xt7wm32n6k1p https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7wm32n6k1p/data/mets.xml Richardson, Robert, 1806-1876. 186870  books b92-130-29191641v2 English J.B. Lippincott, : Philadelphia : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Campbell, Alexander, 1788-1866. Memoirs of Alexander Campbell  : embracing a view of the origin, progress and principles of the religious reformation which he advocated (vol. 2) / by Robert Richardson. text Memoirs of Alexander Campbell  : embracing a view of the origin, progress and principles of the religious reformation which he advocated (vol. 2) / by Robert Richardson. 1868 2002 true xt7wm32n6k1p section xt7wm32n6k1p 










             WHICH HE ADVOCATED.


        More sweet than odors caught by him who sails
        Near spicy shores of Araby the blest,
          A thousand times more exquisitely sweet,
          The freight of holy feeling which we meet,
        In thoughtful moments, wafted by the gales
        From fields where good men walk, or bowers wherein they rest.

                    VOL. II.

        J. B. LIPPINCOTT  CO


             Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869, by

                         ROBERT RICHARDSON,

In the Clerk's Othce of the District Court of the United States, for the District of West




                      CHAPTER I.
                                                         PM.; K
Religious agreement-Protestant principle-Opposition to contro-
  versy-Discussion with Rev. John Walker-Rules-Circum-
  cision and baptism-Covenants-Argument from antiquity-
  Mode of action-Mr. Findley-Challenge-First bereavement
  -Family cemetery-Printed debate-Rev. S. Ralston-Holy
  Spirit the seal of the Christian covenant-Aim not merely to
  overthrow error but to establish truth...             1-39

                     CHAPTER II.
The Bible fettered-Submission of the people to the clergy-Mr.
  Campbell's views of the Bible-Adamson Bentley-Sidney Rig-
  don-Ministers' meetings-I-Birth of a daughter-Churches in
  Pittsburg-Birth of a son-Close of Buffalo Seminary-MIr.
  Campbell's aims enlarged-" Christian Baptist"-Mr. NIcCalla
  -Censures of the proceedings of the clergy-Mr. Campbell's
  views of the Church-Severity of his strictures-Indignation and
  misrepresentations of the clergy-Manceuvre in the Redstone
  Association foiled .... 40 70

                    CHAPTER        III.
Journey to Kentucky-Rules of discussion with Mr. McCalla-
Appearance of disputants-Spirit manifested-Their respective
methods and arguments-Design of baptism clearly stated-
Amusing incident-Mr. Campbell renews his challenge- I s
candor toward the Baptists-His popularity-Elder Vardeman
Results of the discussion-Visit to Lexington-Impressions
made-Philip S. Fall-Study of the Scriptures-Union of
churches in Pittsburg-Progress of Reformation ....  71-102

                    CHAPTER IV.
Second tour in Kentucky-Regard for the Baptists-View of ex-
perimental religion-Conflicting opinions-Interview with John


 Smith-Theological theories-Dr. Wayland-Baptist preachers
 of Kentucky-Incidents-P. S. Fall-D. S. Burnet-Work of
 the Holy Spirit-The ancient order of things-Extremes-Sup-
 port of elders-The holy kiss-Feet-washing-Evangelists-
 Visit to Eastern Virginia-R. B. Semple-Mistaken views enter-
 tained of Mr. Campbell-Misrepresentations-His independent
 position-Views of communion-Progress of Reformation in
 various quarters...............                     103-142

                     CHAPTER V.
Special orthodoxies-Sympathy of Reformers-New version of
Testament-Moral courage-Reception of the work-Andrew
Broaddus' views of the - Christian Baptiat" and of spiritual
agency-Mr. Campbell's guiding principle-The Living Oracles
-His opposition to speculation-Difficulties-Robert B. Sem-
ple-Paulinus-Point of difference-Mahoning Association-
Scenes at the Redstone Association-Washington Association
-Bereavement-Mlrs. Campbell's failing-health-Visit to Ken-
tucky and Tennessee-Church in Nashville-Unusual request-
Ministerial labors-Interest in personal friends-Stillwater As-
sociation-Visit to Mahoning Association-Incidents-Appoint-
ment of Walter Scott as evangelist-Mrs. Campbell's earnest
wish repeated-l-Her address to her daughters-Kler death-Pub-
lication of a hymn-book-Walter Scott's labors-The Christian
connection ....... 143-183

