1820..                                           410

EVENTS OF 1821         .           .421

  XIXtb Century-Vol. I1-        1

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         ILLUSTRATIONS OF VOLUME ONE



THE RETREAT FROM Moscow .       ........................... Fronttispiece
    Reproduced in Color from Painting by E. Mleissonier.

POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF THE WORLD IN 1801....................
    Map in Color.

THE BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR ......................,.,....... 70
    Reproduced in Color from Painting by C. Stanfield.

QUEEN LouISr.     ................................................ 118
    Reproduced in Black and White from Painting by G. Richter.

NAPOLEON AT WAGRAM ............     ............................ 190
    Reproduced in Black and White from     Painting by Horace
        Vernet.

THE KING OF ROME ............................................ 238
    Reproduced in Black and White from Painting by Sir Thomas
        Lawrence.

WELLINGTON .................................................. 286
    Reproduced in Black and White from Painting by Sir Thomas
        Lawrence.

CONGRESS OF VIENNA (TREATY OF PARIS) .......    ................. 334
    Reproduced in Black and White from Painting by J. Isabey.

THE SUNKEN ROAD AT WATERLOO ............................... 358
   Reproduced in Color from Painting by Stanley Berkley.



3

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PREFACE



    A suRvry of the last century reveals it as an age of some
great men and many marvelous achievements.        As the
achievements exceed the giants of the age in number, so, too,
they surpass them  in grandeur.  All the restless activity
of a Napoleoni or the iron policy of a Bismarck have not
wrought upon modern life as did the steam engine. The
great inventions and their adaptation to the needs of human-
ity are the real glories of the nineteenth century.
   Thus new epochs in the development of man have been
brought about by our modern modes of transit and trans-
portation, our steam cars and boats, electric motors, bicycles
and automobile vehicles, as well as our new modes of com-
munication by means of the electric telegraph, telephone, and
phonograph.
   Human life, as it exists now among civilized communi-
ties, owes still more, perhaps, to our new labor-saving ma-
chines and devices.  Of these, our various agricultural im-
plements, our sewing machines, typewriters, and printing
presses are but instances.  The comforts of life have been
immeasurably increased by the universal adoption of things
now termed common and indispensable, such as friction
matches, gas lighting, electric light and appliances, or steel
pens-as well as modern methods of heating, plumbing and
construction. Among the esthetic gains of mankind attained
during this same century must be reckoned such results of
the study of light as photography or the kindred processes of
                            5

 



PREFACE



photo-engraving, electrotyping, lithography, color printing,
and similar new methods of illustration.
   The modern study of light has resulted in other scientific
achievements of lasting importance, notably our knowledge
of the velocity of light, spectrum analysis, and the Roentgen
rays. In the study of medicine, to which this last invention
has been principally applied, a new era may be said to date
from the use of anesthetics and antiseptics, first adopted dur-
ing the middle of the last century. A similar impulse to the
theoretical study of medicine has been given by the discovery
of the functions of the blood corpuscles, the cell theory in
embryology, and the germ theory. Of like importance to
science are such scientific discoveries as the correspondence
between heat and energy; the theory of gases; of molecules
and of atmospheric dust; the nebular and meteoric theories
in astronomy; and the determination of geological epochs,
resulting indirectly in Dalwin's theory of the evolution of
species and the origin of man. War has been made more
terrible by such instruments of destruction as torpedoes,
rifled firearms, machine guns, smokeless powder, lyddite,
and melinite.
   So much for a single century's achievements in science.
They outnumber the great inventions of all the previous cen-
turies within historic times. The same may be said of some
other triumphs of the past century-notably of music. No
less has been accomplished in some other arts. The great
masterpieces in painting of the late Middle Ages and the
Renaissance have been rivaled in this century by the artists
of France, England and other modern schools.
   Unlike music and the fine arts, the march of modern lit-
erature has been along national lines. It was a far cry from
Haydn to Wagner, or from David to Millet, yet it seems
no further than the intervals of intellect that lie between
Keats and Kipling, Kant and Nietzsche, Schiller and Suder-
                             6

 




PREFACE



mann, IPushkin and Tolstoy, Alfieri and D'Annuinzio, or Cha-
teaubriand and Zola.
   The years between the men representing these two ex-
tremes of various literary developments are filled with illus-
trious names.  Well could Browning sing:

              "And did you once see Shelley plain,
                 And did he stop and speak to you,
               And did you speak to him again.'
                 How strange it seems, aud new!"

