xt7wst7dvk2j https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7wst7dvk2j/data/mets.xml The Kentucky Kernel Kentucky -- Lexington The Kentucky Kernel 1991-02-28 Earlier Titles: Idea of University of Kentucky, The State College Cadet newspapers  English   Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. The Kentucky Kernel  The Kentucky Kernel, February 28, 1991 text The Kentucky Kernel, February 28, 1991 1991 1991-02-28 2020 true xt7wst7dvk2j section xt7wst7dvk2j  

Kentucky Kernel

University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky Independent since 1971

Established 1894 Thursday, February 28, 1991

Bush orders
cease-fire, says

Vol. XCIV, No. 119


Crowd gets

advice on
deadly virus

Senior Staff Writer

It wasn’t the typical AIDS lec-

Last night in UK’s Student Cen-
ter Ballroom. comedian Suzi
Landolphi spoke to 200 students
about Acquired Immune Deficien-
cy Syndrome.

Not a laughing matter’? Wrong.

Hers was a different approach
to a somewhat sticky subject.

Iandolphi said practicing safe
sex involves three key ingredients
— communication, honesty, and
trust. She also was quick to add
her favorites —— a trampoline and
whipped cream — to include the
more playful side of sex.

At that time she took the liberty
of singling out a student in the
crowd, Bob Whelan, former UK
track personality, so the two could
play out a scenario of being in a
relationship on the verge of sexual

“Bob, what do you like to eat? 1
would love to make you lasagna,"
Landolphi said. “I really like you,
Bob . What do you like sexual~
ly? We should get to know each
other before we have sex, so let’s
take off all our clothes and rub our
bodies together until we are satis-
fied then you won't mind wear-
ing a rubber,” she said.

Landolphi‘s real-life drama on
condom use showed the audience
a new way to approach a subject
many students can't bring them-
selves to discuss with their pan-
ners. even with increasing AIDS
rates among college populations.

Landolphi also emphasized


Suzi Landolphi performs in the Student Center Ballroom last night in "Hot, Sexy and Safer," a light—
hearted instructional approach to AIDS prevention through safe-sex practices.

some facts about the deadly virus,
saying that people can’t catch the
virus from “spit, tears, sweat, even
the funny suction noises that come
from two bodies rubbing togeth-



Good health also is essential in
preventing the virus from attack-
ing the immune system, she said.
“We can live with this if we can
keep our immune system up."

Keeping stress levels low also


can help prevent the HIV virus
from leading to AIDS. “Cutting
down on caffeine, and sugar."
Landolphi said. as well as exerCis-

See AIDS, Back page



for presidency

Senior Staff Writer

Promising he would end the
“stagnation" in the Student Govem-
ment Association, Byl Hensley for-
mally announced his candidacy for
SGA president last night.

Hensley began by saying that the
gathering of about 20 people atop
Patterson Office Tower was “to ad-
dress a serious concern" involvmg a

fallen SGA.
During their 20-minute speech,


A University Forum
on the topic of “Al-
cohol on campus"
will be held from
noon to 1:30 pm. in
room 206 of the
Old Student Center.


played the
crowds with

Page 2.

Sports .............................. 2
Perspective ....................... 3
Classifieds ........................ 5


to Vie

Hensley and his vice-presidential
running mate Jen Saffer spoke
strongly against the current SGA.
its activities and lack of communi-
cation with the campus community.
They spokc of change and a “new
vision," which they want UK stu-
dents to “share."

“Share the Vision," Henslcy’s
and Saffcr‘s campaign slogan, in«
cludcs a platfomi “with an objective
point of view," Hensley said. “The
other people running are much too
close with SGA and can't see its

Hensley, 23. an English senior
and Gaines Fellow with three se-
mesters remaining, attended Ohio
State University for 2 1/2 years be-
fore transfening to UK during the
fall 1989 semester. He was a mem-
ber of Sigma Nu social fraternity at
Ohio State, however, he did not be—
came involved with Sigma Nu at
UK, and tonight he criticized the
greek majority in SGA.

