xt7wm32n987s https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7wm32n987s/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1940-08 volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Manual of Organization and ADministration for High Schools", vol. VIII, no. 6, August 1940 text Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Manual of Organization and ADministration for High Schools", vol. VIII, no. 6, August 1940 1940 1940-08 2021 true xt7wm32n987s section xt7wm32n987s ‘gi'dé‘C'ornmonwealfh of Kentucky 0’








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Published by


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Entered as second- class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
‘_ Frankfort. Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

aVoI. VIII 0 Augusf,1940 0 No.6





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Organization and Administration

For High Schools

Published by












Aims and Objectives of Secondary Education .................... 519
Definition of Terms __________________________________________________________________ 528
Standards of High Schools .................................................... 532
Regulations of the State Board of Education Govern-
ing the Accrediting of High Schools ........................ 532
Standards for Junior High Schools .................................... 53G
Standards for Senior High Schools and Six-Year High
Schools ................................................................................ 539
Miscellaneous Regulations of the State Board of





Admission to High School 539
Correspondence “701k and Private Tutoring 539
Summer Schools ............. i 539
Building; and Repairs . 540
Holidays and Educational Conferences 540
Credit in Applied Music .................................................... 540
Credit for High School Subjects Completed in Civilian
Conservation Camps __________________________________________________ 542
Curricula for High Schools ...................................................... 543
Curricula for High Schools Employing Fewer than. Six
Teachers ______________________________________________________________________________ 543
Four~Year High School-Three Teachers:
Academic Curriculum ...................................................... 547
Foul-Year High School—Four Teachers:
Academic Curriculum .................................................... 549
Agriculture and Home Economics Curriculum ........ 551
Four-Year High School—Five Teachers:
ACacleinic Curriculum .................................................... 553
Agriculture and Home Economics Curriculum ........ 555
Commercial Education Curriculum ............................ 557
Departmentalized Junior High School—Two Teachers:
Three-year Junior High School Curriculum ............ 559
Four-Year Junior High School Curriculum ............ 561
Six-Year High School—Four Teachers:
Academic Curriculum ...................................................... 563
Six-Year High School—Five Teachers:
Academic Curriculum .565


Agriculture and Home Economics Curriculum ...... 5G7
Suggested Programs of Study for High Schools





Employing Six or More Teachers 569

Six 01' More Teachers ........................... 569

Junior High School Program of Studies ............... 569

Four-Year High School Program of Studies 570

Senior High School Program of Studies ........... 571
Program of Studies for Reorganized Junior-Senior

and Six-Year High Schools ____________________________________ 572

V- EXll'a-Curricular Activities ________________________________________________________ 574
Sllggestions Relative to the Organization and Direction

of Extra-Curricular Activities .................................... 574
















Chapter VI.

Chapter VII.

Chapter VIII.

Chapter IX.






Some Activities Which the School Should Provide ........ 576
Athletics ...................................................................... . 576
Assembly ..... . 576
Home Room . 578
Clubs .............. . 580
School Paper 584
Dramatics 586
National Honor Society 586
The High School Library .......................................................... 587
Regulations of the State Board of Education: High
School Libraries ______________________________________________________________ 587
Location, Size and Equipment of the Library .............. 589
Training of Pupils in the Use of the Library ................ 593
Finding Room for the Library in Small Schools ________ 594
The Book Collection ________________________________________________________________ 594
The Librarian ______________________________________________________________________________ 596
The Science Laboratory and Other Needed Equipment 598
The Science Laboratory ______________________________________________________ 598
Equipment .......................... - 593
Laboratory Layout .500
Science Apparatus ...... ............... 605
Science Reference Material _ ----- 607
Biology ____________________________________ - 608
Chemistry ............................ - 613
General Science -622
Physics 62
Physiology and Hygiene—Health ----- 632
Equipment for Vocational Courses _________________ . 63
Equipment fOr Treatments in Case of Accidents ........ 506
Maps, Charts, Visual Aids, etc. ........................................ 638
The High School Principal and His Work ------------------------ 640
The Position of the Principal in the General 640
Organization --------------------------- 640
Functions Which Belong to the Supermtendent ..... 641
Functions Which Belong to the Princ1pal --
Duties of the Principal ................
Administrative Duties __
Supervisory Duties ......
Extension or Social Duties ______
The Principal’s Office ....................
Miscellaneous ........
Records and Reports _________________________________

Teachers’ Marks ......