    What is trite of letters and art is true of almost every
other phase of human attainment in the nineteenth century.
Since Napoleon, Nelson, Pitt and Wellington, down to Gari-
baldi, Cavovr, Kossuth, Bismarek, Moltke, Gladstone and
Kruger, there has been a constant succession of famotis cap-
tains, sailors, statesmen, philosophers, inventors and other
great men, whose biographies alone would fill miany more
volumes than this history.
   It is the pride of Americans that their hemisphere has
contributed its share, and over, to the sum-total accomplished
by the world since the death of Washington. In the roll-call
of the great mnen of this age few names stand forth more
brightly than those of Jefferson, Bolivar, Lincoln, Grant,
Farragut, and Lee, or those of Fulton, Ericsson, Morse, Edi-
son, Diaz, and Dewey.
   Considerations such as these have entered largely into
the preparation of this -work.  To them must be ascribed the
apparent preponderance given to the part plaved by America
in the history of the world during the nineteenth century.
When a similar work was undertaken by Gervinus, the great
German historian, he laid the responsibility for modern state-
craft and ideals of government at the feet of America.  Had
he lived to complete his work, his pen -fight have traeed the
great story of the rise of nations during the last fifty years.
Since the great civil war, which established the union of the

 





PREFACE



North American States, the world has seen the rise of a na-
tional Italy, Japan, Germany, and the Slavic States, and of
colonial empires, like those of India, Australia, and Africa.
The attempt of the small Boer Republic to start a similar
national movement in South Africa could not have failed to
impress an observer like Gervinus as but another inevitable
symptom of the times. He it was, too, who predicted the open-
ing of the Far East as a result of these modern tendencies.
    The Empire of Japan, since it faced about to adopt the
latest benefits of Western civilization, has indeed become the
"Land of the Rising Sun." Of her eastern neighbor across
the China Sea, on the other hand, Matthew Arnold's lines on
the Roman conquest still hold true:

            "The brooding East with awe beheld
            Her impious younger world.
            The Roman temrpest swell'd and swell'd,
            And on her head was hurl'd.
            "The East bow'd low before the blast
            In patient, deep disdain;
            She let the legions thunder past,
            And plunged in thought again."

   Matthew   Arnold's as well as Gervinus's prediction,
strangely enough, has been fulfilled at the very close of the
nineteenth century. Now that the century has ended, the
eyes of men have turned from. the new world in America
to a newer world in ancient China.


   THuE RECORD OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AND AFTER
is brought down to May, 1906, a peculiarly opportune date
in that it seems, inthe prevision of students of the world's
progress, to complete the cycle of anti-despotic revolution.
Indeed, the work might be appropriately entitled "From the
End of the French Revolution to the Beginning of the Rue-
sian," starting as it does with France's adoption of the
                            8

 




PREFACE



Constitution of 1799, which made Napoleon dictator and
so, in the phrase of the time, "finished" the French Revolu-
tion, and closing with the uprising against autocracy of the
Russian mechanics and peasants commanded by the so-called
"invisible government," an(l the organization of the Dinua,
a representative body certain in a short space of time to throw
off the bonds with which autocracy still hilampers its actions,
and assume full power of legislation and financial control.
  The complete period under discussion mnay be considered
as subdivided into three eras, each of which is treatedl in
a separate volume. Volume I extends from the close of
1799, when -Napoleon was elected First Consul, to his death
in 1821, completing the era of AMilitary Conquest. Volume
II, beginning wTithl the declaration of Greek independence
in 1822, and ending with the assurance of Italian unity by
Garibaldi's conquest of Naples in 1860, covers another fairly
complete period, that of Patriotic Revolution.  The last
volume, beginning with the outbreak of the Civil War in
America in 1861, and closing with the uprising of the Rus-
sian people for economic as w-ell as political freedom in the
strikes and industrial disorders of 1906, may also be con-
sidered as comprising a third distinct era, the period of Pop-
ular Emancipation.
   The succeeding period of the world's history may be char-
acterized even more by the progress of natural than politi-
cal science. The great and unforeseen disasters of the erup-
tion of Vesuvius and the earthquake in California are here
chronicled and bring the work to a close.



