xt7wwp9t2q46_130 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7wwp9t2q46/data/mets.xml https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7wwp9t2q46/data/59m61.dao.xml American Liberty League 19341936 37 linear feet archival material English University of Kentucky This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Jouett Shouse Collection (American Liberty League Pamphlets), No. 133 "Federal Bureaucracy In The Fourth Year Of The New Deal: A Study of the Appalling Increase in the Number of Government Employees Which Has Resulted from the Attempted Concentration of Power in the Federal Government under the Present Administration," August 23, 1936 text No. 133 "Federal Bureaucracy In The Fourth Year Of The New Deal: A Study of the Appalling Increase in the Number of Government Employees Which Has Resulted from the Attempted Concentration of Power in the Federal Government under the Present Administration," August 23, 1936 2013 section false xt7wwp9t2q46_130 xt7wwp9t2q46 L jo I N   1 *   *
THE AMERICAN LIBERTY LEAGUE  
*   FEDERAL
The American Liberty League is organized to defend  
and uphold the Constitution of the United States and to        
gather and disseminate information that (1) will teach  
the necessity of respect for the rights of persons and      AR  
property as fundamental to every successful form of gov-  
ernment and (2) will teach the duty of government to g         I
. encourage and protect individual and group initiative Q .
and enterprise, to foster the right to work, earn, save, §
and acquire property, and to preserve the ownership and  
lawful use of property when acquired.   »
The League believes in the doctrine expressed by  
George Washington in his Farewell Address that while   * * *
the people may amend the Constitution to meet condi-  
tions arising in a changing world, there must "be no  
change by usurpation; for this * * * is the customary  
weapon by which free governments are destroyed."  
Sinc.e the League is wholly dependent upon the con-   A Study of the Appalliug Increase in
tributions of its members for financial support it hopes   the Number- of Government Em,
that you will become a contributing member. However,   _
if you cannot contribute it will welcome your support as   P1OY€€S which Has Resultcd from
a ¤¤¤—¤¤¤mb¤*>i¤g member-   the Attempted Concentration
- ....................... -   of Power in the Federal Gov-
  t d th P »
ENROLLMENT BLANK ; °mm°“ ““_ °}` ‘T ms
  ent Admmistration
AMERICAN LIBERTY LEAGUE  
NATIONAL PRESS BUILDING  
VVASHINGTON, D. C.  
Date .............  
.   v·`,` 44»
I desire to be enrolled as a member of the §  
American Liberty League. S '3   “'
E 4* v·
Signature ..........................................   \ rY Lg
{Name ...........................................  
E I
· Street ...........................................  
Q.; :
g   AMERICAN LIBERTY LEAGUE
2 Town ...........................................   Natimeal Headquarters
p'°   NATIONAL PRESS BUILDING
{County .......................... State ..........   VvA$HINGTON, D, C.
L Enclosed find my contribution of 3 ..........   * *
to help support the activities of the League.   L
  Document N0. 133
(133)   August, 1936
_§ ·»’, w’_»w4~4_‘~—_ U wr r M‘M_ _ _ _ _ W, ._,, AAAI, ...e .

 The Federal Bureaucracy in the
i B Fourth Year of the New Deal
i “In thirty—jour months we have built up
l new instruments of public power”—Franklin D.
_ Roosevelt, Message to Congress, January 3, 1936.
? *
`   Throughout the history of democratic govern-
{ ments bureaucracy has been a lurking menace.
‘ By the term bureaucracy is meant government
by bureaus and commissions. The menace lies
4 3 in an excessive multiplication of power which
y results in official interference in the private af-
V   fairs of individuals and in the conduct of busi-
  ness. Bureaucracy involves the accumulation
  of power in the executive branch of the govern-
i ment at the expense of the legislative branch. The
.   issue of bureaucracy in a broad sense concerns
‘   the extent to which the government properly may
{ apply its regulatory powers over the life and
I   you have finished with this   property of individuals.
pamphlet, please pass it on to some   * * * `
friend or acquaintance who might be   Bureaucracy has flourished under the New
interested, calling his attention to the { Deal as an inevitable accompaniment of central-
_ ; ized government. Assumption by the Federal
membeyshlp blank °" back Page'   Government of new regulatory powers, at the
  expense both of the rights of the States and of
  individual liberties, and the exercise by the ex-
  ecutive branch of a broad range of legislative
, powers have resulted in the creation of a host
E of new agencies. Bureaus and boards, once set
· I up to administer new governmental functions,
l   constantly reach out for added power.