Hensley said SGA is 90 percent
greek. “I have a problem with that.”
He said the greek community has a
better information flow. SGA needs
to reach more people, he said.

As traffic director of WRFL-FM,
UK’s student-run radio station, and
chairperson of the Student Activi-
ties Board Contemporary Affairs
Committee directly involved
with bringing speakers to the UK
campus — Hensley said he reaches
toward the rest of the UK campus.

His administration would use the
necessary channels to push its ideas
through, Hensley said. Some of the
Hensley-Saffer ideas include: the
installation of telephone registra-
tion; bike lanes; extension of library
hours. particularly for graduate and
non-traditional students who have
difficulty working with the current
hours (Monday-Thursday 7:30 am.-

See HENSLEY, Back page

Kuwait is free

Associated Press

WASHINGTON ~— President
Bush last night said he was ordering
coalition forces to suspend combat
attacks at midnight, declaring that
“Kuwait is liberated, Iraq’s army is

“The Kuwaiti flag once again
flies above the capital of a free and
sovereign nation," Bush said.

In a dramatic televised address,
Bush warned the fighting would be-
gin anew if Iraq‘s forces — shat-
tered and in retreat 7* fired on at»
lied troops or launched Scud
missiles at Israel and Saudi Arabia.


I US. Marine hailed as
here In Kuwalt. See page 4.


“It is up to Iraq whether the sus-
pension on the part of the coalition
becomes a permanent cease fire,"
Bush said, adding later: “If Iraq vio-
lates these terms, coalition forces
will be free to resume military oper-

Spokesman Marlin Fitzwater said
the US. withdrawal would begin
within “days."

“This war is now behind us." the
president said. “Ahead of us is the
difficult task of securing a potential-
ly historic peace.“

Bush decided to call off the fight-
ing earlier in the day after determin‘
ing that pursuing it further would
lead to unnecessary killings. said

“He had the assurances of the
commanders that the military back-
bone of Iraq was broken," Fitzwater

Bush said he’d asked Secretary of
State James A. Baker III to work


with hope

Senior Staff Writer

As a ceasefire settled over
Iraq and Kuwait last night :tf
ter six weeks of fighting, th--
UK community reactel .ti?"
relief ;t\' it wondered who: the
coming days will brine.

“l"n .‘ILItI to cet the .ease—
tire and that the killing AIII
stop," said Robert Olson, a
UK professor of Middle East-
em history. “I'm happy it is
ending for America,“

However, Olson says hr is
not sure Iraq will aCcept all t-I
the United Nations‘ 12 reso~
lutions. “I think Iraq WIII 11C
ccpt some of them 7 such as
releasing prisoners of war.
not firing on coalition troops.
and firing Scuds . ~ but Presi-
dent Bush tlid not make t7

See CAMPUS, Back page










Lori Peter, a business freshman, works for the Arts & Sciences Phonathon, held now in Sooveli
Hall. Peter started working for the Phonathon through UK‘s STEPS job placement program.





LCC’s Clark enters race

Staff Writer

Promising to provide the “best of
both worlds” for UK's student
body, Lexington Community Col-
lege student Keith Clark became the
third candidate to fomially an-
nounce his candidacy for Student
Govemment Association president.

Clark, an LCC sophomore, and
his vice presidential running mate,
senior Brandon Smith, made their
announcement in front of about 25
supporters in the lobby of LCC‘s
main campus yesterday afternoon.

UK's 1990 Homecoming Queen,
Maria Moore, who also is an LCC
student, began the event with an

opening statement and the introduc-
tion of (‘lark and Smith.

Clark spoke about some of his
platform's objectives, including stu-
dent fees, tuition and parking.

The platform calls for a ceiling on
student fee increases for UK and
LCC students.