Public School Music .............................................

Health and Physical Education .....................
The Guidance Program






. 576
. 576
. 576
_ 578
. 580
. 584
......... 586
......... 586





This Manual replaces the Manual of Organization and Adminis-
tration for High Schools published in 1938. The chief aim of this
publication is to organize a body of information and interpretation
which will be useful to the secondary schools of the state.

The development and improvement of secondary schools must be
promoted by both state and local authorities. The law charges the
State Board of Education with the responsibility of accrediting high
schools. In exercising this duty it is necessary to require some uni-
formity of practice and to prescribe school procedures necessary to
mamtain these standards. This the Manual attempts to do.

This Manual was prepared and edited by Mark Godman, Director
Of Supervision.

State Superintendent of Public Instruction.





- ‘ll?








Chapter I

All school activities, including class activities, extra-class activi-
ties, guidance and all other experiences provided for the education and
development of pupils, should be determined in the light of the ac-
cepted aims of education. In planning instructional activities, teach—
ers and administrators should not only have a clear understanding
and appreciation of the ultimate aims of education, but should be fully
aware of the immediate contribution which the school subjects are
expected to make to these ultimate aims.

There is general agreement that the school should function in such
a manner as to prepare the individual for sane and successful living
and, at the same time, promote the welfare of the democratic society of
which he is a part. lt is also generally agreed that the high school
can best contribute to the betterment of society through the develop-
ment of socially desirable individuals. This conception of the school
Was given clear expression by the Commission on the Reorganization
of Secondary Education, appointed by the National Education Asso—
ciation, when it declared that:

“The purpose of democracy is so to organize society, that each member

may develop his personality primarily through activities designed for
the well-being of his fellow members and of society as a whole. . . .
Consequently, education in a democracy, both within and without the
school, should develop in each individual the knowledge, interests,
ideals, habits and powers whereby he will find his place and use his
Dlace to shape both himself and society toward ever nobler ends.”

In order to realize the goal of education as expressed above, the
following objectives were set up by the Commission (Cardinal princi-
DleS, page 10) :

1. Health
Command of Fundamental Processes

Worthy Home Membership

Civic Education
Worthy Use of Leisure
Ethical Character








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The above-stated objectives have guided our thinking concerning
secondary education for more than a decade. It is now believed that
the problems of today make it desirable to add another objective,

8. \Vorld—Mindedness


1. Health—Personal and Public. Since every other aim of
education is dependent for its realization upon good health, the objec-
tives of health may properly be placed as the first objective of sec-
ondary education. In order to realize this objective, a number of things
must be done:

a. The school must lead the public to recognize that health
needs of young people are of vital importance to society.

b. Competent teachers must be secured who can ascertain
and meet the needs of individual pupils and inculcate in the
entire student body a love for clean sport.

c. Adequate equipment must be provided in every school
for health and physical activities.

d. The school building must conform to the best standards
of hygiene and sanitation.

In the high school program of training to secure and maintain a
condition of personal good health and phySical fitness, the following
are some of the immediate objectives and outcomes which it Should
endeavor to achieve:

a. Efficient health habits.
b. Participation in good sports.
0. Knowledge of disease prevention.

d. Community sanitation.

e. Proper food selection.

f. Ability to administer first aid.

g. Correction of common physical defects.

h. Better bodily posture.

i. Wearing of proper clothing.

j. Recognition of moral obligation to be healthy.
k. Habit of observing the rule of “safety first.”

1. Sane sex knowledge.





lieved that

er aim of
the objec-
ivc of sec-
r of things

.hat health

1 ascertain
ate in the

ery school


rnaintain a
1 following
. it should


2. Command of Fundamental Processes. During the years
in the elementary school, the child gains a certain command of the
tools of learning. It is common knowledge, however, that the large
majority of pupils who enter high school are deficient in the use of the
tool subjects. One function of the high, school, therefore, must be that
of giving all of its pupils a better command of such knowledges and
skills as they will use in everyday life.