                     CHAPTER VI.
I'he gospel adapted to every creature-Its simplicity obscured by
false systems-Attempts at reformation in North Carolina, in
Vermont and in Kentucky-Barton W. Stone-Sketch of his
  life-Religious excitement in Kentucky-Springfield Presby-
  tery-Disputations-The atonement-Practice of immersion
  adopted-Its design partially recognized-Reformations com-
  pared-Their differences-Correspondence between Mr. Camp-
  bell and B. W. Stone-Limits of reason-Restriction to Bible
  terms-Progress on Western Reserve-Joseph Gaston-Walter
  Scott-Subject of conversion-Design of baptism-Adamson
  Bentley-Jacob Osborne-Arrangement of gospel items-First
  effort a failure-Discourse at New Lisbon-Providential prepara-
  tion-Practical restoration of baptism for remission of sins-
  Theory and practice-Religious excitement-Conversion of
  Avlett Raines-Thomas Campbell's labors-Mr. Campbell's
  home labors-Church letters-Essays upon the ancient gospel
  -Millennial hopes...............                     184-225






                   CHAPTER VII.
Mr. Campbell's editorial liberality-Narrow policies of sectarian-
ism-Influence upon skeptics-Discussions with them-Notion
of a Deity received by revelation and proved by nature-In-
crease of infidelity-Robert Owen's plans-" New Harmony
Gazette"-A problem-Dr. Underhill-Mr. Owen's challenge
accepted-He visits Mr. Campbell-Anecdote-Mr. Campbell's
second marriage-Meeting of the Mahoning Association at
Warren-Case of Aylett Raines-Mr. Campbell's freedom of
thought-Basis of Christian union-William Hayden-John
  Henry-Jonas Hartzel-Cyrus and Marcus Bosworth-Symonds
  Ryder-E. B. Hubbard-John Whitaker-William Collins-E.
  Williams-John Applegate-John Rudolph-A. Allerton-Trials
  of early laborers ............ 226-262

                   CHAPTER VIII.

Preparations for the Owen debate-Sketch of Robert Owen-In-
terest of the discussion-Its character-Gems of Mr. Owen's
casket-Mr. Campbell's eloquent defence of Christianity-Un-
expected test-Effect of the discussion upon infidelity-Mr.
Campbell's influence-Close of " Christian Baptist"-Reforma-
tion in Kentucky-Jeremiah Vardeman-Large accessions-Mr.
Campbell's fear of extremes-Progress in Tennessee and Vir-
ginia-Thomas M. Henley-Silas Shelburne-F. W. Emmons-
Ancient Gospel in.Birmah-Robert Tener-Reformation in Ire-
land-In England-Birth of a daughter-R. Richardson-James
McElroy-John McElroy-Susan Osburne-Mr. Campbell's
home-life-Commencement of the " Millennial Harbinger". 263-303

                    CHAPTER IX.

Political canvass-Philip Doddridge-Mr. Sprigg-Incidents-
State Convention-Mr. Campbell's speeches-Maintains his
religious position-His labors at Richmond-Mr. Madison-Mfr.
Judah-R. L. Coleman-His religious experience-His labors-
R. B. Semple-William Tener-Baptist opposition- Beaver
anathema-Divisions-Jacob Creath, Sr.-J. Vardeman-Extra
on remission of sins-Regeneration-Mahoning Association dis-
solved-Stillwater Association-Annual meetings-Mr. Camp-
bell visits Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee-A. Crihfield-S.
Rogers-Churches in Clinton county and Cincinnati, Ohio-
Labors in Kentucky--L. I. Fleming and other preachers-Nash-


6                      CONTENTS.
  yille-Rev. Obadiah Jennings-Discussion-Its character-Re-
  ligious bigotry-Success at Nashville-Return .. ........... 304-343

                     CHAPTER X.

Mormonism-Sidney Rigdon its real author-His schemes-Prog-
  ress of the delusion-Mr. Campbell's effective opposition-The
  Dover Association-Misrepresentations-Incidents-Co-opera-
  tion-Infidelity-Humphrev Marshall-L. H. Cohen-Dialogue
  on the Holy Spirit-Human philosophy-W. Scott's discourse
  on the Holy Spirit-Commendation by Mr. Campbell-A.
  Broaddus' "Extra Examined"-Mr. Campbell's review-Popu-
  lar errors-Birth of a son-New Testament, pocket edition-R.
  B. Semple and Thomas Campbell-Divisions in Virginia-Acts
  of Dover Association-Meeting-houses-Instrumental music in
  worship-Slavery.............                       344-369

                    CHAPTER XI.