“Secondly, we're all aware that
the parking A towing and ticketing
-- is a major discomfort among stu-
dents," said Mmrc, who read an
overvtcw of Clark and Smith's plat~
fomi. “We have researched many
possibilities towards some future
resolutions to revise parking regula-

The election for SGA president,
vice president and for senators will

be Mar. 27-28.

Clark, 28, has served two consec-
utive terms in the SGA Senate and is
a busmess administration major. A
Detroit native, Clark also has been a
member of the Lexington Commum-
ty College Association of Students.

Smith. 23. is a political science
major and transferred to UK from
LCC two summers ago. He is a na
tive of Hazard, Ky.

“Being a non-traditional student
and a pan of the Lt‘(‘ student body.
no other candidate could possibly be
aware of (LCC studentl concems
more than myself." (‘lark said.
“Brandon, being a non-traditional

See CLARK, Back page



Wlih the ,United \Jations ‘Lccurity
Council on “the iicccssarx arrange-
ments for this war to be coiled" lor-
mally, He said Baker «(iUItI _.;o 1.,
the Middle East next v\'.\‘)L it» ‘K‘glfl

Bush made his announcement on
the 42nd day of the conflict with

See GULF Back page

to ask SGA
for hearing

ASSistant News Editor

Lttst night the Student timern-
nierit Association politic.“ .lIItliT‘
committee passed to the SGA Stir
LIIC tloor .i It‘\tlllllltlll .jtiiiint: '.»r
public hearings on 't‘-ic‘§;.tll.'.tlttili it

The ICM‘IUIIUII, which .siiI Ix: .t;
hated \thliicstitit .ii .IIL
meeting, calls for the tull senate to
meet and listen to experts “on the
proposition that hCIIlp,’IIIiHlIUdIlLI
should be relcgtiliyed tor rec rctition—
al, medicinal and industrial uses.”

There was some question it the
committee as to whether there was
enough time lctt in this semester to
undertake and complete the prom t.

"I think that II we really want to
do a quality iob, i would suggest
next tall," \dld Senator II 3..iii:t
Chris Pay nc.

Although \‘OIIIC coiiiiiiittct: ‘Ilcilt-
bers questioned the discussion wt
recreational use of marijuana .is t‘urt
of the hearings, the toiiiinittet .ic-
cided to pass the bill to the door 1o
allow the tull senate to \IL‘LItIC the
the issue.

“I think it is our It‘spollslblIli}
to hold a hearing. It‘s not our place
right now, and it not what they're
asking of us, to take a stand." \dld
Allen Putman, SGA senator at
large. “I think questions on recrea-
tional or not are even premature. be-
cause if we pass a judgement on
recreation now it's more or less an
uneducated judgement "

In other committee

-The campus relations committee
passed, by acclamation, to the floor
a resolution calling for SGA to
sponsor a “campus cleanup" alter
the closing of the last poll on the fi—
nal day of SGA elections. At that

See SGA, Back page


action last


 2 - Kentucky Kernel, Thursday, February 20, 1991

Plaid factor puts Wildcats in good shape for SEC

UK coach Rick Pitino played the crowd with plaid in Tuesday night's
victory over Alabama. The style won't stick. but the SEC win will.






Paul Farrell will speak about the history of the draft.
how it has Changed since Vietnam. and will uncover
other myths about this important issue.







The Residence Hall Association .
will sponsor these and other
articles to commemorate famous
Black Americans and their major
contributions to American history.







Jan Matzeliger was a pio-
neer in inventing the shoe
maker. Before he perfected
what we know today as the
shoemaker, his first model
was made only of pieces of
wood and cigar and packing

Elijah McCoy devised a
system in 1872 that al-
lowed oil to flow to machin-
ery without stopping the
machine. He had over 50
patents, most related to the
development of the engine.

A few leftovers

Ever the showman, Rick Pitino
pulled a shocker on Tuesday night at
the UK-Alabama game.

