xt7wm32n8z3z https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7wm32n8z3z/data/mets.xml Georgia Georgia Writer's Project 1954 Other contributors include: Leckie, George Gaines; xxii, 457 pages: illustrated and maps. 21 cm.; UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries; Call number F291 .W94 1954 books English Atlanta, Tupper and Love Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Georiga Works Progress Administration Publications Georgia, A Guide to its Towns and Countryside text Georgia, A Guide to its Towns and Countryside 1954 2015 true xt7wm32n8z3z section xt7wm32n8z3z _1 § I 7   I m';:,_,_»: rv_r iw.;   bv ,1   ._ ,2, ,  .v Y ` I    _  .   V ·   I.   ~ - V ir ~ ~»r · v_ V I >   V _ H  
               
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A guide 150 Its Towns and Qountryside

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‘J   Eorcword by RALPH McGILL
I   Illustrated

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\ NE EVENING in the early summer of 1943 I attended a small dinner
l\ O in still embattled London. The host was Mr. Brenden Bracken,
\_j_ then a member of Mr. Winston Churchill’s war-time cabinet. He
introduced a guest who had produced several excellent books requir-
QQ ing both a scholarly background and patiently detailed research, and
said of him:
·~ “To do this work it is not really necessary that one be a gentleman,
Y; but it is a positive requirement that he be a scholar of ability. Happily,
in our guest tonight, the two are met and I am rejoiced to present a
scholar and a gentleman."
This story intruded itself into my mind as I read, Georgia, a Guide
rg to Its Towns and Countryside as revised and extended by George G.
8; Leckie. Happily in him the two are met, and I am rejoiced to have
_ the privilege of writing this brief foreword to what is, without any
· doubt at all, a long needed and valuable contribution both to those
who wish to know a great deal about the history of Georgia, and those
who desire merely to travel up and down it and enjoy the great variety
of interests it has to offer: scenic, historical and economic.
The first edition of this volume in the American Guide Series, was
published in 1940 as compiled and written by workers of the Writer’s
Program of the Works Projects Administration during the depression
years. It was the product of many minds and hands and was, in
general, very well done. It quickly became, as indeed did all other
state guide books, a much-sought-after and necessary sort of volume.
Somehow our states had never done much of a job of recording either
h their history or their social and economic development in guide form.
So, it was a quite natural development that within a few years the
3 various Guide books became almost collectors’ items to be hoarded
Q` and lent with care.
` It was, however, the unhappy fate of almost all the Guide books to
* become, in very considerable measure, out of date by the time they
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  vi F 0 R E W 0 R D =
 _ were published. They were a relief work product of the depression.
 I The material, gathered patiently across several very lean years, ap-
  peared in 1940 when the acute recession had spent itself and Georgia,
  along with the rest of the nation, was already started on the amazing
  acceleration of change and growth which were to be a part of the
  Second Great War’s flexing of our national muscles, and of the ex-
  traordinary industrial, technological and scientific developments which
  , followed. ==
  Since 1940 Georgia has undergone dramatic and exciting change, as
  is evident to both the eye and the mind. She has escaped from the
  tyranny of the row crop into the green pastures. Great dams have
  been built (and are a-building) on her rivers. Her burgeoning cities 'I
  testify both to the revolution in agriculture and the coming of industry
  to absorb those no longer required on the land. of
  All this drama of change is faithfully, and entertainingly, recorded pul
  and evaluated in this revision. t€¤
  But, for me at least, the best part of it is the writing done on the COI
  cities of the state. Here the author contributes something which the IHC
  first edition lacked—a true and lively story and history of the cities. r
  Since the first edition was the work of many hands, it was inevitable bri
  the story of the cities should have been pedestrian and pedantic. In CYS
  this new edition they are a joy. George Leckie has clothed the care- Cai
  fully detailed data of the cities in the attractively styled words of a wi
  {ine writer and scholar. I think it not at all far-fetched to say that the S0<
  citizen of our state, and that of any other state or country who may UO
  travel within our borders, may have from his stories of our cities a l
if really comprehensive basic history of Georgia. The writing style holds of
  one. It is a pleasure and a delight to read what he has written. When b0
  one has finished with “the cities" one has a very real "feel" of Georgia of
  and of the historical forces which helped to shape the present. HH
  Mr. Leckie and his publishers have done us all a great service in this PPI
  revision and extension of the valuable but out-dated Guide. i
E RALPH MCGILL FH.
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jas ma rnzsr edition of Georgia: A Guide zo lz; Toums and Country-
{yy Tsidc, “compiled and written by workers of the Writers’ Program
of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Georgia," was
led published in 194o by the University of Georgia Press, at Athens. Writ-
ten under such auspices, the book was accordingly sensitive to the
the conditions of the time. It is this edition that serves as the substantial
the model for the present revision.
ies. The present edition has been revised and extended that it might
ble bring within its scope the period from 1940 to about 1952. A consid-
In erable part of the task consisted in recording the extraordinary multipli-
ire- catio11 of modern industrial and agricultural techniques in the state,
.f Q with the installations and environmental changes, both physical and
the social, that always accompany an alteration in the agents of produc-
nay tion.
as a During the period, among Federal projects, the U. S. Army Corps
>lds of Engineers, for example, has constructed four major dams to serve
hen both as means to soil and water conservation and for the production
·gia of hydroelectric power. As a part of an imposing list of increased
and improved services, the state of Georgia has added what by com-
this parison with other states must be an exceptional number of state parks
—some originally Federal conservation projects-—for purposes of natu-
_L ral conservation and to serve as recreation areas. Modified by both
Federal and state agencies, the clog of custom in Georgia of raising
cotton and corn excessively has been eased, and diversified farming has
taken a firm hold on the habits of the farmers in a manner significant
for the prosperity and social advancement of its rural population.
Much land has been converted to grass and the uses of grazing; soil
conservation measures have been applied to checking erosion; reforest-
ation and forest-care measures to insure the future of Georgia’s forest
products have gained recognition widely; the north Georgia broiler
industry, with its operational center at Gainesville, has grown to be
V11
  ” 