In training designed to give the pupils command of the funda-
mental processes, the following are some of the immediate or specific
objectives or outcomes which the school should endeavor to achieve:

a. Ability to perform with accuracy and reasonable facil-
ity the fundamental mathamatical operations.

b. Ability to carry 011 a conservation and to use language
in all other ways required for proper and effective participation
in the community life.

0. Ability to pronounce and spell one ’s words correctly.

d. Mastery of the essentials of written composition and
grammer, with special reference to letter writing.

e. Ability to read intelligently.

f. Ability to write with proper legibility, ease and speed.

g. Command of an adequate reading, speaking and writing

11. Ability to address an audience or to conduct a public
meeting with proper dignity and formality but without stiffness
0r embarrassment.

i. Ability to use dictionary, encyclopedia, maps, atlases,
card catalogs, Reader ’s guides, indexes and other means of find
ings facts and materials wanted.

j. Knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of
business practice.

k. Ability to think clearly and effectively organize and
express one ’s thoughts.

first: Worthy Home Membership. The home will always be the

» undamental institution in our civilization. Our schools should

aCcordingjy contribute in every worthy way to the best home member-

Shll) and endeavor to make the home the best place on earth. This

Slie‘itl‘le applies to both boys and girls. It should be one function of

illstiffiiial studies to .deal with the home as a fundamentahsoclal
‘ 1011 and to clarify its relations to wider institutions outs1de.


. um
















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' definite vocational training be given to all pupils whose torm'd

In training the pupil for worthy home membership, the following
are some of the immediate objectives or outcomes that should be
achieved by the high school :

a. Ability to cooperate with members ol’ the family, includ-
ing the willingness to assume responsibiity within the home.

b. Understanding and appreciation of the home as a funda-
mental social institution.

c. Respect for parental authority. .

(1. Proper attitude toward the institution of marriage and
the rearing of children.

e. Knowledge of the physical, mental, moral and social
qualities necessary for parenthood of desirable type.

f. Ability to manage a household.

g. Ability to practice the common household arts.

11. Knowledge of food values.

i. Knowledge of the principes of home decoration includ-
ing landscaping.

j. Ability to make a household budget.

k. Knowledge of the essentials of home nursing and care
of the sick.

1. Knowledge of the proper sanitary conditions that shoul
prevail in the home.

111. Understanding of the use of inventions in the improve-
ment of home conditions.

11. Skill in making minor repairs in and around the

o. The will to play the part of the “good neighbor.”

p. The habit of taking care of one’s clothing.

q. Ability to keep the house, premises and equipment clean,

orderly and sanitary.



4. Vocation. Since the happiness and prosperity of the hull-
vidual, as well as our national wealth and greatness, depends to a gl'éat‘
extent upon the vocational efficiency of our citizens, it is inipal‘flme
that our high schools relate their subject matter and instructlglly'at
least in a general way, to the training of youth in qualities fitting
them for a good beginning in vocational life. The ideal demands that
pupils explore their own capacities and aptitudes to the end that the)

. . . - 9
may select their vocations w1sely. The ideal also demands thlflt :02;
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ld be


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3 iiidi-
ion, at
15 that
it they
t some

tion will terminate either before the completion of a full high school
course or upon graduacation.

1 ii training pupils for vocational fitness, the following are some of
the immediate objectives or outcomes that the high school should
endeavor to achieve:

a. Vocational information, including knowledge of a large
number of vocations and vocational opportunities.

b. Knowledge of one ’s aptitudes, likes and dislikes gained
through self-analysis and exploration.

0. Proper attitude toward work and respect for the occupa—
tions of others.

d. Knowledge concerning investments and desire for eco-
nomic independence. Also a desire to save a financial reserve
for the unproductive period of life.

e. Knowledeg of labor conditions in various localities.

f. Pride in one ’s workmanship.

g. The habits of orderliiiess, accuracy, carefulness, thor-
oughness and punctuality.