Pitino — the man who could have
inspired ZZ Top to write “Sharp
Dressed Man" — broke out a stylish
plaid sportcoat in honor of Alabama
coach Wimp Sanderson, the man
known for wearing some of the ugli-
est plaid sponcoats ever made.

The UK coach walked out for the
pregame introductions sporting a
pink, aqua. fuchsia and cream plaid
sportcoaL Yuck. This is to be ex-
pected from a great uncle or even a
father. but a man known for his
many double-breasted Armani suits
wearing plaid?

“We had to do something because
Wimp comes in here with that and
psyches us out with all those col-
ors," Pitino said jokingly. “It was a
big, big factor in the game.”

He may not have been too stylish,
but he sure was funny. Nobody
could foresee this. But not to worry,
Pitino said this will not become a
trend, as he is “returning it" to a lo
cal clothing store.

And his players are glad. too.

“I don‘t want to see that again,"
said center Reggie Hanson, who was
decked out in a casual double-
brcasted suit. ”I didn‘t know any-
thing about it until he walked out
onto the floor."

The stunt did not phase Sander-
son, though.



“You can tell, No. l, Rick’s got a
lot more money than I do,” said
Sanderson. who added that Pitino
was wearing a fancy brand while his
was “a J.C. Pe-NAY."

“C.M. (Newton)’s paying him
well. He's making a lot of money on
his restaurant and car washes and
those things.

“I don’t have a car wash. I’m just
barely making it. I wouldn't even be
standing up here if it wasn’t for
CM. He had to recommend me
about 15 times before Coach (Bear)
Bryant hired me, but I fooled them,
I had a good program."

Pitino’s coat wasn’t the only gim-
mick UK used Tuesday night. The
school held a “Legends Luncheon"
that afternoon, and the “Alumni
Game" before the UK-Alabama
game. UK also recognized the 1951
National Championship team, which
Newton played on, at halftime of the

There was nothing left to help
motivate the Cats, except maybe a
movie about Coach Adolph Rupp.

“You could just feel the tradi-
tion,” forward Deron Feldhaus said.

That you could.

And the Cats responded with an
overwhelming defensive display and
defeated Alabama 79-73 to the lik-
ing of the 24,177 Wildcat fans at
Rupp Arena.

What a great game, and not jmt
because the Cats won. The intensity
was at the level of a championship
game. Both teams were never more
than a few inches from the opponent
the entire night.

The players never left their man.
In fact, UK guard Jeff Brassow fol-
lowed James Robinson into the Ala-
bama huddle during a timeout.

“This was a great college basket-
ball game." Pitino said. “We played
as if there was a lot at stake tonight,
which there was. We really wanted
to get on the break. and the reason
we wanted to run so much was out
of respect for Alabama‘s defense.

“This Alabama team can really
guard. They’re a big, big defensive
team. It was a ferocious game on
both the offensive and defensive

Kentucky wasn’t too shabby ei-

“They did a much better job to-
night on defense than they did last
time,” Alabama forward Melvin
Cheatum said. The Tide beat UK
88-83 in Tuscaloosa, Ala., which
snapped a long Wildcat winning

With the win, the 1990-91 Cats
went a long way in securing their

niche in UK history. A victory over
Auburn at Rupp on Saturday and
the Cats will win their 37th South-
eastern Conference title, even
though it may not be official.

Just think. a team that was so pa-

thetic in 1988-89 that it firtished 13-
19. with the best players bailing out
after the semn, could have the best
record in the SEC just two years lat-
A loss by LSU, which had a 12-4
conference record heading into last
night‘s game at Florida. would give
the Cats the title. The best chance
for UK to finish alone atop the SEC
is LSU‘s game at Mississippi State
on Saturday.

Look for the Bulldogs to disman-
tle LSU in the final home game for
Mississippi State's four senior start-

Saturday’s UK-Aubum game will
also mark the final game - because
of NCAA sanctions - for Hanson
and Jonathan Davis. There is sure to
be plenty of emotion when “My Old
Kentucky Home" is performed dur-
ing pregame ceremonies.

