xt7wwp9t2q46_114 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7wwp9t2q46/data/mets.xml https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7wwp9t2q46/data/59m61.dao.xml American Liberty League 37 linear feet archival material English University of Kentucky This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Jouett Shouse Collection (American Liberty League Pamphlets), No. 117 "New Work-Relief Funds: An analysis of a situation demanding that Congress call a halt on departures from constitutional government, review policies initiated by the Executive but properly within the province of the Legislative Branch and cut short both waste and extravagance in the expenditure of public funds," April 13, 1936 text No. 117 "New Work-Relief Funds: An analysis of a situation demanding that Congress call a halt on departures from constitutional government, review policies initiated by the Executive but properly within the province of the Legislative Branch and cut short both waste and extravagance in the expenditure of public funds," April 13, 1936 2013 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7wwp9t2q46/data/59m61/59m61_117/Am_Lib_Leag_117_001/Am_Lib_Leag_117_001.pdf section false xt7wwp9t2q46_114 xt7wwp9t2q46 ]OIN I  
*   NEW
The American Liberty League is organized to defend Q
and uphold the Constitution of the United States and to Q ` N 7
gather and disseminate information that (1) will teach §  
the necessity of re pect for the rights of persons and E
property as fundamental to every successful form of gov- Q   I  
iernment and (2) will teach the duty of government to E
encourage and protect individual and group initiative 5
and enterprise, to foster the right to work, earn, save, §
and acquire property, and to preserve the ownership and E
lawful use of property when acquired. g * * *
The League believes in the doctrine expressed by Q
George Washington in his Farewell Address that while 2
the people may amend the Constitution to meet condi- E
tions arising in a changing world, there must "be no E A 1 . f . . d d.
change by usurpation; for this * * * is the customary Q n ana YSIS O a Sltuauon cman lng
weapon by which free governments are destroyed." § that Congress call a halt on departures
Since the League is wholly dependent upon the con- Q fr¤m C0nStituti0m"·1 s¤v¢r¤m¢¤¢.
tributions of its members for financial support it hopes Q review Policies initiated by the
that you will become a contributing member. However, Q E . b 1 . h.
if you cannot contribute it will welcome your support as   Xecutlvc ut proper Y Wlt In
a non-contributing member. E the province of the LegisIa»
___ _________ __________________   V tive Branch and cut short
  both waste and extrava»
ENROLL I NT BLANK   gance in the expendi»
  a ture of public funds
Date ...................  
I desire to be enrolled as a member of the   _
American Liberty League.  
5 ¢€ c_,
Szgnature .......................................... g C   U
5 QP Y0
Name ..........................................   r Y Le
M Street ...........................................   S
gg ~ i
E Town .. ......................................... E
E National Headquarters
County .......................... State ..........   NATIONAL PRESS B[]ILDING
V Enclosed find my contribution of $ ..........   *
to help support the activities of the League.   *
(H7) ' .   Document No. II7
A Q April, 1936

 r New Work-Rehef Funds
T ir
Fundamental issues are involved in the Presi-
dent’s request for $1,500,000,000 to supplement
_ $4,880,0%,000 provided in the Emergency Relief
Appropriation Act of 1935, the so-called Work-
Relief Act.
g The extraordinary and unprecedented law of
i last year, authority under which continues until
l June 30, 1937, is a statutory basis for a subtle
shift from the traditional American form of gov-
{ ernment to a mechanism with many similarities
to European dictatorships.
' ` i Under this law, a disintegration of the system
I of three coordinate branches, designed by the
l framers of the Constitution to prevent a recur-
[ rence of autocracy such as was responsible for
A the American Revolution, has been in progress.
» The Congress abdicated a large measure of its
legislative authority in conferring blanket power
upon the Exeizutive. d f
` 8 Z _ _ _ T Under t is aw, the in ependent sovereignty 0
HEN NOM have Jcwhshed Whh this l the states, intended in the Constitution to prie-
- vent undue centralization of authority in Was -
pampmeh please pass it on to Some   ington, has been weakened. The Federal Gov-
friend ov acquaintance who might be ` f erngient has assumed responsibility for magzers
. . . .   wit in the sovereignty of the states, inclu ing
WweYe$ted’ caumg ms attention to the   relief, local improvements and social experi-
membership blank on page 24, l mentation of various kinds.
l Under this law, liberties guaranteed by the
l   Bill of Rights have become less secure. Execu-
.   tive authority has been increased not only by
  the largest sum of money ever placed at the dis-
‘ posal of a single oflicial of any government but
i by the power to write laws, for violation o—f which
{ the courts are under obligation to impose fines.