Christian union-Faith and not opinion the proper basis-John
  Rogers-Thomas M. Allen-John Allen Gano-John T. John-
  son-B. W. Stone-Union between "Reformers" and "'Chris-
  tians"-Thomas Smith-Aylett Raines-Francis R. and Henry
  Palmer-Happy results of union-B. F. Hall-Mr. Campbell
  visits Eastern Virginia and New York-Address to skeptics-
  -Turning out the apostles"-Religious prejudice-Addresses in
  Philadelphia-William Ballentine-His essay on elders' office
  -Birth of a daughter-Death of eldest daughter--Extra on
  kingdom of heaven-Progress of Reform in the West-In Eng-
  land-William Jones republishes Mr. Campbell's writings-
  James Wallis ......... .................................. 370-397

                    CHAPTER XII.

\ iolence of the opposition-" Father Goodal's family circle"-
  Roman Catholicism-Visit to Nashville-Louisville-Dr. T. S.
  Bell-Visit to Cincinnati and Carthage-To Georgetown, Ken-
  tucky-Indian Academy-Lexington-Mayslick-John O'Kane
  -Death of Mr. Campbell's mother-Bishop Otey-Discussion
  with Mr. Meredith of North Carolina-Baptism for remission
  of sins-Mr. Campbell's tour to the North and East-Exposure
  of the Free-thinkers at Ravenna and Cleveland-Letters-Mr.
  Campbell's respect for men-Family affection-Impression of
  the New England States-Sunrise at sea .................. 398-421




                   CHAPTER       XIII.
College of teachers-Bishop Purcell-Discussion agreed upon-
Propositions-Incidents-Results-Bishop Purcell and St. Ligori
-Discussion on Universalism-S. W. Lynd-Gift of the Holy
Spirit-Position of unimmersed believers-Diminished hostility
to Mr. Campbell-Birth of a son-Visit to Cincinnati-To Ver-
sailles, Ky.-Mr. Styles-Visit to Lexington and George-
town................                               422-438

                    CHAPTER XIV.

Mr. Campbell's influence upon religious society-No design to be
the leader of a party-His humility-Speculations of Dr.
Thomas-Re-immersion-Leading principle of the Reformation
-Liberty and license-Repudiation of Dr. Thomas-Mr. Camp-
bell's visit to the Southern States-Charlottesville-Discussion
with Dr. Thomas at Painesville-Apparent reconciliation-Dis-
appointment-Charleston, South Carolina-Slavery-E. A.
Smith-Augusta, Georgia-State of the South-Letters-James
A. Butler-Alabama-Louisiana-Elder Clapp-Discourse at
New Orleans-Jackson-James Shannon-Conjugal affection-
Labors in Kentucky-William Morton-P. S. Fall-Address to
Maysville Lyceum-Death of sister Alicia-Of daughter Eliza
-Impressions of wants of society-Scheme of education-Tal-
leyrand-Dr. Fellenberg-Plan for future-Bethany College
organized...................................... ..439-470

                    CHAPTER XV.

Reformation in South-westernVirginia-Chester Bullard-Landon
Duncan-Joseph Thomas, " the White Pilgrim"-Effect of Mr.
Campbell's writings-" Dover Decrees"-Andrew Broaddus-
Mr. Campbell's desire for union-Discussion of the atonement
with B. W. Stone-Its good effect-Birth of a daughter-Open-
ing of Bethany College-Its success-Union meeting at Lexing-
ton-J. M. Peck on spiritual influence-Agencies employed to
prepare the heart-Tours on behalf of the college to Ken-
tucky and Ohio-Numerous accessions-Church organization
-Visit to Eastern cities-British consul at New York-Burnriese
Bible-Birth of a son................               471-500

                   CHAPTER XVI.

Overtures for discussion with Presbyterians-N. L. Rice-Propo-
sitions-Rules-Method of disputants-Mr. Campbell's position




in regard to Bapto and its derivatives-Fully verified by Sinaitic
Codex-Incidents of debate-Impressions on the public-Mr.
Rice's ingenuity-Principles of the Reformation stated and ex-
plained-A doctrinal and a personal faith-Presbyterians de-
ceived in their expectations-Effects of the discussion when
printed-Mr. Campbell and Doctors of Divinity-His incessant
occupation............................................... 501-529

                   CHAPTER XVII.