Pitino can only hope that the Cats
play with as much emotion and guts
as they did Tuesday night. If that
happens, it could get ugly.

Assistant Sports Editor Barry
Reeves is a journalism senior and a
Kernel sports columnist.

Willard adjusting to life Without Pitino

Associated Press

Rick Pitino may get some ribbing
from old buddy Ralph Willard when
basketball sea-
son is over.

Willard and
Pitino’s friend-
ship has evolved
over 22 years
into one of best
friends. The two
coaches talk on
the phone three
or four times a
week. They have
a friendly compe-
tition in golf and tennis.

“1 whip him at golf and beat him
in tennis," Pitino said with a big

Willard, told of Pitino‘s claims in
a telephone interview this week,
laughed and said: “What did he say?
We have wars in golf and tennis.
He’s beaten me once in tennis. Once
in 999 times. In golf, I beat him eve—
ry time we go on the course.”

Willard has worked wonders at
Western Kentucky this season, his
first as a head college coach. Very


similar to what Pitino accomplished
with his first team at Kentucky last


Pitino’s 1989-90 squad finished

14-14 overall and finished fourth in
the Southeastern
Conference with
a 10-8 record.
Willard's Hill-
toppers closed
the regular sea-
son last Satur-
day with a 14-
13 mark and
third in the Sun
Belt Conference
at 8-6.
“The parallels
are amazing,” Willard said in a tele-
phone interview from the Bowling
Green campus this week. “During
Rick’s first year Kentucky had the
worst loss in the school‘s history
05095 to Kansas) and we did too
in losing to Georgia 024—65)."

Pitino's first team had eight schol-
arship players, while Willard has
only seven on his roster. Pitino‘s
tallest starter was 6-7; Willard’s was

The Hilltoppers lost 10 of their
first 14 games and their preseason




Richard Keeling, M.D.

Nationally acclaimed expert on

AIDS & other STD's on the
College Campus

will speak on

Thursday, Feb. 28th, 1991 at
12 Noon - Medical Center
Hospital Auditorium

and at

4:00 pm. - Student Center Small Ballroom

For more information, call 233-6465




Sex on His


Haggin Field
Thursday 5 — 7

- Mocktails

- Food

. Folks

- Funl!

- Sponsored by RHA


“The Best Thriller Since





Wed. - Sat. 7:30 a: 10 pm.
Sun. 7 pm.
$2'w/UK ID

at Worsham Theater





schedule was ranked the fifth in the
nation in difficulty. They were
picked to finish last in the Sun Belt

“1 think he should be coach of the

year (in the Sun Belt),” said Pitino,
who knows a good coaching job
when he sees it. “I think what he’s
done has been phenomenal. I knew
he‘d be very successful as a coach,
but with the schedule and some of
the injuries they‘ve had, it's an
amazing feat what he's done this
At 44, Willard took over the
Western Kentucky program at an
age when most coaches are settling
in at a college or moving on to tele-

“I was happy with what I was do-
ing in high school,” said Willard,
coach and athletic director for 13
years at St. Dominic at Oyster Bay,
NY. “It was a small catholic school
with a lot of tradition and spirit
about it. I also was involved in
fund-raising for a gym and got
caught up in that.

“I had opportunities to leave, but I
was content with that. I also had a
young family and we were happy

After leaving St. Dominic in
1985. he spent one season each as
an assistant at Hofstra and Syracuse.
He become one of Pitino's assistants
with the New York Knicks in 1987,
and after two seasons. followed Piti-
no to Kentucky.