. - Confronting the Congress is a duty to call a
halt on departures from constitutional govern-
ment, to review policies initiated by the Execu-
‘ tive but properly within the province of the
· , legislative branch and to cut short waste and
extravagance in the expenditure of public funds.
-   Phases of the situation which deserve atten-
Q tion are:
1. The present law vests far too much author-
ity in the President and unless sharp1_y restricted
will apply in the use of supplemental funds.
2. Continuance of a miscellaneous assortment
of emergency activities under the authority of
Executive orders will be made possible by any
expansion of funds subject to use under the broad
powers of the Work-Relief Act.
_ 3
r 9

 . 3, References to the Supreme Court in the Hood 00I1tI‘0l, river and harbor improvement and
President’s message asking additional money re- “3S§1Sta¤0€ ff)? €d¤0ati011al, professional and
fleet a disregard for an essential element in the 0l€!‘10al P61`SQI1S.” Also mentioned were "miscel-
American form gf ggVgrumgnt_ l3»Il€Ol1S” pI‘O]€ClDS,   8pp3·I'€I1l';ly II1€8I1l'» 8Dy-
4. Approval of blanket authority in an addi- thulg 0V€1'l00k€d in the list of Specific types.
tional appropriation would mean endorsement of While the law contained an earmarking of funds
policies which never have received real consider- for Bight general classes of Proleota, authority
ation by the Congress, was given to the President to change the
5, Evidence is constantly multiplying of the a1I10l1I1tS thus designated, which power has been
use of the work-relief organization for political taken advantage of to such an extent that the
purposes and the expenditure of funds for worth- actual allotments bear little resemblance to the
less projects of either a political or boondoggling ,_ program as tentatively outlined.
character. i Among the special clauses was one authorizing
6. Allotment of funds for the Florida Ship , the President to go into the banking business for
Canal, Passamaquoddy and other projects lack- i the purpose of making loans to farmers for the
ing approval of Government engineers has made gl purchase of lands and equipment,
ridiculous the claim that the interests of the tax-   In carrying out the provisions of the law the
. payers are best protected by placing complete ` President was authorized to appoint oflicers and
power in the Executive. employees, prescribe their duties, responsibili-
7. The only available figures indicate that no ties and tenure and fix their compensation with-
progress has been made toward a real solution out regard to Civil Service and Classincation
of the unemployment problem. laws, and to authorize miscellaneous expendi-
8. The President’s attempt to shift responsi- tures such as for stenographic reporting services,
bility for unemployment to private industry in supplies and equipment, purchase of books, peri-
the face of policies which are discouraging to odicals, newspapers and press clippings, travel,
business is an evasion of the real issue. rental of buildings, purchase, operation and
9. The work-relief program involves endless maintenance of automobiles, printing and bind-
Treasury dehcits, even though revenues are ing and "such other expenses as he may deter-
greater than ever before in peacetime. i mine necessary to the accomplishment of the
P objectives of this Joint Resolution."
Power Under Present Law , Furthermore, the President was authorized "to
Nothing quite like the Work-Relief Act of ‘ establish and prescribe the duties and functions
April 8, 1935, was ever enacted before. Some- of necessary agencies within the Government."
where in its provisions can be found authority   The President was authorized to acquire real
for almost anything for which a President may l property by the power- of eminent domain and
desire to spend money. l to improve, develop, grant, sell, lease, or other-
The law appropriated for expenditure "in the   wise dispose of it.
discretion and under the direction of the Presi- ' The lawmaking power of the President was
dent" a total of $4,880,000,000, of which $880,- made complete by a clause authorizing him to
000,000 represented transfers from unexpended make rules and regulations, violation of which
balances of other funds. The general purpose | is punishable by a fine of not to exceed $1,000.