View of the slavery relation-His wisdom prevents division-
Bethany College-Tour in its behalf in Virginia, North Caro-
lina, South Carolina and Georgia-R. L. Coleman-Dr. Hooke
-Mrs. Tubman-ex-Governors Hammond and Schley-Tour
to the Far West-St. Louis-Columbia-Fayette-Palmvra-
Hannibal-4-B. W. Stone's death-Mr. Campbell's regard for him
-Visit to Illinois-Capital punishment-Death of T. M. Hen-
ley-Death of daughter Lavinia-Evangelical Alliance-Wide
diffusion of Reformation principles-Visit to Europe with James
Henshall-Robert Owen-Sea voyage-Meetings in Liverpool,
Chester, Wrexham, Shrewsbury, Nottingham and London, etc.
-Trip to Paris-Journey to Scotland-Edinburgh-Artifices of
opponents-Persecution-Tour in Scotland-Aberdeen-Dun-
dee-Capar-Glasgow-Ivie Campbell-Avr-Death of son
Wickliffe-Illegal prosecution-Mr. Campbell refuses to accept
bail-Kindness of the brotherhood-His imprisonment-Illness
-Case of John Wesley-Whitefield---Warrant declared illegal-
  Release-Rev. James Robertson-Dr. Wardlaw ........... 53o-566

                  CHAPTER XVIII.

Visits Belfast-Shane's Castle-Dungannon-Rich-Hill-Pleasant
reminiscences-Newry-Warren Point-Liverpool-Meeting at
  Chester-Funds for poor-Return voyage-Halifax-Lord's day
  --Views of American citizenship-Return home in impaired
  health-Tenderness toward Mrs. Campbell in her deep affliction.
  -Letters of condolence-Resolutions condemnatory of persecu-
  tion in Scotland-Result of Robertson case-Death of Mrs.
  Campbell's mother-Of daughter Margaret-Mr. Campbell urges
  emancipation of slaves in Kentucky-Seeks to promote piety in
  the churches and good works-Orphan school-Address on
  Anglo-Saxon language at Cincinnati-Visits Louisville-Dr.
  Humphrey's description of Mr. Campbell-His character as a


 preacher-Visit to interior of Kentucky-Trip to Baltimore-
 Invited to address Congress-American Bible Union-His in-
 terest in it-Visit to Indiana-Change in public sentiment-
 Death of daughter Clarinda-Visit to Ohio-Bible Union Con-
 vention at Memphis-Visit to Missouri and to Eastern Virginia
 -Convention at Harrodsburg, Kentucky-Temperance move-
 ment-Tour in Illinois and Missouri ...................... 567-602

                   CHAPTER XIX.
Defection of J. B. Ferguson-Death of Thomas Campbell-Re-
vision of Acts of the Apostles-Missionaries-Visit to Nashville
-" Campbellism Examined"-Views of Dr. Lynd-Fundamental
principles-Undue labor-Its effects-Visit to Canada-Trip to
Eastern Virginia-Excursion to Kentucky, etc.-Progress of
truth-Death of J. T. Johnson-Tour in the South-Letters-
Christian baptism-Visit to Illinois and Iowa ............. 603-631

                    CHAPTER XX.
Burning of the college building-Renewed labors-Visit to the
East, South and West-Letters-G. D. Prentice-Dr. D. R.
Campbell-Tours in 1859 to the South, to Missouri and Kansas
-" The Messiahship" by W. Scott-Tour in 186o with Isaac
Errett in Indiana-Mr. Campbell's political foresight-Tour in
Virginia interrupted by the war-Death of Walter Scott-Life
of Thomas Campbell-Death of Mrs. Bryant-Excursions to
New York, to Cincinnati-Death of William Hayden-Halluci-
nations-Letters-Remembrance of friends-Visit to James Fos-
ter-Trip to Louisville-Last words in the " Harbinger"... 632-656

                   CHAPTER XXI.
Worldly circumstances-Hymn-book-Decline-Will-Mental
traits - Condescension - Philanthropy - Retaliation - Self-de-
fence - Conversational powers - Religious life - Progress-Fi-
delity-Conservatism-Success-Failing health-Last discourse
-Last attendance at meeting-Increasing debility-Confidence
-Closing scenes-Death-Funeral services-List of published
works ............................6....... .............. 657-680



 This page in the original text is blank.