“1 have no problem being Rick
Pitino’s guy," said Willard, who





\ -—_‘_//
’\ —/
\_ (5'

Procedure for Recommending
Revisions of
Student Code

Pursuant to the Code of Student Conduct. Article
VII, the Student Code Committee will accept and
review recommendations from UK students, faculty
and staff regarding proposed revisions of the Code.
Such recommendations must be in writing, should
be as explicit as possible. and should be addressed
to the Committee, c/o Office of Vice Chancellor of
Student Affairs. Lexington Campus, 529 Patterson Of-
fice Tower, 00273. Recommendations should indi-
cate the name of the proposing individual or organi-
zation. mailing address and telephone number.
Recommended revisions should be submitted by
March 18, 1991, and preferably earlier than that
date. The Code is published as Part I (pages 1-29 of
the document entitled ‘Student Rights and Respon-
sibilities" dated August 16. 1990).


played at Holy Cross in the 19605.
“I'd say he’s the best college coach
in the the country in all areas of the
game. He’s the most innovative. He
adapts and brings new concepts to
the game.”

And while he has been in the
shadow of Pitino, it helped him pre-
‘pare for guiding his own program.

“Rick gives a tremendous amount
of responsibility to his assistants,”
Willard said. “If you’re lucky
enough to work for him, he involves
you in all aspects. He gives his peo-
ple responsibility and expects them
to do the job and he rewards them
for the effort they give."

But Willard plans to be his own

“I didn’t want Western to be an
adjunct to Kentucky," he said. “We
had to establish our own identity."

The Hilltoppers, however, play a
version of “Pitino-ball” from the 3-
point line, where they set a Sun Belt
mark this season with 620 attempts.
They have made 228 for 36.5 per-

Willard. who grew up in the bus-
tle of Brooklyn, plans to stay a
while in the relatively slow pace of
Bowling Green.

“The people have been great, un-
believably supportive and friendly,"
he said. “I’m perfectly happy.
Everything here is positive. And I
didn’t come here to half complete
the job.”

\ __..._-—:——'/



\ §
\ r: -







 Kentucky Kernel, Thursday, February 28, 1991 - 3


End of war in the Gulf
does not offer hope
to Kurdish population


By Robert Olson


he Kurds are a people estimated to number nearly 20
million, living argely in three Middle Eastern coun-
tries: Turke , estimated to have a population of
about 10 mi lion; Iran, 5 million; and Iraq, 3 million.
Syria also has a Kurdish po ulation of about 800,000
and about 70,000 Kurds live in the oviet republics of Arme-

nia and Azerbaz
Since the bu

ian- . . .
of Kurds live in com uous areas of east and

southeast Turkey; north and northeast aq; north and north-
west Iran; and east and northeast Syria, they have ossessed a
sense of community and identity at least since me ieval times.
This sense of identity was re—enforced by the emergence of
nationalist movements in the last two decades of the 19th cen-
tury. The Kurds consider themselves to be direct descendants
of the ancient Medes who, because of military conquests, de-

feats and collapse of empires, began
to migrate and locate themselves
around two thousand years ago in
the mountainous fastness of the
present state of Turkey, Iran and

From this i....:cgical and almost
irnpregnable location, the Kurds
were able to preserve their commu-
nity while at the same time partici—
pating in the great Armenian,
Greek. Bymntine, Arab. Turkish,
Iranian and Ottoman empires that
dominated this region’s history
right up to the collapse and partition
of the Ottoman Empire at the end of
World War I.

The Kurds were promised the
possibility of an independent state
by Articles 62 and 64 of the Treaty
of Sevres signed on Aug. 10, 1920.
But they were to be disappointed.
like the Armenians had been earlier,
in attempting to establish an inde-
pendent state, or even a homeland,
in former Ottoman territories.

The Armenians managed to estab-
lish an independent state from
1918-1920 in the Caucasus. This
state became an autonomous repub-
lie of the Soviet Union in 1920 and
remains so today.