of expenditures was stated to be "to provide I The President was authorized to fix wage
relief, work relief and to increase employment by rates not only on Federal projects but on state
providing for useful projects." and local projects wholly or partly financed by
Types of projects specifically authorized in- Federal funds, such wages to be at levels con-
cluded highways, roads, streets, grade crossing ducive to the maintenance of what might be held
A elimination, rural rehabilitation, relief in stricken , to be prevailing rates of wages.
agricultural areas, water conservation, trans-   _ The powers granted the President were so
mountain water diversion, irrigation, reclama- 1 broad that while the law remains in effect he
tion, rural electrification, housing, work of the need not go to the Congress for specific authority
Civilian Conservation Corps, loans and grants for practically any of the types of expenditure
for projects of states and local governments, l for which in the past detailed legislation in-
sanitation, prevention of soil erosion, prevention } variably has been necessary.
of stream pollution, reforestation, forestation,   Whether it be regarded as abdication of legis-
_ 4 j 5

 19»tlV€ P0W€I’ by tha CODEKESS OY uaurpatltm Ot Under the Executive order this branch of the
Such POWET by tha EX€0ut1V€» tha tact la that Government service, lacking any specific author-
u¤d€I` tha 0P€1`ati0¤ of the law the Saparatmn Ot ization whatever by the Congress, can continue
POWETS contemplated in tha Cbbatltutibn has until June 30, 1937, its expenditures being lim-
been mada a dead l€tt€T· APPI`OPI`1at19n_0f_a-dd1‘ ited· only by the amount of the funds the Presi-
tional funds to be used under this law w1ll imply doot is disposed to a'uOt_
aPPI`0Va1 by the _C0¤gI`aSS of tha ctmtmllad The President also issued an Executive order
exercise of legislative powers by the Executive. continuing Major Goorgo L_ Bon.}, 88 Coo_I.di_
· nator for Industrial Cooperation. This office
Government by Exccutlvc Order had previously been established by Executive
The Work-Relief Act is broad enough to be order under authority of the National Industrial
the basis fo—r Executive orders creating agencies A Recovery Act. The Coordinator, who serves
and establishing activities with little, if any, without salary but with an expense account, was
relation to work relief. Scores of Executive authorized to appoint employees and to pre-
orders of a sweeping nature have been issued , scribe their duties and responsibilities and fix
under authority of the act.   their compensation without regard to Civil
Executive orders recently issued under the Service and Classification laws. A few days
Work-Relief Act to continue a part of the work . following the ·issuance of the Executive order
of the defunct NRA illustrate strikingly how extending the office of Coordinator for Industrial
laws are being made and agencies created by a Cooperation, Major Berry announced that he
stroke of the pen at the White House. proposed to devote much of his attention during
The sections of the National Industrial Re- coming months to a newly organized Labor’s d
covery Act which survived the decision of the Non—Partisan League which has for its avowed
Supreme Court expired on April 1, 1936. Under purpose support of President Roosevelt for
the authority of that act about 1,800 NRA reelection.
employees remained on the payroll as late as In the huge sum at his disposal and in his
December 31, 1935. Their nominal duty for ability through Executive orders to exert an in-
the seven months following the ending of codes fluence upon economic forces, the President’s
had been to prepare reports on the accomplish- power can be compared to that of Mussolini
ments of the NRA. Effective January 1, 1936, without danger of exaggeration. Dictatorial
the President abolished the NRA as a separate l power of the President is by no means so com-
agency and transferred more than two-thirds of plete as that of Mussolini but the latter has no
the employees to the Department of Commerce such amount of money at his disposal as pro-
where they continued until April 1 to draw vided by the Work-Relief Act.
salaries under authority of an Executive order h
based on the National Industrial Recovery Act. d T e Supreme Court
The Consumers’ Division of the NRA was trans- , The impression might be gained from the
ferred January 1 to the Department of Labor, l President’s special message seeking additional
being given an extra lease of life to June 30, ; funds for work relief that the Supreme Court
1937, under an Executive order based on the { had arrogated to itself authority which was
Work-Relief Act. superior to that of the basic law of the land.
Late in March the President saved the jobs   Difficulties encountered by the administration,
of rema1n1ng NRA employees 1n the Department ~ it might be inferred from the President’s refer-
of Commerce, who otherwise would have gone   ences to the Supreme Court, have been due en-
off the payroll April 1, by establishing under the ' tirely to busybody interference by that tribunal
Work-Relief Act a new Committee of Industrial   rather than to violation of the Constitution.