* The Federal bureaucracy continues its course
of expansion after nearly three and one-half
years of the New Deal. Despite the assertions
· of administration spokesmen that the emergency
has passed, there is no sign of a reversal of the
trend by either legislative or executive depart-
ments. Some of the New Deal laws which pur-
port to confer bureaucratic powers—as, for ex-
ample, the NRA and the AAA——have been de-
clared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Similar laws now before the courts will probably
meet a like fate, and the bureaus operating
under these laws will disappear. This is as it
3

 should be, for the Constitution contemplates that 7. The percentage of civil service employees
laws shall be made not by politically appointed has fallen sharply under the New Deal.
bureaucrats but by representatives elected by 8. The new jobs have been awarded on the
the people for limited terms. It is an unfor- basis of political spoils, and in many instances
tunate fact, however, that at present the aggre- replacements properly coming under the civil
gate number of Government bureaus is far service have been similarly handled.
greater than ever before in our history, while p 9. Extensions of civil service in the postal
the number of employees is nearly equal to the l system, recently announced by the administra-
war time civilian total. l tion, have been deceptive in character and in-
The Federal bureaucracy has become a vast . tended to promote political advantage.
organism spreading its tentacles over the busi- J 10. Political motives have been shown by pro-
ness and private life of the citizens of the coun- . visions in New Deal laws and Executive orders
try. Overlapping of activities, maladministra- I exempting employees of emergency agencies from
tion and confusion of purpose are evident on civil service rules.
every side. The waste of the taxpayers’ money 4 11. Bureaucrats in the emergency organiza-
is notorious. t tion are not accountable for their acts to any-
So long as the New Deal pattern of govern- one but the Executive at whose pleasure they
ment prevails, a return to the normal adminis- are appointed and at whose arbitrary will they
trative structure of the period between the World hold office.
War and the depression appears impossible.
The status of the Federal bureaucracy in the ·
fourth year of the New Deal is, in brief, as Thcomcs Of Government
follows: The vast bureaucratic organization which has
1. Civil employees in the executive branch taken shape during the past three and one-half
of the Government on June 30, 1936, the end of years conforms with the New Deal pattern of
the fiscal year, exceeded by 260,772 the number centralized government. It fits into the scheme
at the beginning of the administration. of a planned economy but is out of harmony with
2. The increase in employees of the ten Cab- the governmental theories upon which the Dem-
inet Departments was 72,027. ocratic campaign of 1932 was based.
3. Employees of new agencies of a permanent That platform advocated "an immediate and
character created under the New Deal totaled drastic reduction of governmental expenditures
47,754. by abolishing useless commissions and oflices,
4. Employees of emergency agencies and . consolidating departments and bureaus, and
those operating under the works program, in- V eliminating extravagance to accomplish a saving
cluding special personnel assigned to regular de- ` of not less than 25 per cent in the cost of the
partments and boards, totaled 144,499. * Federal Government."
5. Official Civil Service Commission reports In accepting the Democratic Presidential nom-
for June 30, 1936, show thirty—5ve regular de- ination in 1932, Mr. Roosevelt said that "for
partments and agencies which existed prior to ·' three long years" he ha.d been preaching that
the Roosevelt administration, twenty-four new V   Government costs too much, that if elected he
agencies of a permanent character and about a T would not stop that preaching but would put it
dozen emergency and works program agencies C into practice, and that as an immediate program
not in the other classifications. of action all useless oiiices and functions "not
6. The monthly payroll of the civil employees definitely essential" would be abolished. During
in the executive branch in June, 1936, was $50,- his campaign he elaborated on this theme. He
000,000 greater than in 1933, or at the rate of said that "bureaus and bureaucrats have been
$600,000,000 a year in addition to expense allow- retained at the expense of the taxpayer." He
ances. described a reduction in Federal spending as one
4 5

 of the most important issues of the campaign , _ , . .
and promised to save some hundreds of millions The Clvll Servlee Qemmleelen eepergleei tge
of dollars annually by a reorganization of de- elllpleyeee eflhe ewll exeeuewe ereme e e.e
partments and the elimination of functions for Gevelellmene mee three eleeeleeeelenel; Oeelle
which there was no mal need of civil officers and employees of t e regu ar
In his special message to Congress in March, Y eggellelee llvllleh exleeed pleler ee ehepreeene eee
1933, preceding the enactment of the Economy p mmrstration. A second class1ficat1on mclude?