11. Knowledge of the relation between social movements
and economic and industrial stability.

i. Foundation of techanical and professional study.

j. Specific vocational skill for pupils who will not go
beyond high school.

k. Spirit of fairness and honesty of effort and product.

1. Spirit of cooperation and open-mindedness.

. n1. Ability to secure satisfaction in skillful perormance and
111 rendering service through one’s vocation.

. .5- CiVic Education. Civic education should develop in the
individual those qualities whereby he will act well his part as a mem-
lltl' of the neighborhood, town or city, state and nation, and also give
him a basis for understanding international relations. The whole

scl - - - . . .
lieiiie of individual relationships should be stressed under this

111 training the pupils for civic worth and efficiency, the following

l'e ' v . ~ - . . .
Diesent some or the immediate obJectives or outcomes that should be
flChieved by the high school:

31- Knowedge of citzenship rights, duties and privileges.

b. Respect for pubic opinion.






.iuu "













0. Knowledge of the fundamental laws.

(1. Comprehension of American ideals.

e. Knowledge of social institutions and their work.

f. Realization of the value of universal education.

g. Recognition of the importance of official honesty.

11,. Respect for law and order.

i. Realization of the necessity of cooperation in social

j. Knowledge of the relation of information to sound
social judgment.

k. Realization that individuals and social groups are mutu-
ally interdependent and have mutual responsibilities.

1. Proper attitude toward governing authorities.

In. Appreciation of wise leadership and intelligent follower-

11. Greater interest in civic problems.

0. A proper sense of social obligations.

Loyalty to ideals of civic righteousness.

q. Open-mindedness and tolerance in regard to the rightS
of others.

1'. Honesty, justice, reverence, purity, and love of the

8. Realization that the optimum satiSfaetion of human
wants depends upon the wise use of natural resources.

t. Acquaintance with the characteristics, customs and
problems of the peoples of the other nations.

6. Worthy Use of Leisure. In the past many schools have given
little conscious thought to this objective. They have seldom treated
literature, art and music so as to evoke right emotional responses and
to produce enjoyment. Our high schools should set themselves daft
nitely to the task of giving such training as will function in the cultiva-
tion of tastes and in setting up such habits of reading and study 35
will lead to the enjoyment of art, music and literature.

Many schools have also failed to organize the social activities 9f
young people. Education should equip the individual to secure hls
leisure recreation of body, mind and spirit, and the enrichment all
enlargement of his personality.








of the

s and

es and
58 dell
ldy as

ties 0f
me his
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In training the pupil for the best use and enjoyment of his leisure
life, the following are some of the immediate objectives or outcomes
that should be achieved by the high school:

a. Appreciation of masterpieces of drama, music and art.

b. Interest in diversified reading.

0. Habit of reading good literature.

d. Understanding of the facts and laws of nature essential
to an appreciation of the physical environment.

e. Information concerning travel.

f. Understanding of the physiological and psychological
laws of relaxation.

g. Realization of the importance of developing and main—
taining one or more avocational activities.

11. Participation in the social life of the community.

i. Rules of games and sports.

j. Habit of daily participation in one or more games,
Sports, or other outdoor activities.

k. Knowledge of civic, religious and social conditions and

1. Knowledge of facts from social studies, mathematics,
science, manual arts useful in leisure—time situations.

in. Appreciation and support of artistic enterprises.

11. Good sportsmanship—interest in play.

0. Ability to secure recreation and relaxation through
wholesome indoor and outdoor sports, games, travel, music, good
literature, art, conversation and hobbies such as landscaping,
DhOtOgl‘aphy, gardening, etc.

1). Honesty, eheerfulness, purity and reverence.

7. Ethical Character. In a democratic society, ethical char-
acter becomes paramount among the objectives of the secondary school.
Among the means for developing ethical character may be mentioned
the Wise selection of content and methods of instruction in all subjects
01: study; the social contacts of pupils with one another and with their
teachers; the opportunities offered by the organization and adminis-
tratlon of the school for the development on the part of the pupils
21:12?” 0i the sense-of personal responsibility and initiative but

. 1e spirit of, sauce and the principles of democracy.