Analysis and a Division of Industrial Eco- i In connection with his appeal to industry to
nomics. The committee, composed chiefly of provide more employment the President asserted
cabinet members, was given authority to create that "the public authority to require the shorter
an unlimited non-Civil Service payroll in the hours agreed upon has been seriously curtailed
new division, whose only function according to by limitations recently imposed by the Supreme
the Executive order is to "complete the sum- ” Court upon Federal as well as state powers."
mary of the results and accomplishments of the The President had in mind the decision of the
National Recovery AdI1'11H1SbT&b1OD.,, Supreme Court in the NRA case. He failed to
6 7
o , :

 state that in this decision the Supreme Court funds have been spent thus far and how the addi-
unanimously held that the administration had tronal money Wrll be used. The supplemental
exceeded its authority under the Constitution in budget estimate, submltted two and one-half
its application of the National Industrial Re- months after the convening of the Congress, con- t
covery Act. The Court merely had reiterated its firms the Susplclon. r _ l
interpretation of the Constitution as given in In the supplemental budget message the Presi-
numerous other cases over a long period of years. dent shed no further light whatever on the work- I
It had imposed no new limitations whatever upon Tahaf P1`0g1`a111· _N0t a Sh1`ad of 11{f01‘111at1011 Was
the constitutional powers of the Government. added to Show Just how much will be spent or ‘
Elsewhere in his message the President stated f01' What PUYPGSQS; The 111f€1‘a110a aga111 Was 0011-
that the request for new funds to replace those yeyed that add-1t1011al funds to a11 a11101111t of
from processing taxes was necessary because of S about $2,000,000,000 1111ght be Daadad, but the
the decision of the Supreme Court. He might P1`€S1d€11t Sa1d he W011ld ask f01' 011lY $1,500,-
properly have placed responsibility upon the O00,00_0 on the theory _that the balance of the
Congress which upon his recommendation passed l alaak ul amplobfmaht 1111ght be takah 11P th1‘_011gh
an unconstitutional ll-lW_ ‘ Jornt efforts of industrial groups. The President
The President’s references to the Supreme mrsht Just a? Wau haV€ St1b1111tt€d h1S 1‘€Q11€St 111
Court cannot be regarded other than as an effort ·lauuaI`Y» Wrueh would haV€ g1V€11_11101`€ adequate
to arouse antagonism against the Court. They uma for a PYOPBY study ofthe €11t11'a S1t11at1011-
reflect a disregard for the separation of powers
of the Federal Government into three coordinate Politics in Relief e
branches which the framers of the Constitution _
believed would make the assumption of auto- By reason of a family quarrel among Demo-
cratic powers by any President impossible. crats 1n West Virginia the public has been in-
formed of the flagrant misuse of Government
Inadequate Consideration funds for political advantage in that state.
Appldpiiaidd di dddiiidsd funds to td. di- gggagg rggggr Illglgiclgjgaggaggagaajdml1a1§laa·
paaaaa aa aaa aiaaraapp ptaaa Praaaaaa Wpala adminisllgrative, pdditiddfdadd dif v$’§`ii¥.rdi`£Qi
aap1r.a meleeeelen pf pehelee pursued by the set-up in that state gone only to those with the
administration under authority of the Work-Re- O K of 3 Ollllcal boss but even the relief b€n€_
lief Act. Adequate consideration never has been flélalles hgve had to Show Olllllcal cmdmtl l
given these pelieiee bY eemmitteee pf the Cen` Salaries have been increased) be ond reasonee
gress. The administration was without a plan Ollllcal favorites hlle F . tyh b pr
at the time of action on the Work-Relief Act in proved 0 _ ct hui) P Olafc S IQGYG 1 6611 ag-
1935 as made evident by the wide departures P ll- H e ee]ed·e letgueete reel; lee eenel `
from the very general earmarking of funds in er? 1ePS’ appgr mg we Bee pr te ‘ . ll.
that law. In the 1935 act the Congress signed a ll H elmeli Yea]? l de amplara   ergenlgzel lex;
blank check for $4,880,000,000. The excuse was ee eeeeeecle Je `· e lere aaa; . algrpr `rellef
that it was impossible then to chart the entire peegeem’ eee paras eee e Je. S m e area O
· failure to contribute to campaign funds.