                  CHAPTER I.
Religious dissensions, how to be ended-Public oral debates-Discussion
with Mr. Walker-Its origin-Its progress-Its results-First family be-
reavement-The family cemetery-The Holy Spirit the true seal of the
New Covenant

TO put an end to religious controversy had been one
     of the chief aims of the Reformation proposed by
Thomas Campbell. It was his conviction that, if men
would adopt the Bible as the only standard of religious
truth, and accept the meaning of its words as deter-
mined simply by the rules of language, its true sense
would be sufficiently obvious, and there would be uni-
versal agreement in relation to the things which it re-
vealed. It was his fond hope that religious dissensions
might be thus brought to a close, and that there would
be thenceforward no occasion whatever for controversy
except with those who denied the divine authority of
the Bible. Speaking of the primitive Church as de-
scribed in the New Testament, he said: " Let us do as
we are there expressly told they did; say as they said;
that is, profess and practice, as therein expressly en-
joined by precept and precedent, in every possible
instance after their approved example, and in so doing
we shall -realize and exhibit all that unity and uni-



formity that the primitive Church possessed, or that the
law of Christ requires."
  The view which he thus adopted was, indeed, sim-
ply the great fundamental principle of Protestantism
itself, as well stated by Chillingworth in the following
  " Let all men believe the Scripture, and that only, and en-
deavor to believe it in the true sense, and require no more of
others, and they shall find this not only a better, but the only
means to suppress heresy and restore unity. For he that be-
lieves the Scripture sincerely, and endeavors to believe it in
the true sense, cannot possibly be a heretic. And if no more
than this were required of any man to make him capable of
the Church's communion, then all men, so qualified, though
they were different in opinion, notwithstanding any such dif-
ference, must be of necessity one in communion."-The
RelZigion of Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation, p. z3
(Bohn's edition).
  The distinction between faith and opinion was here
clearly indicated, nothing more being proposed in order
to communion and unity than to believe " the Scripture
only," and to endeavor "to believe it in the true sense."
In laying down this principle, the intelligibility of Scrip-
ture was necessarily implied, and it was not for a mo-
ment doubted that its true sense could be gathered from
its words taken according to their established use and
in their just connection; since to have thought other-
wise would have been to regard the Bible as having no
determinate meaning at all. With Thomas Campbell,
therefore, and all who really adopted this principle, a
simple appeal to Scripture was regarded as decisive in
relation to every matter on which it treated; while, on
the- other hand, as respects the innumerable religious
questions which have been or might be started, aside



from Revelation, these, as merely human inferences
and opinions, were to be considered as without authority
over the conscience, and as of too little importance in
themselves to be subjects of debate or strife. During
his whole life, Thomas Campbell was accordingly most
careful to avoid all untaught questions. He did not
seem indeed to regard them as worthy of even a mo-
ment's consideration, and it was usual with him to re-
mark, in reply to any one who proposed such a ques-
tion, "Well, sir, if you will show me how your inquiry
affects in any way your salvation, I will endeavor to
answer it." Nor was Alexander less firm in adhering
to the principle adopted, though, from the greater dis-
cursiveness of his mind and his fondness for investiga-
tion, he seemed somewhat more indulgent to such
  In the confident expectation that controversy might
thus be wholly dispensed with among believers, it had
been stated by Thomas Campbell, in the Address of the
Christian Association of Washington, that " contro-
versy formed no part of the intended plan," and that
I" though written objections to the proposed movement
would be thankfully received and seriously considered,
verbal controversy was absolutely refused." The utility,
indeed, of friendly discussion in order to elicit truth and
bring out the whole Scripture testimony in relation to
any particular subject, was always admitted, and, in
private, constantly experienced; but the feelings of the
Reformers were at first decidedly opposed to Public oral
debates even on scriptural themes, as being not favor-
able to the promotion of Christian union, since persons
thus publicly committed to the support of particular
views were too often tempted to strive for victory, rather
than for truth, and to refuse to sound argument and