, ii iii














In training designed to inculcate in the student the finest ethical
conceptions and principles, the following are some immediate objec-
tives or outcomes that should be achieved by the high, school:

a. Moral character.

b. Sense of personal responsibility for one ’s own acts.

c. Purity in motives and conduct and appreciation of
ethical character in others.

(1. Knowledge of persons, events, movements, customs and
institutions which have determined human uplift and progress.

e. Due regard for the rights of others in all personal

f. Sympathy for those in need or distress.

g. Recognition of the brotherhood of man.

11. Habits in harmony with highest ideals.
Ability to be helpful to others through home, church and
community activities.

j. Self-respect, sincerity, trustworthiness, tolerance, cour-
tesy, unselfishness and open—mindedness.

k. Faithfulness in performance of one’s duties.

1. Religious observance and reverence for the Divine Being.


8. World-Mindedness. All peoples and all nations are now so
interdependent that it is no longer possible for any nation or any
people to live in isolation. There is at present a distinct need f01' a
type of training that will lead all pupils to appreciate fully the con-
tributions of all nations to the civilization in which we live and to
realize the economic interdependence of nations. Such, training should
make for a greater degree of tolerance on the part of all for the ideas,
ideals, institutions, customs and practices of other peoples.

Some of the immediate objectives or outcomes that should l1C
achieved by the high school in this regard are:

. . , . ' s
a. A knowledge and apprec1ation of what other natloll

have contributed to modern civilization.

b. The promotion of a spirit of world citizenship.

(3. Promotion of a. spirit of universal ln'otherhoed and the
decrease of ill-will and hatred.

d. A more tolerant spirit among nations.

e. A broader and more open-minded attitude t0\

*ard world





ion of

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ind the

1 world

f. An understanding of the ideals and aspirations of other
g. Lessening of the possibilities of war.

It the above—stated aims and objectives of secondary education are
valid, then it is our responsibility to select and use such subject matter
and to provide such other experiences for the pupils as will enable us
to prepare and send forth from the high schools those who are able to
cope with the problems involved in maintaining physical efficiency and
personal and public health; trained in civic virtue and possessing an
understanding of the problems of local, city, state, national and world
government; prepared in a general way, at least, for vocational success
and happiness; fitted for worthy home membership, with habits and
tastes for the finest use of leisure and for wholesome recreational
enjoyment,- possesscd of the fundan'iental processes and knowledge
essential to the educated person and to civilization.















Chapter II

1. Four-Year High School. A four-year high school is defined
as that part of the public school system which has a distinct organiza-
tion composed of grades nine to twelve, inclusive.

2. Six—Year High School. A six—year high school is defined as
that part of the public school system which has a distinct organization
composed of grades seven to twelve, inclusive.

3. Junior High School. A junior high school is defined as that
part of the public school system which has a distinct organization com-
posed of grades seven, eight and nine. '

4. Senior High School. A senior high school is defined as that
part of the public school system which has a distinct organization c0111-
posed of grades ten, eleven and twelve, and which requires graduation
from the junior high school for regular entrance.

5. State Accredited High School. A state accredited high
school is either a public 01' private four-year, six—year, or senior high

school that is acc1edited by the State Board of Education.

6. Southern Association High School. The Southern Associa-
tion of Colleges and Secondary School s is a regional organization of
colleges and seconda1y schools which sets up standards for its 1116111

be1 rs. It ope1ates in eleven southein states extending from Virginia
to Texas, and includes Kentucky. Membership in this Association is

7. Program of Studies. The program of studies refers to all
the high school subjects offered in a given school without reference ’10

any principle of organizing these subjects into curricula.

8. Curriculum. A curriculum is a sequence of courses, 16(11111'ed

and elective, set forth by years or teims, so as to show the refill”6
ments for advancement and n"1aduation 11ceo1d111010 diffeient 011.19”
iiv es, as a classical 0111'1iculun1 [”01 ad111iss1'on to the traditional classi-
cal colleg;e a college prepaiatory cu1'1'i11 com-

is that
.11 com-

l high
)r high

tion of
5 meni-
ition is

to all
ence to

, Objec-
to £111

period; a commercial curriculum when preparation is made for
business, etc.