plan. Actual experience under the law now Haul W Fee Cha. Of th D t.
justifies and demands specific action by the Con- C it ‘ f I   uément P e grapara FC
ggggalgg gpcrgrgagl pr aaaapprpral pf aaapa aa a i 8i(l;IeDlJI;l‘:@e€C?€H1l?€I‘1ed:I:ei].93(g1:1e`i(e,,M;eiIe1}e1S&7.V§l'1l1;;l'(·.iI{:
When the President submitted his annual ee emeegeeey rehef emp1eyee’ ee‘1d‘
budget message in January he omitted any sup- H "I am very much surprised that you have not
plemental estimate for work relief, although he 1 responded to_ our previous letter requesting your
stated definitely that additional funds would bg contribution in the amount of $27.0i), to Indiana
necessary and intimated that the amount might §1‘;_;“gag);’;1u°°;;;;g;;§§”;§;*u_Cl?(;;‘5l'l;';:°$6 Zilghwsg
be around $2,000,000,000. He said then that . . . . ‘
"to make today a formal budget estimate of the  ea:l}5e1l)$;)c;;l1p;le,e1ele;l;"l1;;,t%fw°;e,I;eee;t;v°I;de;&
amount necessary for Work I1 ahaf Would be of you that unless your contribution in the above
uacaaslty a uuaacult task- There Was a W€H‘ i . amount is received promptly, it will be necessary
founded suspicion that the reason for delay was to place your name on the list of those who will
to prevent an adequate investigation of how not be given consideration for any other appoint-
8 9

 ment after the termination of the Emergency Re- buy 3. goober. The theory is that the recipients
11ef work, which as you know, will terminate in the Of Workqeligf payments Who participate in the
near f“t“re· broadcasting find their own mor l t` l t d
"Please make your check payable to A. Lucile more th ·f th .d 8* 6 S Imu a' B
Baun, Treasurer, and mail the same to her at 402 - an 1 ey were pal 8* dole; The Wash'
Indiana Theatre Building, Indiana, Pennsy1vania."   1§2;?Dhrema*rk that glllitheélee gf
e unemp oye to roa -
Further evidence of the political character of east Sheer idiccies, 3 new low in national de- · i
the administration of work relief in Pennsylvania seneracy has been attained/’
has been given by Gifford Pjnebet, former As many as 700 different studies have been in
Governor of that state, who in a letter of protest Pregreee at e ccst cf more than $$0,000,000, to
to the President quoted a district administrator gather mfcrmeticn which no regular agency of
as making the following statement at a meeting g Federal er _Ste=te gcVei’n1nentS ever has thought
of WPA fgremen and supervisors in Pittsburgh gr W0%t_hW;Ch1%e_ tc undertake. According to The
gn Dgggm gr 1], 1935; _ew or zmes one area in a middle western
“ , _ city was canvassed seven times by two- different
whdihriiiegihoslyrrligaiizliyniivvhhtltltieW1PrAV;1i?>1;raV1iii)1;ii3d " ,i§(§;S°{,€1g;,;gS*1ggF¤gS Wim asked the Sm ques-
the Roosevelt administration will be eliminated WPA h   lg clrup rut a Step rO_ It- The
from the WPA rolls in this district as quickly as I . aut ermee Qlalm Creeht fer hevmg elim-
cam act. I Want you mw to report all Such cases inated from tentative questionnaires such ques-
te me without dejeyy tigns als Jigre you tdivlprced? Why not?" and
owa oouariute ‘?"
Mr. Pinchot asserted that the WPA in Penn- About 5,000ypersons have llieleln (altivsilgrik in the
sylvania ‘¥is not only polluted with politics, but preparation of a national guidebook of five or
disgracefully inefficient? six volumes the exact ur os '
In the WPA in New York City "a growing completed ie a mystery.pThe guijdewtlgltlievtjlirtg
tendency to disregard efficiency and economy of Washington, a part of it, runs to about 250 000
for other considerations" caused Wa.lter M. words but no provision has been made for, its
Langsdorf to resign as deputy administrator on publication. A vast amount of copy was pro-
February 11, 1936. Mr. Langsdorf, who accord- duced for a guide to the City of New York but
ing to The New York Times had been regarded most of it was not usable. Samuel Duff McCoy
as one of the best executives in the organization, who was discharged as director of the Federal
objected to an evident purpose to use the WPA writers’ project in New York City charged that
as "a Democratic vote—getting machine" and the reason was that he opposed cemmunist ele-
declined to be made a "political football." ments who sought to obtain control,
The situations in West Virginia, Pennsylvania
and New York are not isolated instances of the ,
injectioq of prqgtics into the administration of T-¤¤¤1Pr¤Jccrs
work re ief. e char es made in these states . .