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  viii AcKNowLEnoM1zNT A
 ` #1 in the nation; the state’s Department of Agriculture has developed gc
 I an important system of Farmers’ Markets to serve as regional outlets m
  for farm products; and the changes in the industrial scene are a com- p {O
  plex story in themselves. This list is neither systematic nor complete. I Pl
  But it is suggestive of the basic complex of changes shaping what one
  may well call the New Georgia, in keeping with the wider expression m
  “New South.” PZ
    It would have been impossible for the present editor to cover such an TEC-
  extensive and detailed scene had it not been for the unfailing assistance m
  rendered him by both organized sources and interested individuals. th
  Important among the sources were the chambers of commerce through- HC
  out the state, agencies of both the Federal and state governments, and UD
  a long list of individuals possessed of special information. Because of hc
  the basic nature of the project the help of the State Highway Depart- ha
  ment was essential, and Mr. Roy A. Flynt, State Highway Planning S10
  Engineer, deserves special mention for the patience and generosity with l ba
  which he met this need. Typical of help rendered by specifically m
  qualihed individuals is that of Mrs. Annette McDonald Suarez, Ran- all
  dolph County Historian; of Mrs. Marianna K. Blaum who developed ml
  the story on the state’s Battey Memorial Hospital; and, of Iames A. ho
  Cragon, a past president of the Appalachian Trail Club, whose first-
  hand information was important for Tour I3 A covering the Appa-  
gi lachian Trail in Georgia. Like Odysseus, Ralph McGill, of the Atlanta H
  Corzstitation, should be called “the man who was never at a loss,” since RO
  at need he unfailingly suggested some device by which an over-modest *
  or stubbornly obscure fact might be made public or enlightened. In Ran
§f{ the absence of a systematic index of photographs covering the state,
  for there is none such existing, illustrations had to be taken where
  found. When possible, credit for these has been given in the List of
  Illustrations.
  ·’ A note of warning. Though the numbers appearing in the present
  edition for road mileage are given with apparently decimal exactitude,
5 they are based on reckonings that are sometimes now inexact because
  of Georgia’s current road construction program. The mileage figures
  should be taken as likely rather than as literal, and checked by a recent
  road map, or by the Rand McNally Georgia Pac/(ct Map.
  Published ostensibly as a handbook for tours, the cum}; soon after
  its initial appearance found a use implicit in the organized and well-
  indexed material it contained—that of serving as a handbook of ready
  information about the state as a whole. This perennial use has dictated
  the integration of Part One: The General Background, of the old
  edition, with Section Two: Cities, and Section Three: Tours. Its
 