Act, Mr. Roosevelt remained steadfast for the elvll ellleelle end emeleyeee ef new egenelee e
theories of government upon which his campaign 8 P€}`H}8¤€nl* Character *fl"99}°€d lindef _ the Pr 98919*
was based His abandonment Of these theories l admmistration. The th1rd class1ficat1on1ncludes
came when he accepted schemes to control the 8 elvll ellleeleelld empleyeee ef ee`eeHed emelee
economic order and to accomplish alleged re- seeer egellelee elle egellelee Welch drew them
forms, which if Successful would destroy the ` funds from GXGCUCIVB allotments and are a part
eeeeee fee ef eeveeeeee C °i$hi—“°";i.p2°i1?Zi‘ ..E‘°1‘$‘;l§§ ‘2§‘1$.?‘i2;l?§;
a ion
Latest Pe>e‘e11Teee1e ` Zhpeartments anel agenciele who are paid from
The number of civil officers and employees in work relief funds.
the executive branch of the Federal Government, Employees on June 30, 1936, consisted of 632,-
on June 30, 1936, was 824,259. This was an in- 006 in regular agencies, 47,754 in new agencies
crease of 260,772, or about 46 per cent, from the of a permanent character and 144,499 in emer-
total on February 28, 1933, of 563,487. gency agencies and agencies under the works
The totals do not include the legislative, program. ·
judicial or military branches ofthe Federal Gov- The total of employees in the civil executive
ernment or the employees of the local govern- branch is now far greater than ever before in
ment in the District of Columbia. Also excluded peace time. It is rapidly approaching the war
are the more than 320,000 enrolled personnel of time total. The number in the District of Co-
civilian conservation camps, nearly 25,000 em- lumbia on June 30, 1936, was within 657 of the
ployees of the Department of Agriculture who total of 117,760 on November 11, 1918, the date
are hired under special letters of authorization, of the Armistice in the World War. The total
and employees on public works and work relief A outside the District of Columbia fell short of
projects other than those with supervisory duties.   the total on Armistice Day by about 93,000.
The totals do include both classified positions The following tabulation shows comparative
which are subject to competitive examination , totals of employees in the civil executive branch
under civil service laws and unclassified positions   of the Government at different periods since the
which are excepted from competitive examine.- i World War:
eiee by lew ee Exeeeeire eedee ’ esa Diss; 051. osssdso.0. Total
Of the eeiel ef 824»259 0¤ Julie 30, 1936. 117,- Nev. 11, 1918 .... 117,760 800,000 917,760
103 were employed in the District of Columbia July 31, 1920 .... 00,550 600,557 691,116
and 707,156 outside. At the beginning of the I June 39» 1927 ···· 59800 467428  
administration there were 66,802 employees of glélge gg {gg? ‘‘‘‘ gggg; iggggg 563;,,87
the Federal Government in the District of Jtmé 30; 1933 ____ 65:437 506:654 572,091
p Columbia and 496,685 outside. The New Deal June 3Q, 1934 ____ 89,132 583,963 673,095
thus has added to the Federal job-holding popu- June 00, 1935 .... 103,453 615,987 719,440
lation in the District of Columbia a total of June 30, 1936 ·--- 117,103 707'J58 824259 .