9

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F   OR  invaluable assistance received the author desires to

      express his indebtedness to Messrs. Andreto D. White,

Datus C. Brooks, Maurice Magnaus, Waldemar Kaemnpffert,

and Wm. G. Brown.
            Grateful acknowledgment for professional courtesies

is also rendered to the officers of the Public Libraries of New

York and Boston, of the Am erican Cangressional Library, Brit-

ish Museum, and Paris Library, as well as to the librarians of

the Universities of Harvard and Columbia and of the Historical

Society of New York.



II

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INTRODUCTION



                  By GEORG GOTTFRIED GERVINUS

    The essay of Gervinus, the German historian, which is referred to
In Mr. Emerson's preface, was written as an introduction to a projected
history of the Nineteenth Century. Gervinus was then a professor of
history at Heidelberg. As soon as the pamphlet appeared, in 1853, the
author was placed on trial for high treason. He declined to plead in his
own behalf, but in justification of his work he declared in court: "The
charge, though it appears directed against me, is in fact an accusation
against Providence, or let us say History, which can not be condemned."
Gervinus was convicted and sentenced to four months in prison, and his
work was burned. The "Introduction" immediately became a classic in
Germany and throughout Europe. The close of this famous essay is here
presented (in the translation of Maurice Magnus) as aptly characteriz-
ing the spirit of the Nineteenth Century, and thus forming the best. as
well as one of the briefest, of authoritative introductions.
    THEE emancipation of all those that are oppressed and
suffering is the vocation of the Nineteenth Century. The
force of this idea has been victorious over mighty interests
and deeply-rooted institutions, which may be perceived in
the abolition of serfdom and villenage in Europe and in the
liberation of slaves in America. This is one of the greatest
features of the time. The strength and belief of conviction,
the power of thought, the force of resolution, a clear view of
the object pursued, endurance and self-sacrifice, are all en-
listed on the side of the people, and give this historical move-
ment the character of Providence which can not be resisted.
   It is this character we recognize in all the movements
of the age, even those not appearing periodically. The his-
tory we propose to narrate was divided into three movements,
which appear to be impelled by a higher power, and in turn
have shaken a great part of the world to its foundation.
They follow one another almost in geometric progression.
The same progression which we have observed in time, peo-
                              13

 



INTRODUCTION



pie, and country may be observed also in the direction' of the
movement itself. The course of freedom since the Reforma-
tion had been chiefly in the regions of the north among Teu-
tonic races until it reached America, where it found its natu-
ral limits. From that tinie it moved back toward the east.
Its landing in France was difficult to effect; the whole of the
east of Europe and even the free west opposed the new im-
portation-but it secured its first footing. The movements
of the twenties passed over from South America to Spain,
from Italy to Greece, in regular line toward the east. The
July revolution procured soil for freedom in France, and it
breathed again in Spain, in Belgium, and in Old England-
it endeavored even to reach Poland. In the year 1848 the
Continent was shaken to its centre, and the revolution pene-
trated the stronghold of Conservative principle, even as far
as Prussia and the Balkans. In this history we shall above
all see the hand of Providence in these movements.
   The resources of the -United States, sufficient for their
own supply, and their refusing all other nations the right of
occupation in America as proclaimed in the famous Monroe
Doctrine, will in time restrict the amount of emigration from
Europe, and limit the commnerce of the West.  In an equal
proportion the increasing decay of the East will invite to a
renewal of the old commerce and civilization of Asia.
   To effect this, the freedom of the continental nations of
Europe is required, if the advantages which these prospects
open are not to be lost to those whom they most concern. This
eastern course of the principle of political freedom, which
history seems so confidently to predict, will be fulfilled.