The Kurds, however, were left
alone to confront the emerging
strong nationalisms of Turkey and
Iran. The Kurds also fell victim to
the great power politics of Great
Britain and the Soviet Union, both
of which thought it to be in their in-
terests to cooperate with the increas-
ingly strong states of Turkey and

Since Great Britain and the Soviet
Union wanted good relations with
Turkey and Iran, they acquiesced in
Turkey‘s and Iran’s suppression of
Kurdish nationalist movements. By
1925 in both Turkey and Iran, major
Kurdish resistance had been
crushed; cultural as well as political
activities were forbidden.

In Iran and Turkey laws were
passed forbidding the speaking of
Kurdish in republics. The only ex-
ception to the general suppression
of the Kurds during the period be-
tween the two world wars was Iraq.

Iraq fell under British mandatory
control in 1920. Although Iraq be-
came an independent country in
1932, it remained under British con-
trol until 1958. British policy during
this period was to encourage Kurd-
ish nationalism but not indepen-
dence. This was a device to aid its
control of Iraq.

It was the policy of Great Britain,
the dominant power in the Middle
East at the time, to use the Kurdish,
non-Arab population — which then
as now comprises 18 percent of the
Iraqi population — as a balance
against the Arab-Sunni-dominant
govemments of Baghdad. -

The Kurds were to be the cudgel
that made Baghdad bow to Britain.
The Sunni Arabs represented about
30 percent of Iraq's population in
1920. The British intention was to
use the threat of Kurdish national-
ism and/or independence as a threat
to Iraq's government to follow Brit-
ish imperial policies throughout the
Middle East.

British policy also was intended
to use Kurdish nationalism to threat-
en or, at least, to intimidate Turkey
and Iran. not to challenge British or
Western interests and policies in the
Middle East, especially British poli-
cy toward the Arab countries.

British policies toward the Kurds
the Kurth today in Iraq have greater
cultural autonomy, including the
right to speak and publish in Kurd-
ish and to participate in the provin-
cial administration of the areas in
which they live, titan in either 'I‘ur-
key or Iran.

It was not until January that the
Turkish government abrogated the
law forbidding the speaking of
Kurdish in public.

The July 1958 revolution in Iraq
and the ouster of the British elimi-
nated British protection for the
Kurds and intermittent warfare has
continued since.

The two most major and recent
clashes between the Iraqi govem-
ment and the Kurds occurred as a
result of the 1975 Algiers Accords
negotiated between Iraq and Iran.


The regionalization and
consolidation of Kurdish
nationalist groups as a
result of the Iran-Iraq
War in the 19808 and the
United States-led
coalition war against Iraq
has provided the Kurds
with their most
prosperous opportunity to
create an independent
state or, at least, gain
greater autonomy within
the state they live, since
the collapse of the
Ottoman Empire in
World War I.

As a result of the accords, Iraq
granted Iran navigational rights to
the ihalweg, or the deepest channel
of the Shatt al-Arab River.

The Shatt at-Arab is the conflu-
ence of the Euphrates and Tigris
rivers. It runs for 90 miles inland
from the Persian Gulf and demar-
cates the boundary between south-
ern Iraq and central Iran.

The withdrawal of Iranian sup-
port for the Kurds in Iraq led to the
collapse of effective Kurdish resis-
tance. Even more damaging to the
Kurds was the destruction of about
800 Kurdish villages along Iraq’s
borders with Iran and Turkey.

The villages were razed to make a
“security belt” or no man‘s land be-
tween the Kurds of Turkey and Iran
with those of Iraq. It is also estimat-
ed that as many as 250.00 Kurds we
“resettled" in southern and central
Iraq where they were distributed
among Arab villages in groups of
up to five families.

The resettled Kurds, used to
mountainous terrain, a pastoral life
and a homogeneous culture were
now isolated in flat. desert country
among Arab speakers.