Scripture proof that candid and dispassionate consider-
ation which they deserved.
  Hence it was that, when Alexander Campbell was
urged in the spring of i820, to engage in a public oral
debate with Mr. Walker, on the question of Baptism,
he at first declined to consent, "' not regarding," as he
said, "public debates" to be "Ithe proper method of
proceeding in contending for the faith once delivered to
the saints." He had adopted this conclusion, however,
more from deference to his father's feelings on the sub-
ject, than from his own matured convictions of expe-
diency or from his natural temperament. Conscious of
dialectic power, and possessed of unfaltering courage,
he had been characterized even in his boyhood, by his
readiness to maintain the right, and to enter the lists in
debate with any worthy champion among his school-
mates. His quick perception of logical relations; his
wide range of thought; his great fluency of speech and
the keenness of his wit, peculiarly adapted him to pub-
lic discussion; and the struggle was by no means slight
when, from respect to existing circumstances, he felt
obliged to repress his native ardor, and to keep within
the lines which his father's caution had prescribed.
His peculiar abilities as a public disputant were not,
however, destined to remain inactive in the field of the
Reformation. Already had the aggressive course of
the " Synod of Pittsburg" led him, while yet a mere
youth, to appear in public vindication of the Christian
Association, and the time had now arrived when a fresh
challenge from Presbyterianism was to call him out
fairly and fully into that field of polemical discussion
in which he was to find a proper scope for his abilities.
  It had happened, during the fall of i819, that a Mr.
John Birch, a Baptist preacher at Flat Rock, near Mt.



Pleasant, Ohio, had baptized an unusual number of
converts. This success, awakening the zeal of the
minister of the Secession church at Mt. Pleasant, Mr.
John Walker, induced him to deliver a series of ser-
mons in praise of infant baptism, and in contravention
of the principles entertained by the Baptists. On one
of these occasions, Mr. Birch was present, and as Mr.
Walker, in the course of his remarks, made some quota-
tions from the works of Dr. Baldwin which seemed
unfair, he, after sermon, took the liberty of asking Mr.
Walker to what portion of Dr. Baldwin's works he re-
ferred. Upon this, a short dispute arose as to 'the
meaning of the passage quoted, and this was followed
by several interviews and some correspondence, ending
in a challenge by Mr. Walker to Mr. Birch, or any
other Baptist preacher of good standing whom Mr.
Birch might choose, to come forward publicly and de-
bate with him the question of baptism. Mr. Birch
readily accepted the proposition, and from his high
opinion of Mr. Campbell's ability, at once wrote to him
urging him to undertake the discussion.
  To this appeal, Mr. Campbell, in the circumstances
in which he was placed, was unable to give an imme-
diate reply. He kept it, therefore, for some time under
advisement. Mr. Birch meanwhile renewed the appli-
cation, and finally on 27th of March addressed to Mr.
Campbell the following note:

  " DEAR BROTHER: I once more undertake to address you
by letter; as we are commanded not to weary in well-doing,
I am disposed to persevere. I am coming this third time
unto you. I cannot persuade myself that you will refuse to
attend to the dispute with Mr. Walker; therefore I do not
feel disposed to complain because you have sent me no an-
swer. True, I have expected an answer, signifying your ac-




ceptance of the same. I am as yet disappointed, but am not
offended nor discouraged. I can truly say it is the unanimous
wish of all the church to which I belong that you should be
the disputant. It is Brother Nathaniel Skinner's desire; it is
the wish of all the brethren with whom I have conversed
that you should be the man. You will, I hope, send me an
answer by Brother Jesse Martin, who has promised to bear
this unto you. Come, brother; come over into Macedonia
and help us.        Yours, in the best of bonds,
                                    "JOHN BIRCH."

  Being thus called upon by the church, and urged by
personal friends, he could no longer refuse to yield to
his convictions of public duty. His devotion to the
cause of truth, and, as he says, his "unwillingness to
appear, much more to feel, afraid or ashamed to defend
it," overcame the scruples arising from his aversion to
do anything which might be construed into a sanction
of modern religious controversy. Having succeeded,
accordingly, in convincing his father that, however
much the usual unprofitable debates upon human theo-
ries and opinions were to be deplored and avoided, no
valid objection could lie against a public defence of re-
vealed truth, for which the Scripture afforded abundant
precedent, he at length informed Mr. Birch of his will-
ingness to meet Mr. Walker.
  These facts are of some importance, because Mr.
Campbell, from the numerous public discussions in
which he was subsequently engaged, came to be re-
garded by many as a person disposed to provoke
debate, and as seeking opportunity to assail the relig-
ious views of others. The history of the case shows,
however, that here, as heretofore, he was acting en-
tirely on the defensive; that he was placed under an
imperious necessity to appear in behalf of the interests



