xt7wh707zc6h https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7wh707zc6h/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1936 journals kaes_circulars_270 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 270 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 270 1936 2014 true xt7wh707zc6h section xt7wh707zc6h @ @ 5   
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    Extension Division  
@ `  THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director X   K
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  CIRCULAR NO. 270  
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‘T   Lexington, Kentucky I Q
i I   March, 1936  
  —— @` I
'{4   Published in conmgciinn with mg Agrieultuml Extension work »;`
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' ii

4-H Room Improvement Manual
What gi1·l isn’t looking for some means of self expression!
And what project offers such a happy solution to this problem as
room improvement! By study, planning and work, an unattrac-
tive room may be transformed into a beautiful place that is a
pleasure to enter. To the owner and creator, it brings lasting
returns in comfort, beauty and satisfaction.
A girl’s room should be simple and suited to its Purpose.
Simplicity is the keynote of good taste, and any girl may have
a room with this qualification, no matter how little money there
is to spend. Often the elimination of a piece of furniture or
decoration does wonders for an overcrowded, ornate room, or
the addition of another piece may complete o11e that seems bare.
Remember, intelligent use of the things already on hand, may
make for a simple attractive room.
The room and its furnishings should express the personality
and interests of the person who is to occupy it. Such a room,
appropriate in color, with suitable furniture and decoration, will
he a background for the owner. Make your room express you.
I Since a girl ’s room is for sleep, relaxation, dressing and study,
it should fill these needs in the most comfortable and convenient
Most girls will use the furniture which they already have;
eonsequently they are limited to a certain extent. However, one
eau work wonders by the rearrangement and renovation of this
hnniture. So, the challenge is yours, see what miracles you
ean make with a saw and paint or varnish, keeping in mind that
the keynote is simplicity and suitability.

 . I
4 Kentucky Extension Ct¢·cnZa,i· N0. 270
. i Tl1e a1·ra11geme11t of furniture l1as a great deal to do with lm
T the comfort, co11ve11ie11ce a11d attractiveness of a 1*00111. Only f
such `lill1'11llll1'C as is s11ited to tl1e room HHLT that which is com- Of
fortable and beautiful sl1o11ld be 11sed. A few simple principles 0.
are to he kept i11 llll1l(l wl1en 111aki11g a pleasing, restful and ap. mi
propriate £l1'1'Hllg`€1l1C11l§ of furniture. Tl1ese are balance, har- Tl
mony, proportion, emphasis £ll1(l grouping, lll
· Balance. Balance is that quality wl1icl1 prod11ces tl1e feeling  
of rest ?lll(l el¤· be
covers placed opposite to lines ol? the table, destroy unity ainl Ot
p1·0d11ce a restless feeling. Small articles, as chairs, end tables lll
a11d footstools do not necessarily need to be placed parallel l·1 IC
the lines of tl1e room, and may, when placed contrary to this {
' law, help to prevent monotony. A room is harmonioiis \\'ll<‘ll” (L
1. The furniture belongs in the 1·oom—neitlie1· too 11111<·l1 m
nor too little, but just enough.
2. The pieces of liUl'11llll1'(% belong together and are \l`€ll M_
gro11ped. 01
3. The Zl,lll'llll'll|'O is correctly plaeeil in relation to lll" M
lines ol' the rooin. Ot
—l. The c0lo1· illltl color conibinations are pleasing and 11ll’ S
propriate. ll