e0’ee1’ eee ee the feree ef reeulee Federal elee It will be noted from the above table that the
9l°lTeeS S°“ll°"e°l °""’l` ele. °°ll“llY» 2l°·47l m number of pssssss now smpieyse at the seat or
eeemeeete the eeeueeeee eleee from dey ee dey. Government in the District of Columbia is nearly
by eee Deperemene ef§eHee1euee` 100 per cent greater than in 1927, during the
7

 Ceeudge edmmietretieu, The number Outside ployees of the Department of Agriculture jumped
the Dietriet ie mere then 50 per eem, greater, from 26,132 at the beginning of this administra-
_ tion to 42,980, an increase of 16,848, or 64 per
Cabinet Departments cent,
The regular payrolls of six of the ten Cabinet When employees paid from work relief funds
Departments show increases of civilian em- are added, it is apparent that the Department.
ployees under the New Deal. The aggregate I of Labor has more than doubled its personnel
payroll of the ten departments was 566,286 on instead of reducing it, as indicated in the above
June 30, 1936, as compared with 494,259 on - table.
February 28, 1933, an increase of 72,027. 1 The reduction in employees of the Post Ofiice
The following table shows the civil employees Department represents a cutting—down of the
of the ten Cabinet Departments on June 80, force of civil service workers in the postal service
1936, as compared with February 28,1933: 1 in various parts of the country with resultant
Increase delay in the handling of the mails.
0* The reduction in the number of em lo ees in
S,£;p“"’"""t F";’,,§,33 J“’,;°,,f,,36 D""'i’§,‘i the Department of Justice is accogntyed for
,r,,,,,S,,,,,`             52:266 56;,,63 +3,797 chiefly by the repeal of prohibition.
wer ____________ 44,188 64,804 +20,616 The totals for the War and Navy Depart-
Justice _ ______ __ 9,022 7,470 ....1,552 ments, both of which show large increases, in-
1,;,0S;,ty0mee .....       elude only civilian employees. The military
Interior ......   15:018 34:314 -|-19:296 Services also have expanded greatly
A riculture ..... 26,132 42,980 16,848 ·
Cgmmerce ...... 17,971 16,048 li-i—1,923 Old Inclcpcndcni; Agcncles
1,,,1,0,, __________ 5,569 5,308 _171 ,,N and Jlm€» 1936, despite the economy pro-
an aggregate of 27,523, were being paid from .   at the €XP€HSe of the Veterans which was
Work relief funds in June, 1936, These included 1 lnltlated at the beginning of tl1lS 3lClII1lI1lSlJ1“atlOn.
15,829 under the Treeeury Department, 7,983 The following tabulation shows the number of
under the Department of Labor, 1,309 under the 1 €mPlO_Y€€S Of l?h€ more important independent
War Department, 844 under the Interior Depart- ‘ agencles Created PHO? to the New Deal:
ment, 722 under the Department of Commerce, 1 Increase
#387 under the Department of Agriculture, 353 A or
under the Department of Justice and 96 under 0,,,,,,,,, ,,;;g;;,,,,,,,,, Fe;’,;,?38 June *936 D"°"e“·”
the Navy Department. # can. Printing one ...... Xiiiiiii 4i71sl igfigg  
The greatly expanded totals for the Depart- , R";f,;’;,‘S‘“‘°**°“ F1¤¤¤¤·= C°*1><>m·
ment of Agriculture do not include the 5,633 em- J General.iaaaaaanagiolnaai if J iii;      
ployees of the Agricultural Adjustment Admin- 1 g';‘;{S°§;:,,$;mé"€’°€_ (?°mmiSS1¤¤ 2291 1.931 —ac0
istration which, although a branch of the De- Q Fadeaai Trade       
partment, is listed by the Civil Service Commis— » EQ‘Q;;f,f,°" C°mp°"S““°" C°m‘ _
sion among new agencies. The total for the Nat’1Adviaory·t1einni.·'te;;.i»ief0i mi 395 +220
Department of Agriculture also does not include F,;?,_;§fSR,,,,,,··,,-0,,,,, ····—···-··   385 +17
a host of employees, hired under special letters Federal Power oammlaalaaiiiiii 54    
of authorization, who on June 30, 1936, numbered ',,{`:;‘“H2,‘;,';}";fSS*°¤B- - 8 -,, ···--·-~· 306 304 -2
24,178. Even without these two groups the em- O Om an md"`  96 27° +17*
8

 One important emergency agency, the Recmb Board, the land banks, the intermediate credit
struction Finance Corporation, is included in the gagke ?nd other ngmoulturnl <=m$l1t_b¤d1¤¤- The
foregoing table. This corporation, which was cre- the ele Communlootlons Qolnlnleelon took_oVel`
ated under the Hoover administration, shows an M€d_°?n°1` god;) Qomnneslon The Netlenel
increase of 1,144 employees under the New Deal. 6 In mn OM 1S_ Snooossor to tne Unlted
_ States Board of Mediation.
