xt7wst7dt15z https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7wst7dt15z/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1929 journals kaes_circulars_226 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 226 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 226 1929 2014 true xt7wst7dt15z section xt7wst7dt15z COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
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Lexington, Ky.
September, 1929
-Published in connection with the agricultur:1l extension work
carried on by cooperation of the College of Agriculture, University of
Kentucky, with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and dis-
tributed in furtherance of the work provided for in the Act of Congress
of May 8, 1914.
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Food For The School Child
By the time a child is ready for school, all the foods essen-
tial for optimum growth and for health have been added to the
diet. The diet should include daily:
One quart of milk Green leaf vegetables three
A whole cereal times per week
One cooked vegetable, besides Two fruits, one raw
potatoes One egg
One raw vegetable A serving of iish or meat three
times per week
The coarser raw fruits and vegetables may be added grad-
ually to the diet. Care should be taken that a quart of milk be
still used in some form, and that the amount of meat be not in-
creased to the extent that it displaces other foods such as vege-
tables, cereals or the milk. ·
The wise mother will still serve foods which are simply
T prepared and easily digested. Rich gravies, pastries, cakes,
fried and highly seasoned foods should be avoided. During this
period a child can take care of two to two and one-half level
tablespoons of sugar either in the form of sugar itself or in
cakes, jams, jellies, candies, etc.
The period in a ehild_’s life from six to twelve years may
_ well be called the "Age of Activity/’ He is becoming in-
terested in vigorous contest games, long hikes, and thru his
school and church has many interests outside the home. Since

 4 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 226
activity means expended energy, it is necessary for the child to
eat sufficient carbohydrates and fats to supply this needed
energy. A definite standard for the energy requirement cannot
be set, because children vary so much in size at a given age, as
in intensity of activity. However, Dr. Mary Swartz Rose*
gives the following figures, which she says have been deduced
from the observations of many persons on the energy require-
ments of children. .
Age in years Total Calories Per Pound of Body Weight
6 \ 35-37
7 34-36
8-9 32-35
10-12 30-34
For instance a child 6 years old, weighing 50 pounds,
should have at least 1800 calories of energy food daily. A child
who is very active may eat more than this.
It must be remembered that the energy requirement is
only a part of the story. Besides supplying energy, the food
must furnish the proteins needed for building and repairing
muscular tissues, the minerals necessary for hardening the
bones and teeth, making good blood, and those essential for the
various body processes, and the vitamins needed for normal
growth and health. It would be necessary for a mother to have
a detailed knowledge of food values, to be assured that her
children were receiving the correct amounts of proteins,
minerals and vitamins, but not having this information, she
should have at hand lists of the foods rich in the various ele-
ments and should make use of the suggestions given in table 2
in planning her menus.
mding the Family," Dr. Mary Swartz Rose.

 . Food For the School Child 5
to Sources of Nutrients
ed _______ ___I___l___,____
Ot Food Nutrients Sources for Adequate Daily Requirements
ed Protein 1 quart of milk
re- 1 egg
1 whole wheat bread three times a day (whole
wheat cereals may be substituted)
A serving of meat or fish three times per week.
_ Minerals Calcium—1 quart of milk
Iron—1 egg daily, two vegetables, daily, with green
leaf cooked vegetable three times per week,
* whole wheat bread or cereal, three times daily,
two fruits daily, a serving of meat three times
per week.
I Note: See table in material on minerals for de-
l tailed information on sources of iron.
‘_ Vitamins Vitamin A—1 quart of milk
d Butter
‘_ S’ Thin green leafed raw vegetable daily
Um One egg (yolk)
Vitamin B- (Widely distributed)
_ A diet including at least three vege-
IS tables including potatoes, two fruits,
ood and an egg will take care of vitamin
ing B needs.
Vitamin C-Potatoes once a day, with two other
the vegetables
the Orange or tomatoes daily
mal One fruit besides orange or tomato
.&V€ Note; See mimeographed material on Vitamins
she 1. Too Little Food
ele- A menu 1nay have all the requisites of a good diet, but the
le 2 various requirements of the body will not be met, unless a suffi-
cient quantity of all foods are eaten. Occasionally a child has