are typical of what isgtaking place throughout Vgggng Yorljqehef prglects u“d°“blied1Y here
the country. _ 0. oca communities. Among them are
projectpas mvolvmgi iége repair of streets, the dig-
B O ond Oggling gnqzgflpilesesyvlejilas an _ e improvement of parks.
projects ma be `ustified from a
The useless character of a considerable part   lccel etendleeint, there caii be little excuse for
of the work—relief program has been so obvious the eee cf Federal money. Expenditures of this
as to occasion nation-wide ridicule and protest. kind by the Federal Government tend to byeek
Such projects, most of them without even remote , down the division of responsibility between looel
vejng to de, lgggl efnnmnnjty, hgvg been ejeeeed ‘ and Federal Governments as defined in the Con-
as oon ogg ing. S 1 ·u 10n.
Through e $75,000 allotment fgy e, ygjdjg Citizens of smaller communities are naturally
pygjggf, under the Ofjjcg gf Education Of the Wllllllg that J0l'1€ lZ&Xp3»y€I`S of 0l»h€I' SBCl3iOI1S of
Interior Department the listening public has been the United States shall bear the eost of then-
regaled with such queries as whether a croquette leeal imPrcVeinentS- Their tendency is to lose
ever makes a good wife, how many feet has a sight of 1"ele»tiVe Values in asking improvements
full-grown Caucasian and where is the place to fer Which cthere Will Dey. There is no reason
10 ` 11

 ireln e nntienel etandpeint why texpeyere gress or of the engineering authorities but has
eheuld help te nnenee leenl improvements in committed the Government to their completion
Femete cities end States- Theee Wh0 nre Paying even though requiring large additional appro-
the cost have nothing at all to say about the pyi3,tjOnS_
Preleete- Under Such eenditiene nn enermeue The practice followed for some years prior to
Weete nf public funds ie i1ne·V0idehle- When the present administration was for the Congress
pOl1lZ»1C8»l f3CtOI`S GI1l`»BI‘ 1I1l)O tlflé 8.ppI`OV&l of to makg 1ump-Sum appygpyigtigng fgr publig
preieete, ee hee been true under the WPA, the buildings, river and harbor improvements and
texpesjere liniie lrttle ehenee ef getting their gzher public vsrorks, the execuiisive brancliiof tliie
nleneye we · overnment ein iven aut ri to a ot t e
Amchg leeel Prelecte lersely nneneed by WPA money only to prgjgote with thoe dtpproval of the
funds is a $19,009 dog p011I1{l in the City ef , engineers and authorized specifically by the ,
Memphis- Aeeerdms te deecrilitiche ef the deg   Congress. Under such a plan there is no undue
peundr lugmnee te be prevrdeel fer the beerderr delegation of authority, and iogroiiing in con-
molude ‘md1v1dual pens, with fresh beddmg   gress is reduced to a minimum. The complete
every dey; exercise runweyer ehewer bathe and G disregard by the present administration of the
every imagiriahie cemiert krieWri·” Ne ehe can principles which have heretofore governed allot-
ehlect it the citizehe ef Memphis decide that it ments for public works proves the desirability
is desirable to spend money obtained through of o {nmol. check by sho Congrsss on sho Spend-
local taxation for a dog pound. If the Congress ing dsporsmsnss of sho Government.