` New Permanent Agencies Emergency Agencies
The Civil Seiviee Cemmieeieh iieie 24 hevv U From work relief and public works funds sub-
agencies of a permanent character created under , loot to tne ellotlnent of the President, the admin-
this administration and in operation on June 30, letlntlon nee been eble to P1`0V1de 1`€gUl8»1‘ Jobs
1936_ The employees ei these egeheiee, Oh that t to the number of 144,499, listing only adminis-
Clatei totaled   Of Whom   were in the _ llI`3,l,1V€ €1'I1plOY€€S 8,I1Cl l',3,k1I1g 110 account of l:lIl€
District gf Columbia,) and 35,254 Ouf,Sidg_ S€V€I`&l YHIHIOH WhO have b€€I1 g1V€I1 employment
The largest of the new agencies is the Home on Work Tenet and Pnbllo Wolke PI`oJeetS· Of
Ovviieie Leeii Cei.pei~eiieii_ Next eeme the these adm1n1strat1ve jobs, 18,708 are in the Dis-
Tennessee Valley Authority, the Agricultural trlot ol Coltlnlble and 125,791 0\1tS1d€·
Adjustment Administration, the Farm Credit Ab¤¤t e dozen new egenelee, Buell 88 the
Admihietietieh and the Federal Heueiiig Adii-liii_ Works Progress Administration and the Resettle-
ieii.etieh_ ment Administration, are included in the Civil
The totals On June 30,   fer the new S€I'V1C€ COII11'Il1SS1OI1,S11Sl3 of €II1€I`g€I1CY 8,g€I1C1€S
agencies of a permanent character, as listed by end etgenolee under the Worke P1`0g1“9»H1· Others
the Civil Service Commission, follow: ln tne not one Yegnlel deP9»1‘tH1€H’€S 01* new
_ Dm O md agenc1es of a permanent character with special
. u e t -
A employees paid from allotted funds.
gency 0fCOZ. D.C. Total Th f H . t b 1 t, h
G 0 OW1I1 8,
Home Owners Loan Corporation... 2,986 13,705 15,791 g, u al 1011 S_ OWS employees O?
Tennessee veney Antnenty ........ 13 14,437 14,450 emergeney agencies and 8,g€1101<-BS under the works
Agricultural Adjustment Adminis- program on June 30, 1936;
tration .......................... 4,610 1,023 5,633 _
Farm Credit Administration ....... 1,347 2,360 3,707 Dtst. Outside
Federal Housing Administrationn. 1,283 2,377 3,660 Agency of COI. DC. Total
Securities and Exchange Commis- Emergency Conservation Work... 1,463 40,572 42,035
. sion ............................., 860 220 1,080 Works Progress Administration.. 2,097 33,246 35,343
Federal Deposit Insurance Cor- Works Program (Regular Depts.) 4,524 22,999 27,523
poration ......................... 257 525 782 Resettlement Administration .... 3,715 16,169 19,884
Social Security Board .............. 677 71 , 748 Public Works Administration ..... 3,315 7,404 10,719
Federal Communications Commis- Puerto Rican Reconstruction Adm. 40 2,281 2,321
sion .............................. 415 324 739 3 General Accounting Oiiice. ...... .. 2,012 ...... 2,012
Railroad Retirement Board ........ 433 1 434 i Farm Credit Administration ..... 17 1,567 1,584
National Labor Relations Board.. 96 97 193 National Youth Administrationu. 68 1,105 1,173
National Archives ................. 175 .... 175 National Emergency Council ...... 253 226 479
Commodity Credit Corporation... 77 25 102 Rural Electriiication Adm ......... 336 ...... 336 l
Central Statistical Board .......... 55 .... 55 4 National Resources Committeeu. 138 191 C 329
National R.R. Adjustment Board .... 46 46 ‘ Federal Surplus Relief Corp. ..... 232 27 259
Electric Home and Farm Authority 32 .... 32 v Federal Emergency Relief Adm... 202 ...... 4 l 202
National Mediation Board ......... 20 .... 20 l Civil Service Commission ......... 134 ....   — 134
Federal Savings and Loan Ins. Corp. 17 .... 17 Division of Industrial Analysis .... 98 ...... 98
National Cap. Park and Planning Coordinator for Industrial Cooper- _
Comm. ......................... .. . 16 .... 16 ; ation ............................ 40 ...... 40
Export-Import Banks ............. 14 .... 14 Prison Industries Reorganization
Other Minor Agencies (4) ........ 17 43 60 l Administration ................. 20 2 22
—-—- -—-— -—-— Veterans Administration ......... 4 2 6
Total ............................ 12,500 35,254 47,754 ";"" "*"" *"‘
Q Total ........................... 18,708 125,791 144,499
. Among the above are several which absorbed The Supervisor foréé GH 94 ed , .