 6 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 226
a poor appetite and does noteat sufficient food for growth and
health, and as a result theibody is stunted. However a chil-d is
likely to have a good appetite but may not eat sufficient quanti-
ties of one or more foods which are required to supply certain
properties necessary for optimum growth and health. For
example, if a child does not eat foods rich in iron, he eventually
becomes anemic, or if his diet does not include an ample supply
of calcium he will become rachitic and there may not be suffi-
cient calcium to meet the requirements for normal heart action.
2. Wrong Proportion of Food V
Two things may result if a child eats a large amount of one
type of food as bread, potatoes, sweets or meats; first, other
foods may be displaced and some of the properties essential for
growth and health be lacking in his diet, and second the pro-
portion of carbohydrate, protein or fat may be wrong for good
3. Irregular Meals
Meals should be approximately five hours apart, thus giv-
ing plenty of time for the food of one meal to be digested and
for a sense of hunger to develop before another is eaten. Wlien
meals are too close together, a person is not hungry and usually
little food is eaten, and as a result the day’s total intake is not
sufficient for the bodily needs.
Eating between meals has the same effect as having the
meals too close together. Fruits or milk are the only foods
which should be allowed to be eaten between meals.
Altho food is one of the important factors necessary for
growth and health, it is essential that the body be organically
sound, that good hygienic habits are practised, and that the
environment is a happy one. Malnutrition is a serious condi-
tion and should have the attention of a physician. However,
the parents should have the following points in mind as symp-
toms that the child is not up to par:

 Food For the School Child 7
1. Easily fatigued 9. Breathes thru the mouth
2. Poor posture V 10. Chronic constipation
a. Protruding abdomen 11. Does not go to sleep easily
b. Rounded shoulders 12. Restless and nervous
` c. Sway-backed 13. Plays either inactive games
` 3. Flabby muscles or iiits from one thing to an-
’ 4. Poor skin conditions other
· a. Eruptions 14. High-pitched voice
_ b. Dry 15. Irritable
c. Rough 16. Seldom hungry
' 5. Poor color 17. Finicky appetite
a. Pale 18. More than 10% below or
b. Muddy . 20% above weight
5 c. Sallow 19. Failure to gain during a
[_ 6. Dull expression in eye period of several weeks
~ 7. Dark circles under the eyes
· 8. Tired facial expression
- when in repose
An underweight child who is organically sound may be
brought up to weight by regulating his food and hygienic habits.
'- He should have long hours of sleep at night, a rest period during
Cl the day, at least three hours of outdoor play, live in a calm
u atmosphere, and eat more food than would ordinarily be needed
y for growth and health. A weekly weighing at the same time
It of day and as far away from meal time as possible, and with the
same weight clothing is a good plan. However, if a child does
6 not respond to this regime and begin to gain within a couple of_
_S weeks, he should have a thoro examination by a competent phy-
sician to locate the organic difficulty and should then have im-
mediate treatment.
W Breakfast
.Y Breakfast should always include milk in some form. It
1G may be used as a beverage itself or in the form of cocoa, milk
li- toast, cereal cooked in milk, etc. Raw fruits, or those cooked
~r, with very little sugar, and a whole cereal, either in the form of
p- a breakfast food or whole wheat toast, should be eaten to give
laxative qualities to the diet.