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JT ACKNOWLEDGMENT iX  
cd gerieralizing and bridging function has been absorbed into the regional _
cts material of the separate cities and tours. This change provides a special
m_ focus for the multiplicity of facts that grow dense about any time and
tm place. Perhaps this feature can be perfected in later revisions.
me In addition to these generalities, the editor would like to add a com-
OH ment on the period covered in the revision by way of a quotation from
Plutarch; Liz/es. Reflecting on Pericles’ works administration policy
an for ancient Athens during a time of troubles, Plutarch has Pericles say
ICC in justifying his program to the people, “ .... that it was good reason,
1ls_ that, now the city was suihciently provided and stored with all things
,h_ necessary for war, they should convert the overplus of its wealth to such
hd undertakings as would hereafter, when completed, give them eternal
Of honour, and for the present, while in process, freely supply all the in-
u,t_ habitants with plenty, With their varieties of workmanship and occa-
Hg sions for service, which summon all arts and trades and require all
ith hands to be employed about them, they do actually put the whole city,
uy in a manner into state pay; while at the same timershe is both beautiful
m_ and maintained by herself.” * Similarly 1n Georgia, undertakings that
md might have required several generations of men were brought some-
A. how within the brief confines of a single political era.
rsp Grzoncia G. Lackna
p,,_ Mw 9, 1954
qw Little Creek Farm
Roswell, Georgia
ice
est * Quoted from The Modern Library Edition of Pluznrc/1’s Liz/es by the permission of
In Random House.
ite,
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Contents A
 
PAGE i 
FOR1zWORD BY RALPH MCGILL v
ACKNOWLEDGMENT vii
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv I
GENERAL INFORMATION xix .
Part One: Cities
Athens 1
Atlanta 18
Augusta 62
C oiumhus 88
Macon 102 I
Savannah 117 4
Part Two: Tours I
TOUR 1 (Charleston, S. C.) —Savannah—Darien—Brunswick—
(]acks0nvillc, Fla.), (US 17) 153 I
TOUR IA Iunction with US 17-Bloody Marsh BattleHeld—Sea Is-
land—Frederica. (St. Simons Causeway, Sea Island Rd.,
and Frederica Road) 171
TOUR 2 (Chattanooga, Tenn.) —Dalt0n—Atlanta—GriHin—Perry
—Vald0sta—(Lake City, Fla.), (US 41) 179
Section a. Tennessee Line to Atlanta
Section Z2. Atlanta to Florida Line
TOUR 2A Dalton—Chatsw0rth—F0rt Mountain State Park—Ellijay.
(State 52 and US 76) 204
TOUR 2B Fort Valley — Montezuma — Andersonville -- Americus.
(State 49) 207
xi .

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  1*01111 2C Sycamore—Irwinville—Fitzgerald. (State 32 and State 1*01
  107) 2II
  TOUR 3 (Anderson, S. C.) — Hartwell — Athens — Atlanta — La- *1*01
  Grange—West Point—(Montgomery, Ala,). (US 29) 214
  Section zz. South Carolina Line to Atlanta TO,
  Section b. Atlanta to Alabama Line
  1*01111 3A Royston—Elberton—(Abbeville, S. C.) 229
  T0U11 4 (Columbia, S. c.)-Augusta-LOu1sv111e—BaX1¤y-w1y-
  cross—Folkston—(]acksonville, Fla.), (US 1) 232 ‘ TOY
  *1*0U11 4A Folkston—Camp Cornelia. (State 23 and an unnumbered
  road) 242 Tm
  101111 5 ]unction with US 17-—Waycr0ss—Vald0sta—Thomasville
  —Bainbridge-—(Dothan, Ala.). (US 84) A 246 Tm
  TOUR 6 (Asheville, N. C.) — Blairsville — Dahlonega — Atlanta - Tm
  Griffin—Albany—Th0masville—(Monticello, Fla.). (US
  · 19) _ _ _ 255 »
  Section zz. North Carolina Line to Atlanta TOY
  Section I2. Grifiin to Florida Line
  TOUR 7 (Franklin, N. C.) — Dillard — Clarkesville — Cornelia — TOU
  Gainesville—At1anta. (US 23) 281
  1*01111 7A Cornelia-Toccoa—(Greenville, S. C.). (US 123 and TOU
  State 13) 293
  TOUR 8 (Aiken, S. C.) —Augusta—Washingt0n—Athens—Monr0e
  —Atlanta—Villa Rica—Tallap0osa—(Heflin, Ala.). (US
  78) · 296 CH
  Section zz. South Carolina Line to Atlanta BIB
  Section I1. Atlanta to Alabama Line
  *1*01111 9 Savannah — Dublin —- Macon -— Talbotton — Columbus IND
  —(Montgomery, Ala.). (US 80) 313
  Section a. Savannah to Macon
E Section I1. Macon to Alabama Line
  *1*01111 QA Iunction with US 80—Cochran-Eastman. (State 87, US
  23 and US 129) 318
  TOUR QB Iunction with US 80 to Macon Mounds Section of Oc-
  mulgee National Monument 321
  TOUR IO (Chattanooga, Tenn.) — Rossville —- Rome — LaGrange
  —Columbus—Cuthbert—Bainbridge— (Tallahassee, Fla.).
iii (US 27) _ 325
  Section a. Tennessee Line to Columbus
  Section b. Columbus to Florida Line
 