 4-H Room Improvement Manual 5
Proportion. Proportion is the relation of spaces. The
10 with mgep pieces of furniture should correspond in size to the scale
_ Only of the room and to the spaces they occupy. Many large pieces
is 90m` of furniture crowd a small room and low delicate, fragile fur-
  iiishings look out of place in a spacious room with a high ceiling.
QQ ,11- The larger pieces should be placed along the larger wall spaces.
i Pieces of somewhat the same scale should be grouped together.
_ _ Small articles should be arranged in groups, as they are then V
mlmg seen as a unit. In furniture groupings, interesting proportions
F wie should be worked out in the wall spaces. If many equal divi-
  sions are seen at one time, the result may be monotonous and if
Llhfnsu many unequal divisions are seen, confusion results. If a wall
S dow space is divided into two parts, the result will be pleasing if the
€°hw_\_ object is placed at a point a little less than two-thirds the dis-
mt BQ tance from one end. If more than two divisions are made,. a
HC my variation of some of the spaces and a repetition of others 1S 1n-
WW, teresting.
the my Emphasis. Emphasis includes two important factors, cen-
,.S,_Cm__ ter of interest and simplicity. A room sl1ould be so arranged
an rw and planned that there will be some one part that attracts the
lgmmliv rye more than any other. This center of interest may be tl1e
{,1 mm`, bed, tl1e fireplace, a desk, a couch, a window grouping, or some
HV Hm, ` other unit. This center may be emphasized by the furniture
{NMOS arrangeinent and it should be the most attractive part of the
rallcl tw mom]
to thu Smiplicity in a girl ’s room cannot be over-emphasized. Rest-
“_h,_H_ ` fUl11€SS and beauty of the room depend on this quality. OVG1'-
<·rowding with furniture and cluttcring with ornaments are
*0 tum mistakes often made.
we wp Gwwiping. Furniture should be arranged in such a way
that it definitely tits the purpose of the room and the personality
to the of the occupant. For example, group according to use, comfort
audcovenience. The bedroom is a place for rest, sleep and
and my glh€1‘ personal use and the furnishings should tit these. Il€€dS·
»lIlC€ furniture is to be used and is not for show, group in such
a way that it meets these needs. Comfortable furniture should

 6 Kentucky Extension Circular N o. 270
. be placed for ease and convenience in daily use and should not
I have to be moved when used. In placing ornaments, care should T
be taken not to so arrange as to hinder the usefulness of the ,,1
furniture on which they are put. In the arrangement of fur- an
niture, group things that are to be used together, as bed, bedside Soj
table; dressing table, dressing accessories, stool or low chair and Cp;
light; desk, light, writing material, chair and waste basket; wz
washstand, towel rack, toilet set and screen. re
After the larger pieces in these groups have been placed sn lll
that the room appears balanced, the smaller objects may he CY
arranged to relieve bare spaces and to make a more artistic ml
grouping. Finally, learn to know when to quit decorating. il
Unattractive, ornate furniture may be improved by reinov- th
ing some of the decorations that are glued on or by sawing off gl
tall ornamental tops. Do all such improvements before startinc in
to refinish the piece. All loose parts should be tightened with in
glue, wire nails or screws. Loose joints should be glued, then ll
bound with strips of muslin, until th_e glue hardens. For glue B
use I part carpenter ’s flake glue and 1% parts of hot water. Nix W
and let stand over night; then 1nelt over hot water. Use hot
Any veneered furniture should have loose pieces glued down, nr . A
broken oif veneer replaced. Veneer can be obtained from re- Oi
finishers of old furniture. Woodeii pulls or antique metal hun- II
dles can be bought to replace lost handles or elaborate, unsatis- Sl
factory ones. Wooclen knobs are iinished and put on after the EI
· piece of furniture is refinished. Surface scratches on furniture Y
which is not to be refinished can be removed by rubbing with zi U
mixture composed of equal parts of boiled linseed oil, vinegar l
and turpentine. E
To Remove the Old Finish. A thin, sealy finish may he re
moved by scraping with a piece of glass oi- a s1 eel scraper. 110*** ,
ever, when the finish is thick and old, a good grade of varnish .
remover should be used. Use this according to directi011S €ll"’“ ,

 4-H Room Improvement Manual 7
uid mt on the can. Apply this thickly with an even stroke. Let stand
Should a few minutes and scrape off the excess with a flat knife. Then
Of tht rub off the remaining sticky mass with Hne steel wool dipped in
Of fw ammonia water. If the wood is dark or stained, bleach with a
b€€ gathered on a rod or pleated in and put on with thumb tacks.
Soft mg, A heading, plaits, a double ruffle or other methods of finish may
mum Or be used at the top of the ilounce.
mg Hwy A Stool to be used at the dressing table may be made of a
small box, nail keg or some other convenient article. This may
used for be treated in the same way as the dressing table. Sometimes an
painted Old straight chair is transformed into a stool by sawing off the
back and making a harmonizing cushion for the bottom.