 l ‘f8 Kentucky, Extension Circular N 0. 226
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A I Fig. 1. Malnourished boy and girl. `Q
Mldday Meal · Y
· Wlien possible the heavy n1eal of the day should be served I
at n0011, since the school child should go to bed early i11 the ,]
evening. Meat dishes should be served at 110011, as thestimulat- I
ing effect of meat at the evening meal 1nay cause the child to be t
restless du1·ing the forepart of the night. _ ·
Evenlng'Mcal » i" i n 2
The evening meal should be 011e that digests quickly. Soups,
Q1’CamQd Vgggtablgs,   SHHCQS &I1C`l_Cl1$lZElI`dS {LPC good lZypGS of S
food for this meal. oAn egg should be served if it has not been 1
included. i11 o11e of the other meals of the day. The remainder s
of the child ’s quart of milk should be served in some form. w
I . . . V . TSCHOOL LUNCH ` `  
· The school lunch is one of the big problems in feeding 0
the child for this age. The lunchdnust be appetizing, easily —r

 _ Food For tho‘Sch0ol Child 9
digested, and contain foods which can be carried from home.
Too often it is heavy meat or jam sandwiches, with a piece of
cake or pie. This type of lunch is hard to digest, dry, unin-
teresting and frequently the child eats very little of it. As a
result he is hungry when heearrives home in the afternoon,
eats a lunch, and then is not hungry at supper time. In analys-
ing this situati0n.we find the following possibilities;
a. The total food intake of the child may be too little for his
b. Because he does not have vegetables or milk at noon, he may
not be getting his full quota of each.
c. The foods in the lunch do not digest quickly, and the child is
not up to par mentally in the afternoon.
d. He may be having a diet which brings on constipation.
, e. He may be developing bad food habits.
The Luhch Problem T
First, cold lunch carried from home. The foods may be those
which will supplementithe other meals of the day and at the
same time be appetizing. Sandwiches with iillings made of
chopped egg, cottage cheese, cream cheese, peanut butter or
vegetables are moist and easily digested. Sandwich fillings
nd which willsoak into the bread and make it soggy should be car-
“ ried separately and placed between the slices ofibread at noon.
HG Tomatoes and jams are good examplesrof this type of filling.
ig Having two kinds of sandwiches helps to make the lunch gapped- _
tizing. . » . · -
I _A; bottle of milk helps to keep the lunch from being dry
l and to assure that the childireceives his quart per day.
*8, Raw fruits, such as apples, peaches, pears or oranges,
Of stewed fruits with little sweetening and custards make de-
an licious desserts. Graham crackers will usually satisfy the de-
er sire for sweets, but plain cake or cookies may be used to give
variety; ` “
_‘ Sandwiches and cake should be wrapped in wax paper to
keep them moist. Two napkins should be placed in the box,
ig one for the child to use and the other to place on the desk,
ly —under"the food. Z ~ T l .

 10 Kentucky Extension Circular N 0. 226
Second, cold lunch supplemented by a hot dish carried from Ho
home. If the child has a small thermos bottle, he can have a gr
. . Y
hot soup, cocoa, stew, etc., for his lunch. The hot dish makes the Ap
lunch appetizing and, because of that fact, the child is likely Gr
to eat more food than he otherwise would. This is undoubtedly VG
an easy way to solve the lunch problem. If it is impossible to ca
have a thermos bottle, foods may be carried in a fruit jar and B?
placed in a pan of hot water to be reheated. (The pan must M]
have a false bottom.) VE
Third, cold lunch supplemented by one hot dish prepared  
at school. In the larger schools, where there are kitchen facili- B,
ties, it is comparatively easy to prepare a hot dish such as a Ml
cream soup, vegetable, cocoa, etc. It is possible to prepare a
hot dish for all the children in a one room school, but the plan is
not as practical as having each child have a thermos bottle.* Ly
Cold Lunches:
(The number of sandwiches depends upon the age and appetite of 31
the child) SC
Peanut butter sandwich Chopped egg sandwich L
Tomato sandwich Cottage cheese sandwich `  
Baked custard and cookie Celery 1
Milk Peach and sponge cake—milk %
Carrot and egg sandwich Nut bread and butter sandwich 2
Raisin sandwich Shredded lettuce sandwich
Baked apple Tomato stuffed with cottage
Milk cheese _
Milk—Graham cracker al
Chicken sandwich Peanut butter and cottage hl
Bread and jelly sandwich (Jelly cheese m
added at noon) Minced celery sandwich
Tapioca custard Fruit gelatin with soft custard
Milk Sauce (custard carried in separ·
- ate dish) Milk ’ ff
—-— w
*Suggestions for managing the preparation of a hot dish in the one- 16
room school will be furnished upon request.