 









   THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
                  AND AFTER


THE CLOSING YEARS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
American Policy of no Entangling Alliances with European Nations
   Announced by Washington-Beginning of Our Industrial Dhevelop-
   ment-Our War with France French Constitution of 179R-Na-
   poleon's Good Statesmanship-He Subdues and Wins Over the
   French Rovalists-General Kl6ber in Egypt-War with Austria-
   Morenn's Suceessful Campaign in Bavaria-Napoleon's Conquest
   of Northern Italy-Condition of France at Close of Century-Con-
   dition of Europe-Of England in Particular.

   A T the end of the eighteenth century there was a lull
        in the storm of revolution which, beginning in the
        New World, had burst upon the Old in the hurri-
cane of the French Terror and, though past, was still mut-
tering its threats of return. In Europe the work of clearing
away the debris of the fallen reginie, and of laving the foun-
dations of a new order was, in consequence, being prosecuted
in a bewildered and irresolute fashion. America, however,
had taken thorough precautions against the counter-revolu-
tion, and her citizens with confidence and enthusiasm were
devoting themselves to the work of building up the nation
"conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that
all men are created equal."
   These precautions were of the nature of a quarantine
against European broils.   In his farewell address, issued
in September. 1796, when he declined the Presideney for a
third term, George Washington had left a solemn legacy to
his countrymen to avoid foreign entanglements, holding it
to be "the true American polie to steer clear of permanent
alliances with any portion of the foreign world."  In pursu-
                           15

 



BEGINNING OF OUR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT



ance of this policy, Washington had not hesitated to break
with France. When the new French Republic became em-
broiled in war with England (February 1, 1793) he issued a
proclamation of neutrality, which saved the young American
Republic from entering into a long and costly war at a
time when the country's greatest need was peace and the e-
tablishment; of a solid national credit.
   Then began the wonderful development of the West, while
a new impulse to industry and commerce in the Southern
States was given by Whitney's invention of the cotton-gin.
By the time the capital of the nation was transferred (July,
1800) from Philadelphia to the new city of Washington,
which had been especially constructed to be the seat of gov-
ernment, the American people were well started on the way to
prosperity.
   Upon Washington's successor, John Adams, felJ the im-
mediate brunt of the new American policy. The first pros-
pect was war with France. Throughout the European wars,
brought forth by the French Revolution, the United States
were in the position of a feeble neutral between aggressive
belligerents. Whatever turn the tide of war might take,
American commerce was sure to suffer. Jay's treaty with
Great Britain (proclaimed March 1, 1796) had brought some
amelioration by providing for a commission to pass upon
claims of American citizens for loss or damage sustained by
reason of the illegal capture or condemnation of their ves-
sels. The concessions obtained from England only pro-
voked the privateers of France to further outrages. John
Marshall of Virginia, Elbridge Gerry of Miassachusetts, and
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina were sent
as commissioners to France, but were not received by the
Directory. At last they reported that immunity from attack
could only be bought with money. The people of the United
States were at once aroused, and, acting upon Pinckney's pan-
                           16

 




OUR WAR WITH FRANCE



sionate declaration, "Millions for defence, not one cent for
tribute !" forthwith armed for war. A new navy depart-
ment and marine corps were created, twelve frigates were
fitted out, and letters of marque granted to privateers. Al-
together a navy of thirty-eight stanch vessels was called into
being. "Hail Columbia," first sung in May, 1798, became
the popular song of the day.
    The first conflicts were in West Indian waters. Captain
Stephen Decatur, commanding the "Delaware," captured the
French privateering schooner "Croyable."  Renamed as the
"Retaliation, she was presently recaptured by the French.
On February 9, 1799, the American frigate "Constellation,"
commanded by Captain Thomas Truxtun, near the island of
Nevis, West Indies, defeated and captured the French man-
of-war "Insurgente." David Porter, then a midshipman,
with eleven American seamen brought in the prize, single-
handed. The American squadron in the West Indies, while
cruising for French prizes, improved the occasion by sup-
pressing the piracies of the troublesome picaroons of the West
Indies. Nearly a year later, on February 3, 1800, Captain
Truxtun added to his laurels and those of the "Constellation"
by beating the French frigate "'Vengeance" to a standstill off
the island of Guadeloupe. In all, some ninety French ves-
sels, carrying altogether more than seven hundred guns, were
captured during the war, and a great number of Atnerican
ships were retaken. By the close of 1800 the purposes of
the war had been accomplished; Napoleon Bonaparte, who
had just come into power as the First Consul of France, had
weightier problems on. his mind than the prosecution of a
harassing guerrilla warfare on water against a distant race of
sailors, and willingly granted redress to the United States,
concluding definite peace with the new republic. lie also
entered into negotiations with Spain for the retrocession of
.Louisiana.
                           17