 10 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 270
. Footstools, bookshelves, window boxes and other useful {
pieces of furniture may be made with very little expense by the ,
person who has a little talent for using a saw and hammer.  
Color is the most important item in making an attractive {
room. By the proper use of color the room may be made restful
and charming or gay and beautiful. On the other hand, poor
- selection of color may make a room gaudy and unattractive, o1·
dead and unininteresting.
Usually the club girl is happy in a bedroom done in light
colors, as they express youth. Also, light values and grayed
colors are easier to use than darker or brighter ones. 'l‘hcre are
a few general rules that govern the planning of any color
scheme. The following should be considered;
1. The location and lighting of the room. »
2. The furniture and furnishings. Things already ou
hand have to be considered.
A fairly safe rule is to use neutral, dulled colors for large
areas, and bright colors, in small areas, for accent.
3. The relation of the room to the rest of the house. For
example, a bedroom in the front, opening into the living room,
may need to have the color scheme closely related if the two
rooms are to be used together.
4. The personality or tastes of the occupant of the room.
Rooms with little light, located on the north side of the
house, need colors th_at reflect light and warmth. For rooms
with sunny southern exposure, cool colors, such as gray, green
I blue, are satisfactory.
The jioe principal colors (Munshell Chart). Red, yellow
green, blue and purple are the principal colors. From these
five all other colors may be derived, altho their values maybe
varied by the addition of black or white.
The intermediate colors. Between the principal colors are
intermediate colors, which are composed of equal parts of the

 4-H Room Improvement Manual 11 l
useful two adjacent principal colors. They are red—yellow (orange),
’bYlh€ yellow-green, green-blue, blue-purple, and red-purple. These
161* gre the half—way steps between the principal colors. Unequal
proportions of any two colors produce an endless number of
_ other variations.
tractive . .
kmstful The color chart. For help in study of colors and color
Ld, pm harmonies the principal and intermediate colors have been ar-
MVG, 01, ranged in a circle. ‘
The three qualities of color. Three things can be known
in pgp about a color:
grayed 1. Hue. The name of the color, whether it is yellow,
iere are green, blue, etc.
Y color 2. Value. The amount of light or dark present. Ex-
ample, whether light blue, dark blue, etc.
· 3. Chroma or intensity. The amount of pure color pres-
lady OH ent. Is the color bright, pure color, or is it dulled or grayed by
the addition of some other color.
Dr large Properties of color. Color seems to possess temperature,
m For force and weight.
g wom, Warm colors are those which have a predominance of red
the two and yellow, as yellow, orange, red, red—purple, and yellow-green.
Cold colors are those having a predominance of blue. They
6 mm are blue, green-blue. green, blue-purple and purple.
of thc Red, orange and yellow are cheerful and suggest action.
r rooms Green, blue, purple, green-blue, and blue-purple are restful and
w, green receding.
The floor, woodwork and walls are the background of a
room. The background deserves first consideration in 1·edec—
Y€H°“l* Omtillg a room. The background should be both beautiful and
H lh€S° iuconspicuous, thereby making a setting for the furniture, rugs,
may be Pictures and other accessories. The door should be the darkest,
thc walls lighter and the ceiling lightest in color value. \Ve get
_ors are this art principle from nature. Notice how the colors shade
of the from dark to light in the earth, t1·ees and sky.