 Food For the School Child 11
Om Hot Lunches-
, 34 Cream of carrot soup Cocoa
J Bread and butter sandwich Egg sandwich
the Apple Peach sauce
ely Gr_aham cracker Cookie
my Vegetable stew Creamed peas
» to Cabbage and celery sandwich Bread and butter sandwiches
ind Baked custard Baked apple-Sponge cake
ust Milk—Cookie Milk
Vegetable soup Boiled rice with raisins and milk
Crackers Bacon and celery sandwich
[`fiq Stewed prunes (brown bread)
31h* Brown sugar roll Orange
S a Milk
n is
le * COCOA
` % tbsp prepared cocoa 1 c milk
1 tbsp sugar 1 c boiling water
Few grains salt,
Scald milk. Mix cocoa, sugar and salt, add one cup boiling water
VB of and boil a few minutes until consistency of a thick syrup. Turn in
scalded milk and beat with egg beater.
1 qt water 1 c tomatoes
_ 1 c shredded cabbage 1 tbsp minced celery
dk % c diced potato 1 tbsp green pepper _
_ 1 minced carrot 2 tbsp drippings
wlch 2 minced onions 4 tsp salt `
0 Have water boiling in stew pan, add all vegetables except potatoes
and tomatoes. Boil rapidly for ten minutes then simmer gently for
one-half hour. Add potatoes and tomatoes and cook for another half-
ttagg hour. Meat stock may be used instead of water and the vegetables
may be varied.
`gpap _ Remove skin from medium-sized tomatoes. Remove thin slice
· from top of each and take out seeds and some of pulp. Fill tomatoes
with cottage cheese mixed with mayonnaise dressing. Arrange in
one- lettuce leaves and pin together at top with toothpicks.

 12 Kentucky Extension Circnlaxr N 0. 226
2 c milk 1/L c sugar
2 or 3 eggs, according to size % tsp vanilla or other flavor
% tsp salt
Heat milk. Beat eggs with sugar and salt and add hot milk.
Cook in double boiler or bake in dish or custard cups. ‘
Sandwiches should be made from at least one-day-old bread.
Variations can be given by using various kinds of breads, as whole
wheat, rye, raisin, nut, etc., as well as by using different fillings.
Bread should be cut about %-inch thick and spread thinly with butter.
1. Finely chopped hard-cooked egg, celery and nuts. Mix with
cream or a mild salad dressing.
2. Finely chopped hard-cooked egg and cottage cheese.
3. Finely choppedhard-cooked egg and cream cheese, moistened
with cream. .
4. Slices of hard-cooked eggs put between thin slices of bread
spread with butter mixed with chopped parsley.
5. Finely chopped hard-cooked egg and ground raw carrot, mixed
with a boiled salad dressing.
6. Peanut butter, cottage cheese and salad dressing or cream.
7. Peanut butter and grated apple.
8. Peanut butter softened with enough milk to make it spread
9. Cottage cheese, and chopped parsley softened with cream or
salad dressing.
10. Cottage cheese, chopped celery and nuts softened with salad
dressing. ` ‘
11. Finely chopped chicken mixed with a mild salad dressing.
12. Ground raisins, dates, figs or prunes and chopped nuts.
` 13. Thin slices of tomato, seasoned with salt or salad dressing.
14. Crisp slices of bacon and tomatoes.

 Food For the School Child 13
read »
m or
salad J

 14 K efntucky E0ctemsi0n Circular N 0. 226

 Food For the School Child 15

 16 Kentucky Extension Cfireular N0. 226 h , ]
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