 




THE FRENCH CONSTITUTION OF 1799



    By the new French Constitution of 1799, as conceived
by the Abbe Si6ves and amended by Napoleon, all executive,
administrative, and judicial powers had been conferred on the
First Consul as head of the State. A system of centraliza-
tion came into force which has remained in France to the
present day. Its basis was universal suffrage, carefully
pruned by letting the power from above select its appointees
from the host of candidates chosen by popular vote. All
governing and judicial officers were appointed, with all their
subordinates, by the central government, and were directly
responsible to it. These officers were divided into ranks as
strict and absolute as those of the army.  In its rational
order, regularity of function, and apparent stability, the new
government was a vast improvement on the old, and could
not fail to confer great and rapid benefits upon disordered
France. It was a working government from the start., and
its work was accomplished so smoothly and thoroughly that
it relieved the common people from all need of taking a share
in it. On December 15 the new Constitution was offered
to the French people for acceptance or rejection with this
famous concluding phrase: "Citizens, the Revolution is fixed
to the principles which commenced it. It is finished." The
Constitution was accepted by a popular plebiscite of more
than 3,000,000 yeas against 1,567 nays. Thus France passed
from a distinctly democratic government to the most absolute
rule yet imposed upon her.
   So rapidly was popular government relinquished that
within a vear no one raised a hand when the First Consul
quietly removed the very authors of the new instrument, his
fellow consuls, Si6yes and Ducos, and appointed Cambac6res
and Lebrun in their place. By means of life-senatorships
the former consuls were paid to sink into instant obscurity.
   Bonaparte's first acts under the Constitution were con-
ciliatory. He drew around him the leaders of all parties
                            18

 




NAPOLETON'S GOOD STATESAMANSHIP



and men of high talents: if they showed themselves siibinis-
sive they were rewarded with public honors. T'hiis 1h hoii-
ored Volta, the inventor of the new voltaic pile, and Laplace,
the great astronomer. I-le selected as his regular mcdlical
adviser Dr. Corvisart, who was the first physician to practice
chest tapping, the begiinning of modern physical diagnosis
in medicine. Gaudin, the greatest financier of France, was
intrusted with the public moneys, and, encouraged by Napo-
leon, he founded the Bank of France. Tronchet and two of the
most eminent lawyers of the Revolution were appointed at
the head of a commission to codify the laws. Aided by Na-
poleon, they drew up an admirable civil code which was
afterward kno-n-vn as the "Code Napoleon." It was the first
working code effected in France, and has stood as a standard
of its kind throughout western Europe and the Latin coun-
tries since its adoption.
   Equally well calculated was the First Consul's indul-
gence for the ancient enemies of the Revolution-the Rov-
alists and the Clergy. Thus he restored the freedom of re-
ligious worship. All those emigrants who had not actually
borne arms against their country were invite to return.
MNore than 150,000, most of whom were priests, responded.
Bonaparte in person went to the Temple Prison to set the
political prisoners free. In those early days of his rule great
moderation was also used with the Vendean nobles and Bre-
ton peasants who had risen in arms against the Revolutionary
government. A Proclamation of Amnesty for those who
laid down their arms was issued on Christmnas Day, 17 99.
   On the same day Napoleon, with his own hand, wvrote
courteous letters to the King of England and to the Emperors
of Germany and Russia. Diplomatic steps were also taken
to conciliate the King of Prussia and the Pope.
   The Austrian Government contented itself wvith. politely
declining to entertain Napoleon's overtures to the Geruran
                           19

 