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JTS CONTENTS xiii
TOUR 10A Iunction with US 27—Fort Benning. (Fort Benning Bou-
211 levard) 359
TOUR II (Chattanooga, Tenn.) — Trenton — Rising Fawn — (Fort
2;4 Payne, Ala,). (US 11) 365
TOUR I2 Atlanta — McDonough — Forsyth — Macon — Perry —
Hawkinsville—Brunswick. (US 23, US 41, and US 341) 367
229 Section tz. Atlanta to Macon.
Section b. Macon to Brunswick.
222 ~ TOUR I3 (Knoxville, Tenn.)—Blue Ridge—Ellijay—Canton—Mar-
ietta. (State 5) 377
242 TOUR I3A North Carolina Line—Unic0i Gap—Neels Gap—Amica-
lola Falls—Mount Oglethorpe. (Appalachian Trail) 382
6 TOUR I4 Eatonton — Milledgeville — Louisville — Sylvania — Sa-
24 vannah. (State 24 and State 21) 387
TOUR I4A lunction with State 24——Sparta—Crawfordville. (State
255 22) 398
TOUR I5 (Saluda, S. C.) —Augusta—Waynesboro—Millen-—]unc-
tion with US 80. (US 25) 400
TOUR 16 Athens — Watkinsville — Madison — Eatonton — Ma-
281 con. (US 129) 404
TOUR 17 Thomson — Crawfordville — Madison — Covington —
Avondale Estates. (State 12) 4II
293
Part Three: Appendices _
296 CHRONOLOGY 427 1 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 439  
INDEX 44]: {
srs Y
318 , z
321 Q
325 · _  

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A SECTION OF THE ATLANTA CYCLORAMA OF THE BATTLE OF ATLANTA  
Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Commerce `
VIEW PROM BLACK MOUNTAIN LOOKOUT TOWER, CHATTAHOOCHEE NA-  
TIONAL FOREST  
Photograph by courtesy of the U. S. Forest Service  
FOREST ROAD ALONG ROCK CREEK IN THE CHATTAHOOCHEE NATIONAL I
FOREST Q
Photograph by courtesy of the U. S. Forest Service ,
AIR FORCE B—47 STRATOIET FROM THE LOCKHEED PLANT, OVER STONE L
MOUNTAIN  
Photograph by courtesy of the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation ;-
NEW GENERAL ELECTRIC PLANT IN ROME  
Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Commerce  
TUGALO HYDROELECTRIC DAM IN NORTHEAST GEORGIA  
Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia Power Company  
AERIAL VIEW OF COLUMBUS SHOWING THE SERPENTINE CHATTAHOOCHEE, 9
Photograph by courtesy of the Columbus Chamber of Commerce  
AERIAL VIEW OF BIBB MANUFACTURING COMPANY AT COLUMBUS  
Photograph by courtesy of the Columbus Chamber 0/ Commerce  
EAGLE AND PHENIX MILLS, COLU1\·iBUS Z,
Photograph by courtesy of the Phenix and Eagle Mills. I
ATLANTIC STEEL COIVIPANY, ATLANTA I
Photograph by courtesy of the Atlantic Steel Company I
F IVE POINTS AT NIGHT, ATLANTA §
Photograph by Carolyn Carter, courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Commerce  
RICH,S BRIDGE OVER FORSYTH STREET, ATLANTA  
Photograph by courtesy of Rich’s, Inc.  
between 104 and 105 ·
THE PRICE GILBERT LIBRARY AT GEORGIA TECH 1
Photograph by courtesy of Georgia Institute of Technology A
ERNEST WOODRUFF MEMORIAL BUILDING FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH, EMORY I 
UNIVERSITY ` t
Photograph by courtesy of Emory University  
XV 4
if `