. . . . . 111 111
agencies previously existing. The Farm Credit conservation Wm; comm ilg k e Grgmlgy
Administration includes the old Federal Farm ’ 11 O y Down as 6
10

 Civilian Conservation Corps, totals 42,035, as New Deal and Civil Serviee
given 1n the foregoing table, but 1S supplemented _
by a military personnel of 7,449. The enrolled FOP half 3. century after. the establishment of
personnel ef the CCC numbers 321,213, exclusive a classified competitive O1V1l service, 1n 1883, the
of 7,511 enrolle-d Indians, 1,002 in Hawaii and 192 . ?Xl°8DS1°n_ Of th`? Vsystem Went forward Weheut
in the Virgin Islands. It therefore appears that llllgllmpllone F*fl°°°“ yGa’rS.&ll’€r lls €SlllllllSh`
there is one member of the supervisory force for ment Illom t an half Of the Owl} €mpl°y°°S m the
eeeh Six er Seven ef emeued pereeneell executive branch of the Government were under
The Works Progress Administration, created lhg Sllllllloly mlllll mgllla“llOllS' l’y the llmll Ol
by Exe eutiv e erder, hee beeeme eee ef the 1ere_ V the Wilson administration two-thirds of the em-
est establishments in the Government service. S ploylllls welll .€lllbllllc.Gd lll the SYS“‘?`m· In the
It hee m er e empleyeee thee eey ef eix ef the tee Coolidge administration the proportion became
Cebieee Depertmeete hed et the beginning ef three-fourths, and in the Hoover administration,
this administration and more than any of four of ll lOllll`HllhS' . . .
the tee hee et the preeeet time The latest annual report of the C1V1l Service
The Reeememeet Admieieeretiee enether Commission states that at the end of the fiscal
eeeeey ereeted by Exeeutive Order elee hee be_ year 1935 the competitive classified service rep-
eeme eee ef the Very leree eeteeliehmenee Of resented 63.3 per cent of all civil employees in
the Government, its total personnel being greater leg; lzlgcglgvihblagleclgl Tg; Olglgzl .p€mll,;llag€ ll;
than any of five of the ten Cabinet Departments V .1 bl I .0 ll _ g if . is leo as fye
at the beginning of this administration and  lll ll il llls ixpeclll l. at It Wal S OW il ul"
greater than any of four of the ten at the present l Gl dec me lll   G pmpollloll Ol l B.F€ll€llll bll`
time reaucracy appointed under and subject to merit
The Public Works Administration, created by rules'
authority of Title II of the National Industrial The New Speils System
Recovery Act, has a force which 1S large in com- _
parison with several of the Cabinet Departments. _ A return l°°_ the Spmls system has bee? n°l°°'
The Federal Emergency Relief Administration, YEOUS ugderf the N€W1D°la'1‘ Tim Selccmm Pl
authorized by a special act, had only a few em- llsllilall   l;BWe§ll;_peOy€€,§’ ll; Bibl Sysliul lll
ployees left on June30, 1936, its activities having W lc pi? l lla 8 O S Beale S. lie 6 mis llgh r
been shifted ee ether eeeeeiee portant actor has procee e simu aneous y W1
' the issuance of White House statements pro-
· fessing loyalty to the statutory merit system.