of truth, and that he had not in any respect provoked
or originated controversy with the Pmdobaptists.
  As soon as Mr. Walker heard of Mr. Campbell's ac-
ceptance, he addressed to him the following note, which,
in its style and spirit, shows sufficiently who was the
dictating and leading party:
                               "NEW ATHENS, May 30, z82o.
"MR. ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, Buvfalo Seminary:
  'I think proper to intimate to you that I have chosen the
Rev. Samuel Findley to preside at the time of our public dis-
pute: you have the privilege of choosing another; you will
please to make such choice, and let him meet with Mr. Findley
prior to the day of public dispute, that we may not be de-
tained. They should determine the manner of dispute, and
fix rules by which we should proceed, and preside, not to
give judgment, but to keep order.
                           "Yours, with respect,
                                   "JOHN WALKER."
  Mr. Walker, it thus appeared, had decided that the
moderators should refrain from giving judgment upon
the merits of the discussion, and had selected on his
side Mr. Findley, who had already, as has been seen,
signalized on various occasions. his intense hostility to
Mr. Campbell. The latter chose, on his part, Mr. Jacob
Martin, and the following rules for the discussion were
  " I. Each speaker shall have the privilege of speaking forty
minutes without interruption, if he thinks proper to use them
all. 2. Mr. Walker shall open the debate and Mr. Campbell
shall close it. 3. The moderators are merely to keep order,
not to pronounce judgment on the merits of the debate. 4.
The proper subject of the ordinance of baptism is first to be
discussed, then the mode of baptism. 5. The debate must
be conducted with decorum, and all improper allusions or
passionate language guarded against. 6. The debate shall
    VOL. Iu.-B           2




be continued from day to day till the people are satisfied, or
till the moderators think that enough has been said on each
topic of debate."
  Monday morning, the i9th of June, having been ap-
pointed as the time for the commencement of the dis-
cussion, the parties assembled, accordingly, early on
that day at the place agreed upon, Mr. Campbell being
accompanied by his father and a few friends who felt a
particular interest in the result. The place selected
was Mt. Pleasant, in Ohio, a village some twenty-three
miles distant from Mr. Campbell's residence, and situ-
ated in the midst of a very beautiful and fertile country,
gently undulating and greatly improved by the care-
ful culture and industry characteristic of the Quaker
farmers who constituted a large portion of the surround-
ing population. Comfortable dwellings, rich fields of
clover, substantial fences and thrifty orchards greeted
the eye on every side, with here and there luxuriant
groves or smaller clumps of stately forest trees. This
region was quite thickly settled, and as considerable
interest in the subject had been already created, and
public polemical discussions were at this time quite a
novelty, a large and attentive assembly was in attend-
  Immediately upon his arrival, Mr. Campbell was
privately informed by several persons that Mr. Walker,
under the impression that he was of an irascible tem-
perament, had intimated his intention to throw him off
his guard by irritating language, so as to gain the ad-
vantage over him. Mr. Walker, however, had been
entirely misinformed, as Mr. Campbell, though of an
earnest and ardent nature, was remarkably self-pos-
sessed and firm; and if he really intended to pursue the
course stated, he thought it best to abandon his purpose.



An interview of more than an hour which he had with
Mr. Campbell before the debate began may perhaps
have undeceived him; but, however this may have been,
it is certain that he made no such attempt, but acted
from the beginning to the end of the discussion in a
much more gentlemanly manner than Mr. Campbell
anticipated, so that the debate was conducted through-
out with a commendable degree of coolness and moder-
  Mr. Walker's first speech was very short, simply
stating the argument upon which throughout he chiefly

  "1 My friends," said he, "' I don't intend to speak long at one
time, perhaps not more than five or ten minutes, and will
therefore come to the point at once: I maintain that baptism
came in the room of circumcision; that the covenant on
which the Jewish Church was built, and to which circum-
cision is the seal, is the same with the covenant on which the
Christian Church is built, and to which baptism is the seal;
that the Jews and the Christians are the same body politic
under the same lawgiver and husband; h