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 4-H Room Improvement Mammal 13
The floor should be dark enough in value to give a feeling
of security, and it should be neutral enough in color to be in-
conspieuous. A club girl’s bedroom floor should be easy to
clean and in harmony with the rest of the 1·oom. The floor nn-
ishes now used are paint, stain, varnish, shellae, wax and oil.
The finish for your room will depend on the kind of wood in the
floor, condition of this flooring, effect desired, and the money l
available for this job. Before applying any kind of finish the
old floor has to be made ready.
Preparatiort of Old Floors for Re/inishriozg.
A. Old floors that have never had a finish of any kind.
1. Make flooring as tight, level and smooth   possible.
2. Remove splinters with knife or small plane.
3. Remove tacks and nails or sink nails in the wood.
4. Scrub clean. A solution of 1 part of ammonia to S
parts of warm water is good for removing spots.
  Bleach all dark spots with oxalic acid. Use 1 table-
spoonful of oxalie acid to 1 cup of hot water.
6. Fill cracks with crack filler, either a commercial
filler or homemade one. Allow`to dry. To make a crack lilled,
melt cabinet glue with a little l1ot wafer, in a double boiler.
Yl`lllUl{Gll with sawdust. Color to suit finish to be used.
7. Sand the floor well. Rub off with a cloth moistened
slightly in gasoline.
8. Apply wood filler to open-grained woods such as
oak, ash, walnut and chestnut. Rub in with a brush, following
the grain of the wood. Allow to stand twenty minutes. Remove
excess filler with a coarse cloth.
9. Allow filler to dry 36 to 48 hours. Then sandpaper
and wipe off with a cloth moistened in gasoline.
B. Old floors that have had a finish.
1. Paint or varnish finish may be removed by
(a) Scraping or planing.

 14 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 270
· (b) Chemical removers, either commercial or lye t
i For thc lye solution, use 3 tablespoonfuls of lye and 1 quart of
starch. Apply with a vegetable brush or old broom. Scrape T
off. Wash with clean water and a vinegar solution. Di·y_
Sandpaper and dust. L
2. Shellac finish may be removed by alcohol. I,
3. \Vax 1nay be removed by rubbing with fine steel
wool dipped in turpentine. Rub with a soft cloth.
l 4. Oil may be removed by varnish remover. Bleach
with a strong solution of oxalic acid. j
Refinishing Floors.
A. Paint.——This is about the most satisfactory finish for
old floors.
1. Apply two or three coats of good quality floor or
deck paint to the well-cleaned floor.
2. Sandpaper and wipe off between coats.
3. This finish is made more durable by adding a coat
of valspar or shellac.
4. Sandpaper, wax and polish, if desired.
B. Stain—Several kinds of stains are sold, but an inex-
pensive, good stain may be made at home, as follows: Home
mm/e s/(mz. Mix burnt umber and burnt sienna to get the
desired color and make into a liquid with turpentine or alcohol.
The burnt umber gives a walnut color and the sienna a reddish
1. Apply the stain with a brush, using strokes that
do not overlap.
' 2. Wipe off excess stain with a soft cloth.
3. If one coat does not darken the floor enough, au-
other may be added. Floors may be stained before variiishiila
shellacking or waxing.
C. Yarnish or shellac.·—This finish can be used on either
hard or soft woods. Floors that are wanted darker in color
should be stained before the varnish or shellac is applied. A
clear varnish, or a clear or orange shellac may be used.
1. Heat over hot water.