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  xvi ILLUSTRATIONS g IL]
  THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING OF ATLANTA UNIVERSITY FOR NEGROES, PEA
  ATLANTA
  Photograph by W. Hardin Hughes ` CO}
gf; M1MosA HALL IN RosweLL `
  Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Commerce CUZ
  VALLEY NEAR HIAWASSEE P.
  Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Commerce
5* PLANTATION eoR PINE SEEDLINGS IN :
    Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Forestry
  TYPICAL BROILER Houses TH
  Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia Agricultural Extension Service ]\
  GEORGIA WAS KNOWN AS THE “SLIOKEHOUSE oe THE CONFEDERACY”
  Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia Agricultural Extension Service
  ` Tue ROBERT TooMBs House, WASHINGTON, GEORGIA LIB
  Photograph by Ralph lones, courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Commerce
  PRESIDENT’S HoMe, UNIVERSITY oe GEORGIA, ATHENS IND
  Photograph by courtesy of the University of Georgia
  MEMORIAL GARDEN, UNIVERSITY oe GEORGIA, ATHENS TH]
  Photograph by courtesy of the University of Georgia P
  ]1M WOODRUFF LOCK, DAM, AND Powemaouse EN,
  Photograph by courtesy of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army
  CLARK HILL DAM AND RESERVOIR ON THE SAVANNAH NEAR AUGUSTA MOI
  Photograph by courtesy of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army S
  ALLATOONA DAM AND POWERHOUSE IN NORTHEAST GEORGIA A
  Photograph by courtesy of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army OA]
  SITE OF BUFORD DAM AND POWERHOUSE
  Photograph by courtesy of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army VIE
  bL’tl4J6€7l 200 072617 ZOI
  ADMINISTRATION BUILDING MuseuM, IEFFERSON DAVIS MEMORIAL PARK SAV
  T Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Parks
  YARD BUILDINGS AT LIBERTY HALL, ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS MEMORIAL TY,
  STATE PARK
  Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Parks MIL
§j‘ Tue CHAPEL ON THE GROUNDS oe THE WARM SPRINGS FOUNDATION
  Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Commerce OLE
  Tue BARBECUE AND CAFETERIA ON OVERLOOK HILL, IDA CASON GARDENS
g Photograph by W. Hardin Hughes
{_; Tue CLUB House, IDA CASON GARDENS
  Photograph by Hughes Photo Studies
  PAINTING BY ATHos MENABONI ON WEST WALL oe CLUBHOUSE, IDA
  CASON GARDENS
  Photograph by Hughes Photo Studies
  GEORGIA IS ONE oe THE WORLD’S STRATEGIC SouRces oe NAVAL STORES
  Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Forestry _
  Lusu PASTURES ARE Now A COMMON SIGHT IN GEORGIA
  Photograph by courtesy of the Macon Chamber of Commerce
  IRRIGATION IS BECOIVIING AN ACCEPTED AGRICULTURAL TECHNIQUE IN
;§ GEORGIA
  Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia Agricultural Extension Service
 -
9*
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  I
N5 ILLUSTRATIONS XV11  
i
mg, PEACH ORCHARD NEAR MACON  
Photograph by courtesy of the Macon Chamber of Commerce  
CORN IS ONE OF THE STAPLE CROPs IN GEORGIA  
Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia Agricultural Extension Service §`
CULTIVATING COTTON: THE “IRON MULE" REPLACES ITS EPIC COUNTER-  
PART  
Photograph by courtesy of the lohn Deere Plow Company  
IN SPITE OF CROP DIVERSIPICATION COTTON IS STILL KING  
Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia Agricultural Extension Service  
THE ADDIINISTRATION BUILDING AT MERCER UNIVERSITY, BUILT IN 1871,  
MACON  
Photograph by courtesy of Mercer University  
between 296-297 FZ
LIBRARY BUILDING, WESLEYAN COLLEGE, MACON  
' Photograph by courtesy of the Macon Chamber of Commerce  
INDIAN MOUND, OCDIULGEE NATIONAL MONULIENT, MACON -
Photograph by courtesy of the Macon Chamber of Commerce ii
THE OWEN-THOIVIAS HOUSE, SAVANNAH  
Photograph by Ralph [ones, courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Commerce  
ENTRANCE GATE TO HISTORIC WORLISLOE PLANTATION NEAR SAVANNAH {
Photograph by courtesy of the Savannah Chamber of Commerce  
MOAT SURROUNDING HISTORIC FORT PULASKI, COCKSPUR ISLAND, NEAR P
SAVANNAH _
Photograph by courtesy of the Savannah Chamber of Commerce  
OAI{S AND SPANISH Moss IN BONAVENTURE CEIVIETERY, SAVANNAH {
Photograph by courtesy of the Georgia State Department of Commerce  
VIEW OF SAVANNAH PLANT OF THE UNION BAC AND PAPER CORPORATION *’
ZOI Photograph by courtesy of the Savannah Chamber of Commerce  
KRK SAVANNAH STATE DOCI