9. Course of Study. A course of study is defined as the quan-
tity, kind and organization of subject matter of instruction in any
secondary school subject, offered within a detinite period of time, and
for which credit for graduation is granted.

10. Subject or Subject of Study. A subject or subject of study
is one of the divisions into which knowledge is commonly analyzed,
such as biology, physics, French, history. In the cases of mathematics
and social studies, it. may mean these as a whole, or the word subject
may be applied to one of their compOiients—algebra, arithmetic, geom-
etry of the one, or history, civil government, sociology, economics of
the other. Besides one may either speak of history as a subject, or of
ancient history, modern history, American history as different subjects.

11. High School Unit Based on Forty-Five Minute Periods.
A high school unit based 011 the forty-five minute period is the credit
obtained by a pupil who has sucessfully completed a subject which
he has pursued for five forty—five minute recitations each week for a
School year of not less than thirty-six weeks. Four such units con—
stitute a regular year ’s work and at least sixteen such units are
required for graduation from a four—year high school. For a unit of
credit in science, excepting general. science, a minimum of 315 minutes
a week for a school year is required for class and labo ’atory work. In
t5"1')€_“‘1‘iting, bookkeeping, mechanical drawing, sliOp work, home eco-
nomies and vocatimial agriculture, 21 minimum of 450 minutes a week
fle‘ a school year is required. In the case of home economics and voca-
tional agriculture, the above is true unless the work is organized 011 the
b‘dSlS of the “lengthened periot ” which is the next term defined.

12- Lengthened Period. A lengthened period is one of more
than forty—five minutes with the purpose of ar 'aiigiiig for more direct-
ed study. These periods should be one hour or more in length. If the
llel'iods are lengthened to one hour in the clear, an hour devoted to
laboratory work in science will be recognized as meeting the require-
21:115131231219(:lfoplileforty-five minute period, provided, of course, that
period jg “H. a ()l(lt(Jr1;Y-\\'Ol‘l{ equivalent to that donein the double
_ I < intained. [his also applles to home economics, shop work,
2333:2113: 31:? bookkeeping, typewriting and art. In vocational home

_ . . ( nee-year course is required when the lengthened period
(minimum of 60 minutes) is used. If the hour period is used for









. m.


















vocational agriculture, at least seven clock hours per week shall be
devoted to the course. For vocational unit trade courses, a minimum
of three clock hours per day in the shop for five days a week is

13. Teacher Load. Teacher load is the amount of work re-
requircd of the teacher, estimated by the day or week. It may be
based (a) on the number of hours of instructional duty, (b) the
number of hours of total duty, or (e) the number ol’ pupil hours for
which the teacher is responsible, that is, the sums of the number of
load pupils in the sections taught or directed by the teacher.

14. Pupil Load. The pupil load is defined as the total number
of subjects pursued by a given pupil at any one time. It may be
interpreted to include also the pupil ’s non—credit, or extra-curricular

15. Extra-Curricular Activities. The term extra-curricular
activities included all legitimate activities not provided for in regular
classroom work.

16. Schedule of Recitations. By schedule of recitations is
meant the daily and weekly arrangement of classes designating the
time of day, room, frequency of meeting and the teacher in charge.

17. Academic Subjects. Academic subjects are such subjects
as English, foreign language, social science, mathematics; which are
distinguished from arts and practical subjects, such as music, art,
physical education, commercial subjects, woodworking, trade subjects:
home economics and vocational agriculture.

18. Required Subject. A required subject is one that must be
taken successfully to complete or to advance in a curriculum.

19. Constants. Constants are defined as subjects reqUH‘Bd Of
all pupils regardless of the curriculum pursued.

20. Curricula Variables. Curricula variables are defined as
those subjects which permit specialization within the curriculum.

21. Free Electives. Free electives are defined as subJGets
open to all pupils regardless of the curriculum pursued and which hme
as their purpose the satisfying of individual needs.

22. Marks. Marks are defined as the qualitative estimates gt

- a . . .. . _ -' - e
the pupils work 111 courses. They constitute the oflieial rec01 d 01 l


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