Illcrcasclll Payroll Total · No victorious party, either in this country or
The Paymu Of wel €mPl°Y€€S ill @116 €X€0¤’¢iV€ 0 elsewhere, ever went so far to reward its workers
branch of the Government in June, 1936, was   at the expense of the people as has the New Deal
about $50,000,000 greater than in December, . party.
1933. Monthly totals have been given in the   Throughout the emergency agencies and even
reports of the Civil Service Commission only ` A in m3¤Y 1`€€ul&~¥` d€P8»1“¤m€¤l¤S tb-6 OK- 0f the
Since that da,i·,0_ political leader continues to be required of ap-
In June, 1936, the total was $129,487,167 as piicams for i><>S1’¤i¤¤}S- ¥¤ wher WMS. party
ccmparad with $80,414,085 in December, 1933. service rather than intelligence or fitness IS the
This is an increase of 61 per cent. The increase $018 ml°m°n‘ The pmmcal power Of the New
iS· at an annual mee ef nearly $000 000 000 Deal party and its leaders has been strengthened
......1. ..1... ... ......... ..   1....1...; al the   MG Wm Pm of the ¤¤¤¤*=v·
. . The National Civil Service Reform League, in
°‘Q”’°°°l by Oliclals and employees m BXp°nS°S a letter made public August 16, 1936, called the
O Vlmous Sor S' e attention of President Roosevelt to an instance
12 »» . is

 in which a political endorsement had been re- msns, if sissy stm hold the fsvsr of shs Posh
quired them an apP1iCam’ for an important ad` master General and the President. If found
mihiethettve Post m the Wehhe Pmgress 4d` eligible by the Civil Service Commission in a
ministration. The league assertedsthat a policy n0s_ssmpssi,siVs sxsminssisn, psssmsstsrs may
of this character was in conflict with assurances bs rsssmmsndsd ts sbs Prssidsm} by sbs Postr
previously given that relief administration would mssssr Gsnsrsl for sssppsimsmsms Ths EXssu_
heokeis tts->e het? si°1m°S· s_ _ the Gsvsm tive order does not abolish the four-year terms
n e asis o e propor ion in _- - · .0 ,s f t t h
ment service protected by the competitive classi- ;fs1;1g;u;€rsrs€s3;_I;1p?gI; Lngilgsuzysa pos mas er W O
fied system at the end of the fiscal year 1935, _ Ths only sssusl gsm for sbs msris sysssm,
as many _”·S 305900 et the 824900 “mp1°}’ BBS _ under the Executive order, is in instances when
were Outslde the Stattumry mlégt Sbilstgm jh une ‘ vacancies occur by death, resignation or removal.
§0» 1gg6·19§g]B numF€r   50; (iuzlginirgh 2; — In such cases an open competitive examination
une · > was a_m°S ’ ‘ will be held by the Civil Service Commission.
thetettt ehthteyeee  str thegtbhttsgttg The President is obligated to nu the   by
durmg the fiscal year, 19 ’ 1 1S pm;) a' 8 .3 appointing the highest eligible person, unless it
those Oulslde the meet Systgmhninzher c0nS1s` is established to the satisfaction of the Civil
embly more th_an_3O5*0OO an tha d B page; ` Service Commission that the character or resi-
age Of those Wtlhtn the System as mppe G- dence of such person disqualifies him.