The second major disaster for the
Iraqi Kurds resulted from their lead-
ership‘s decision in early 1988 to
increase their military support for
Iran. As a result, more Kurdish vil-
lages were destroyed by the Iraqi

By 1987-88 it is likely than more
titan 1,000 Kurdish villages have
been destroyed. Some sources esti-
mate that by early 1988 up to one-
third of the population of Iraqi Kur-
distan had been depopulated.

After the cease fire with Iran in
August 1988, about 70,000 Iraqi
troops attacked Kurds they thought
had been loyal to Iran in the war
and forced another 100,000 Kurds
to flee to Turkey; 40,000 of whom
were fleeing from Halabja, a small
town in northeastern Iraq near the
Iranian border, where they were at-
tacked with chemical gas.

Because of the subsequent expo-
sure that this gas attack on Halabja
had on world opinion, especially in
Europe and the United States, it is
important to note recent research by
security specialists Anthony
Cordesman and Abraham Wagner




who in their “The Lessons of Mod-
em War: The Iran-Iraq War” Vol. II
(Westview Press, 1990) state, “evi-
dence later persuaded American ex-
perts that Iran had also fired gas
shells into the town of Halabja dur-
ing the struggle (between Iraqi, Ira-
nian and Kurdish soldiers) for the
town, it was Iraq that faced world-
wide condemnation.” (p. 371).

After August 1988, there were
more forcible deportations of Ktrrds
from their inhabited areas in the
northern provinces. Kurdish opposi-
tion groups in Iraq claimed that up
to 250,000 to 300,00 Kurds were
deported to other parts of Iraq. The
opposition groups claimed that
many of the deportees did not live
in the border strip that was incorpo-
rated into the “security zone," but
in other areas of the Kurdish auton-
omous region.

From 1975 through 1989, it is
probable that nearly 500,000 Kurds
were “resettled” to one part of Iraq
or another. Some of the Kurds re-
settled in 1975 did, however, make
their way back north and in 1988
may have been resettled for a sec-
ond time.

In Turkey the successful quash-
ing of Kurdish rebellions in 1925.
1930 and 1938 coupled with draco-
nian measures of suppression com-
pelled the Kurdish nationalist activ-
ities in Turkey. The spearhead of
this new Kurdish opposition was
the Kurdish Workers’ Pany, popu-
larly known by its initials as the
PKK, the initials of its Kurdish
name, “Parti-ye Karkarani-i Kurdi-

The PKK found its greatest sup-
port in southeastern provinces of
Turkey, which stretch alog the

up to 10,000, made attacks into
Iraq to destroy PKK bases. These
attacks were made with the consent
and sometimes in coordination
with Baghdad.

While Turkish military opera-
tions against the Kurds decreased
or ceased after 1986, Turkey and
Iraq seemed to be cooperating
against Kurdish nationalist organi-
zations right to Iraq’s Aug. 2 inva-
sion of Kuwait.

Cooperation between Turkey and
Iraq against the Kurds has been rig-
orously pursued since the Turkish,
Iraq and Great Britain Treaty of
June 5, 1926, of which 16 of its 18
articles dealt with measures for
border security and control of the

In addition to traditional con-
cerns regarding Kurdish national
movements. by the 19805 Turkey
wanted to reduce Kurdish threats to
its $50 billion Southern Anatolia
Project, a vast dam, hydroelectric
and irrigation scheme for Southeast
Turkey in the heart of Turkish Kur-

Turkey also wished to protect the
two huge oil pipelines from Iraq
that ran through its territory to a
Mediterranean port. Iraq too had a
great interest that the oil pipelines
not be sabotaged by Kurdish gue-
rillas as it became dependent on ex-
porting its oil through Turkey after
the outbreak of the war with Iran
and its inability to use its Gulf

It is these pipelines and ports that
Turkey closed in accordance With
the United Nations‘ resolutions a
few days after Iraq's Aug. 2 inva-
sion of Kuwait. Many Kurds sus-
pect that the Turkish government

One of the ironies of the 20th century is that in its last
decade the Kurds and their desire for a homeland,
which has been largely ignore