ef tiie United etetee eiiedid by elieeiiie eetieii In its rejection of the Florida Ship Canal and
deeide tiiet the des peiiiid ef the City ef Mem' the Passamaquoddy tide-harnessing project the
phis serves the welfare of the nation, citizens of Consross has Shown oi oonnnondobio disposition
other cities might be content to accept the judg- to roosssios its rights and prerogatives Both
ment of their duly elected representatives. When oioiooss Wsro commenced by siiosmonii of omoi._
an allotment of funds is made by an executive gcncy funds in sho {ooo oi sdvorso onginooring
eiiieei ef the Gevemmeiit i°i` e purpose Wiieiiy reports In both cases the President sought to
outside proper Federal functions, the citizens of shift tiio rosponsibiiisy ioi. their oompiotion to l
other cities have good reason to voice a protest. tho Congioss in oonnoosion with ioonioi. nppi.o_
priations to theCArmy engineers. The House
‘ · Appropriations ommittee rejected the Presi-
Unauthomzcd Projects dent’s budget recommendation and the Senate
One of the strongest arguments for delegation twice defeated attempts to restore the projects
of authority to the executive branch of the ns emendinente to the e»PP1‘0P1`1et10n bill.
Government in connection with the allotment of The Florida Ship Canal was formally dis-
A funds for public works was that by this method approved by Public Works Administrator Harold
the logrolling and trading characteristic of public L. Ickes on January 29, 1935. At the insistence
r building and river and harbor measures in former of the sponsors further consideration was given
years is avoided. The theory was that the execu- with a result that the legal division of the Pub-
tive departments are not influenced by political lic Works Administration reported adversely on
considerations to the same extent as members of February 2, 1935, and the finance division did
the Congress and that it is thus made certain likewise on April 11,1935. Despite these adverse
that public funds will be used only for projects   reports and despite the absence of a favorable
approved by theiArmy engineers or other quali- ii recommendation from the Army engineers, the
fied experts. . I President inaugurated the project by an Execu-
Experience has now shown that a "pork   tive order issued Sentember 3,1935. The Presi-
barrel" can exist under a system of executive ~ dent approved an initial allotment of $5,000,000
allotments. Hundreds of millions of dollars which was supplemented later by two allotments
have been allotted or obligated for public works of $200,000 each. The Army engineers, who
and work-relief projects actually disapproved were assigned to construct the 200—mile canal,
by the engineering authorities of the Govern- estimate that at least $138,000,000 additional
ment. The President not only has allotted will be required to complete it. In the light of a
funds to make possible a start on huge projects showing as to a lack of economic value the Con-
lacking the specific approval either of the Con- gress properly declined to authorize the fulfill-
12 13

 ment of the commitment made by the President. with respect to direct relief and work relief, it
Responsible heads of many large corporations as has encouraged dependence upon the Govern-
well as of shipping companies stated publicly ment to such an extent as to weaken the moral
that they would not use the Florida Ship Canal stamina of a large element of the population.
if constructed. Proper discrimination between worthy cases and
Before the President allotted funds to the those without merit has been lacking with the
Passamaquoddy project in Maine, engineers of result that thousands of persons capable of car-
the Federal Power Commission and the Public ing for themselves or with other possible means
Works Administration reported that the power of support have become public charges. The
to be generated could not compete in price with impression has gone out that “easy" money is
steam-generated power because of high operat- available and that anyone with the slightest
ing costs, that there was no present or prospec- , cause to qualify would be foolish not to get his
tive market for the power at any price and that share.
hydro—electric energy when needed in that area The situation in the District of Columbia
could be generated more cheaply on Maine’s illustrates what has taken place under exces-
undeveloped rivers. * sively liberal policies. There is little depression
In pursuance of political promises the Presi- in the City of Washington. The entire city -
dent approved an initial allotment of $5,000,000 revolves around the Government. More than
for "Quoddy." An additional allotment of 45,000 employees have been added to Govern-
$2,000,000 was made. The Army engineers esti- ment payrolls within the District of Columbia
mate that about $38,000,000 more will be re- under this administration. This does not include
quired to complete it. The Congress has refused thousands of workers given employment in the
to give its approval, although, as in the case of Government building program. By reason of
the Florida Ship Canal, work has been in prog- the swollen payrolls space in oflice and apart-
ress for many months and if the President so ment buildings is at a premium. Probably at
chooses he can allot further work-relief funds. no time in the history of the city has there been
The administration succeeded in obtaining less excuse for governmental assistance to pri-
approval in the annual Interior Department ap- vate relief agencies. Nevertheless recent sta-
propriation bill of additional funds for 16 un- tistics show that one out of every seventeen of
authorized western reclamation projects for the ci