tew 633 Whehe lt Stood a year ago' The Executive order superseded one issued by
postmastcrs the President on July 12, 1933, under which the
The administration has capitalized Executive g) Ostmasgers Gen? 31* m Igakmg lsecolglmendatlons
orders extending the application of civil service et appom men ’ Wa? Ft Owe G °_°°S€ among
laws What has actually hsppsnsd in ths Vsry the three highest eligibles as certified by the
few instanees of this character is that persons gttst Set;VtesCemteteeteh·11Uhtsets thht eitet th;
chosen by political methods have had their jobs OS mas er Fpem was a OWG 9 TBJEC thy O
ade sssasa iaaaasaats have obtained a sas- the thhee ehehtee thehehy tehehte the Cem-
m H ns tsnuss sf smss Without undsrssing cOm_ mission to approve an additional applicant. By `
gigigvs tests Through nsmssmpstitivs sXsm_ the device of appointing acting postmasters, it
inations they have been rated under a system was p°?S*b1€ }°°_ ?"°‘d the °h°*°° et anti et the
in which experience aa as particular jet is the three hteheet ehehtee tt hehe et them met Wtth
most important single element. It is easy for poasglcal fgtee ssh d _ _s s_ _ _ _
` anyone even without average intelligence to hold B mo was O 6 a mmm m mn m Issuing
his .0b undss such sissumsssnsss _ the recent order would be less open to question
Vllide publicity has been given a recent Exs .· if the President had not waited for more than
ecutive order, issued July 20, 1936, which places thhee years bi°f°r° promising the mlmg et V?"
su mss ssssnd and third Class psssmsstsrs s canc1es_ other than by political methods. The bill
wml 0513 730 undss sbs ssmpstitivs classified ir placing first, second and third class postmasters
Service ’ ’ _ under civil service, which was before the recent
nanas the naasanva order was issued about eeeeteh et Ceheteee Wee thhy as teeehttte ee
) . . .
95 per cms of sbs posits on s had bssn fmsd for the Executive order. This bill, approved by the
f0m__ sas tssms byspsmissl sslsstisn The EXss_ administration, made it permissible for the Post-
usivsysrdsr is s shsm inasmuch ssst dsss not · master General to reappoint postmasters for in-
aifect the status of those who have received polit— demilte terms Yvlthout Comphancg Wtth any OWU
icslsppsissmssss svss Whss thsir prsssss tsrms service regulations other than those governing a
s , _ • • • in
1 expire. At the expiration of present terms the norlgisrisgigggg? é§$§S1§§;;°;§;RsfOrm Lssgu _
· ‘ t ll d t ‘ t- _ _ e m
m°“mb‘*“‘°S t“`° “" ual} “SS“’° ° ’°app°*” as annual report in May, 1934, denounced the
15

 1933 Executive Mdsf as "e ¤¤€r¤ Cloak for the The eeeeee·eee agencies created ey Executive
Sp¤1le?ySt€1}¤"¤¤d"a disgrace ’¤¤ the ROOSBVGM order under the authority of tee National ie-
adm1n1strat1on." The association asserted that duetiiel Reeeveiv het ei. the Weik Relief Aet,
thc elder Pleeell ell ueellelle elllel lleeleee llllekn such as the Resettlement Administration, the
llpell llle Clvll SGYVICG Cellllllleelell _ _ Works Progress Administration and the National
Under _lllee‘l’ ellelelt elle ellllllllllellellell S“l’Sll' Emergency Council, have been exempt from civil
tuted political appointees for many postmasters eeiviee bv the expieee teime ei the Orders eigued
who had risen from the ranks of the postal serv- bv the Pieeidehti
ice, including those in New York, Philadelphia, A few heimeheht egeheiee ereeteel iihdei, thie
Beellell ellll Sl" Lelllej _ _ _ ‘ administration, such as the Securities and Ex-
An instance of political f&VOI‘1i·1SITl in the rel- ehehee Cemmieeieiii ere under eivil eei,viee_
lllllyely llllllllpelllelll peellllllelelellll? llll Weel Original administration drafts of some of the
P°ml°· New Y°"k> Wee lll`ell_glll’ to llglll by lllle ‘ bills, however, provided for exemption from civil
llllllly ellll Navy `lelll`lle‘l‘ rlwe days llelelle the service. Congress, rather than the administration,
leellellee of llle Exeellllve ellelel el ‘lllly* le3e>_l'lle was responsible for the civil service provisions
Postmaster General called for an examination, hiiellv eidebteet
with a view to the substitution of a political The exeiiee that it wee heeeeeeiw te eut red
eppellllee leli Mlee Glllee Hllllllllglelh ee yeele tape because of the urgency of the situation does
af ege* llellglllell el a