SUBMISSION OF THE ROYALISTS



Emperor. When the Austrian ambassador ascertained that
Napoleon had no intention of restoring the territory yielded
by Austria in the recent treaty of Campo Formio (October
17, 1797), the imperial government at Vienna begged to be
excused on the plea that it could not negotiate peace without
consulting its allies.
    England, under the guidance of the younger Pitt, bluntly
rejected all offers and curtly avowed her intention to con-
tinue the war until the Bourbons should be restored to the
throne of France.
    This reply was like a blow in the face to France. French-
men of all parties burned to avenge the insult. At one stroke
Napoleon had all France arrayed behind him. The cause
of the Royalists waned from that day. In January their
leaders, De Chatillon and D'Antichamp, signed conventions
of peace with General Hedrouville on the Loire. By the
middle of February followed the submission of the Royalist
Chouans of Brittany and Normandy. Other chiefs in the
Vendee were beaten bv General Brune. The rank and file
were quickly enrolled in the army and sent away to the
frontiers.
   Relieved of internal dangers, the First Consul was able to
turn his attention to those outside of France. Disquieting
news was not lacking. The relief expedition sent to the aid
of the army in Egypt had been bottled up by the British
fleet before Brest. Instead of reenforcements Napoleon de-
spatched a letter to Kl6ber, the general in command, assuring
him of his full confidence, and therewith left him to his fate.
   One of General Klber's appeals for help had fallen into
the hands of the English. It encouraged them to repudiate
the previous agreement to let the French evacuate Egypt un-
molested. On March 19, 1800, Lord Keith, commanding the
British fleet in Egypt, called upon General Kleber for an
unconditional surrender. The French general communicated
                            20

 




WAR WITH AUSTRIA



the text of the British demands to his troops and gave out. this
rally: "Soldiers, such insults ean only be avenged by a vic-
tory. Forward !"  The French, early next. lnornintgt, fell
upon the sixty thousand Turkish soldiers encamped on. the
ruiins of Heliopolis and completely routed them. Cairo was
recaptured. While strengthening the French positijo  in
Cairo, General Kleber was assassinated by an Arab cutthroat.
The conmnand fell. upon an incapable subordinate, General
Menou. From that time the evacuation of Egypt by France
became inevitable.
   In the meanwhile the war between Austria. and France
was reopened.  To provide for it the consuls revived the
Revolutionary measure of general conscription. Every male
citizen over the age of eighteen and under the age of sixty
was called into the armv. A reserve corps of 60,000 recruits
was thus raised and placed under the command of the First
Consul. Through his foreign agents Napoleon levied tribute
from Genoa and Hamburg, and tried to force loans from
Holland and Portugal oIn the security of their own jeopar-
dized territory. By the spring of 1800 France was ready to
strike.
   The plan for opening the campaign, as arranged between
Moreau and Napoleon, was to make a feint against the Aus-
trian right; and, having thus drawn the attention of Kray,
the commanding general, to that quarter, to concentrate the
French centre and left upon the imperial centre, break
through the Austrian line, cut off their communication with
the Tyrol and Italy, and force them to the banks of the Dan-
ube. Toward the end of April a French armiy under Moreau
crossed the Rhine and seized the town of Freiburg. A se-
ries of bloodv fights followed, by which the enemy was forced
back to IUlm. After a short respite this eity was wrested
from them by the French, who swam the river, and on June
1 worsted them in the bloody fight of 1Jochstadt oIn thc
                           21

 




NAPOLEON CROSSES THE ALPS



famous old battlefield of Blenheim. On July 2 the French
army occupied Munich. On the 15th an armistice was ar-
ranged.
    During this time General M]Nass6na, who had fought so
well in Switzerland, had taken charge of the French army
in Italy and was hemmed in at Genoa. Napoleon, instead
of taking measures to relieve the garrison by sending an army
along the coastwise roads on which he had won such successes
before, determined to deliver a counter stroke in the rear of
the Austrian army. This could only be done by crossing the
Alps.
   Leaving the government in Paris to his colleagues, he
took charge of the new army of the reserve and manceuvred
with it in various directions. He deceived Massena as well
as the Austrians. All thought that he would surely descend
upon Genoa, and that by way of the seacoast. The Austrians
accordingly drove the French back upon Genoa, and its har-
bor wvas blockaded by an English fleet.
   In the third week of MCay, after Marescot and his engi-
neers had prepared the way, B