4-H Room Improvement Manual 15
2. Put on with a good brush, following the grain of
OY 111* the wood, without overlapping strokes.
Lam Of 3. Temperature of the room should not be less
Dcmpf than 70°.
DW 4. Apply two or three coats. Sandpaper between
coats with No. OO sandpaper. YVipe dust off with a soft cloth
before another coat is put on.
e steel 5. Allow 36 to 48 hours between coats, for drying.
6. The last coat may be rubbed down and waxed. V
Bleach D. Wax.——This Hnish is good for a floor that has been
painted, stained, varnished, shellacked or oiled.
1. Apply a thin coating of wax with a cloth.
sh fop 2. Rub in thoroly with a. weighted mop.
3. Thin coats are better than a heavy layer of wax.
{001- 0F Homemade floor wax: bq lb. beeswax, {Q c, turpentine,
2tb. alcohol. Melt wax over hot water. Remove from lire. Add
turpentine and alcohol. Stir until smooth. Or the following:
H com lj, lb. beeswax, 1/Q lb. paraffin. Place in a quart jar and set in
pan of hot water. Melt. Remove from stove. Add as much
turpentine as the jar will hold. Stir and cool.
, hwy E. Oil.-—This gives an economical and desirable finish for
IIOMC 501118 I`OO11]S.
;et the 1. Have floor clean and dry.
lC0hOl_ 2. Apply a mixture of equal parts of linseed oil and
Bddish turpentine. Have it hot.
3. Rub in with a soft. cloth.
,S that 4. \Vipe off the excess with a dry cloth.
5. 1Vhen dry a wax finish may be applied. The home-
made floor wax is good for this purpose. Reference.——U. S. D. A.
gh, my Bul. N0. 1219 on "Floors and Floor COV€1`l11§.n
ighjug, WOODWORK
The woodwork, doors, windows and door frames of the
either bedroom may be either a little lighter or darker than the walls.
i color lt is especially important to have the woodwork light if the room
ad. A is small, as very dark woodwork may make the windows and
doors conspicuous, and the room look smaller.
Before rennishing woodwork, it may need the same treat-

 K .
ltj Ifeniucky Extension C/irculu-i· N0. 270
ment as the floor. If the old paint is thick or scaling, the old
· finish should be removed and the wood made clean and smooth.
A \Voodwork usually is painted, stained or varnished. Enamel
may be very good for the woodwork in your -bedroom. Ivory
enamel is excellent with light colored walls or delicately tinted
paper. A satin or eggshell Hnish is preferable to a flat or shiny
enamel finish. If a regular eggshell enamel is not obtainable
this effect may be obtained by rubbing down a shiny-finished
enamel to a soft, glossy surface. To enamel woodwork, apply
’ two coats of flat paint and one of enamel, sandpapering all sur-
faces after each coat is dry.
The walls of the girl’s bedroom may be either unceiled,
plastered, or papercd. lf they are unceilcd you may be able
to make an attractive room by ceiling with beaver or plaster
board. Then, this may be later painted or ealcimined. A plas-
tered wall may be painted, calcimined or papered. The pa-
pered wall may need cleaning, repapering or, if the pape1· is
intact, it may be calcimined.
(i(I·l("liHZ’I.’IlC is inexpensive and easy to apply. lt also pro-
duces a very nice, soft effect. However, it cannot be cleaned
and wears off quickly. It has to be removed before applying
any other finish.
Oil Pa-int is very durable and produces charming elfects.
The dull finish is more attractive for a bedroom than the gloss.
lVoNp0pcr. For the bedroom select colors that are light
in value and slightly dulled or grayed in intensity. As to pat-
tern, try to avoid those that are spotty or crawly. As a rulC.
' small designs with quite a good deal of the backgrounds showing
are best for small rooms. Designs that are blurred or those giv-
ing a mottled effect are restful and pleasing. Dainty flower
bouquets, star designs, dots and informal designs in dainty
colors are permissible in the bedroom. Narrow bandings are
best. for the borders in low rooms.
How to remove old paper. \Net the paper with warm
water, using a whitewash brush. XVet only part of the walls at

 4-H Room Improvement Manual 17 r
ie old it time. Brush with the wet brush until the pape1· can be
iootli. scraped off. Remove with a broad knife.
Hamel Wallpaper paste. Three pints flour, 2 quarts cold water.
Ivory Mix to form a paste. Add 8 quarts boiling water. Cook slowly
;intcd for ten minutes, stirring constantly. Strain when cold. Add
Shiny 3 th powderetl alum. Reference.—Kentucl