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Q Recovery, Relief
` and the
J Speech of
President, American Liberty
· S League, Before the Beacon
I Society of Boston, Dec. 8,
l i ·k
4 I
· , K National Headquarters
Washington, D. C.
ir ·A·

 Recovery, Relief I
_ and the
i Constitution
IT SEEMS peculiarly appropriate that here in
( the birthplace of the movement which resulted
“   in the independence of the United States I am
A - Q afforded the opportunity to explain the meaning
~ and purposes of an organization designed to pre-
— serve and safeguard those rights and liberties won
at such great cost more than a hundred and fifty
years ago. Perhaps within the range of my voice
there are descendants of the patriots who staged
q I the famous Boston tea—party. If such be present
. it would be interesting to have their views as to
what might be said by their ancestors who made
s so notable a protest against taxation without
' representation could those venerated shades be
informed that in our country today an Executive
3 official of the Federal Government is authorized
by law to levy a tax upon one element of the
· population and to give its proceeds to another
_%_4 group.
I make that observation not for the purpose
_ of starting an argument as to the merits or de-
merits of specific laws which have been adopted
to combat the economic depression, but merely
to illustrate that during the past few years we
; have departed seriously from some of the most
y T important American traditions. That departure
i is not confined to emergency laws enacted under
5 ‘ the Roosevelt Administration. The movement
7 has been under way for a number of years
y although strikingly it has been accentuated since
the advent of the so-called NEW DEAL.
The Cgngtitu. II am freqluentlly asked
» · w y it was t oug t neces-
fm and the Ter sary to form an  
‘ Commandments tion devoted to the pro-
i tection and maintenance
of the Constitution of the United States. My
» . answer to that inquiry is another question. Why
n is it necessary to advocate observance of the Ten
Commandments? So far as I know there is prac-
I tical unanimity of public opinion in favor of
] continued adherence alike to the Constitution
framed in Philadelphia by the founders of the
Republic and to the laws handed down to Moses
1 for the guidance of the Children of Israel. Never-
I _ theless, numerous and influential sects are still
I actively advocating observance of the Ten Com-
I I . [3]

mandments and I am unable to see any incon- ` faI"fatahad· Thay ara hasad hP0h ths actual
i gruifiy in the formation of al group to promote €Xp€I']€HC€ of   people und€I° other fOI‘II1S of
observance of the Constitution. i Sayammaht withm Vary Yaaaht yaaYS· _
In these strenuous days there is, 1 teer, too r Lst ms ussurs you that I sm ust sasmptius
much of a disposition to regard the Constitution t taahggast that thuss h0W ahargad Wlth thu ad'
as something abstract and removed entirely from mhhstratlhh uf Ohh Fadatal Gayarhmaht haya
the affairs of everyday life. In real truth the any a0hSa19hS_0I` dahbarata Phrpaaa sf Shbyartmg
Constitution is the living voice of American the Constitution. I do not believe that such
liberty. It is the shield of protection of the Parlaaaa axlata ih rssliy Taapahaihla tlhahtara I
person, the home and the rights of the citizen. d0_aSS€I`tr huwsvsr, that thurs IS Oftah ths tamP·
But the benefits derived from it have come to us tat10h_ umpus _Wah·h1aahmg mah with a Wurthy
of the present generation without struggle, and Ohlactlya ih V1aW» it yah Plaaaai ts bsuums hh"
heeause We have het had to fight for whaha it patient of Constitutional restrictions and to seek,
confers we have at times seemed to esteem it sithsr ih the Wmtihg OT tha ahtaraihg sf 1aWSr ts
lightly. Consciousness of the Constitution and S0 Palpahly hayahd Cahatithtlaaal bahhda _
of what it ipyglvgg needs te bg heawakehed in I assert further that one invasion of Constitu-
hhe minds and hearts gf the American peep]e_ tional rights leads inevitably to other invasions,
This is not because of any need to preserve _ and that it tha hhartiaa Qt ths Amariaah Paapta
ancient forms or to re-enact ancient rituals. It I ara tu bs Fahtmaad and if tha aaaaptad farm uf
is not merely because the Constitution is the vital   tha Amsriqsn Gayammaht IS tu bs Praaahyad
force of freedom. Yet mightily because of that Y thasa 1¤VaS10¤S must Caaaa- _
fact every American of this generation and of Q I assert fufthah that Yhahy Pmaaht trahds }h
coming generations should be taught the part- > g0V€1`hm€htal Pahayr Particularly axamlahhad ih
the overwhelming part»——that the Constitution Sama uf tha s¤·<>s11sd_ amafgahay measures
must continue to play if governmental institu- ad0Pt€d daring th? Past aightaah mahthar With if
tions as we know them and value them are to be . uhchaakadr Yasalt 1¤ tha creation uf a h¤Sa_F€_d·
pyeseyved _ eral bureaucracy, practically irresponsible in its
i administration of public affairs. Indeed, in truth,
Toni,. Daily Perhaps it may be Worth E such a situation may be said to exist today.
Ltfe and the §?u%;i;OOILFt(;8£gnEii;3;1y€isi·2EI;;   The Remqykqble It was once remarked by
C011rSfi1Su¢iO’Yl· of the Constitution upon .   Longevity of ah thdrhereus irihnesepheir
everyday life. For purpose , B a ,, We are a here err '
of illustration I am suggesting certain things   tweetuctacy ters Ws must ussset
which other governments can do and have done 2 . human nature as We nnd rt
but which the government of the United States and* that berng se> yen knew as Wen as r that
cannot do because of the protection which the rt rs arrnest rrnpessrbre ts eenvrnee any pueue
Constitution affords to our citizenship. r eteerar that hs sheurd. ever renneursh any newer
The Constitution prevents the Federal Govern- enee granted nun Lrkewrse rt has been derhen'
ment from establishing a state religion and tax- strated tunes Wrtneut number that ehee a Fed'
ing Every citizen, regardless Oi his religious eral bureau IS. created, no matter how completely
beliefs, for the upkeep of an established church. the essd rer tts exrsteneenray passv the task uf
, The Constitution prevents the Government aeenshrng rt beeernes the Jeb uf a superman- As
from interfering with the right Of any citizen to an illustration today after a hundred and twenty
express his views on any public question. Were years. sf unrnterrupted peaee areng eur Nerthern
it not for such safeguard I might have to obtain L rrentrer We stru hers a Federal eemrmssreh
the permission of a bureaucrat at Washington . eharged Wrth the eustedy and eare sf the beuhd'
before 1 could address you here tonight. I su bawsss as Umtsd. ams usd assass-
The Constitution prevents the Government Ceurdtnere bs rnere strurrng rnstahee sf the
from censoring the press. Otherwise the news- t rengevrty. of erderar ageneres enee estaehshedr
papers of Boston and the press associations might i r take rt that hehe Wru duestreh that seme sf
be precluded from disseminating any news of the measures adepted under Pressure of reeeht
this meeting save on sufferance from a Federal smsrsssur eendrtrens eentarn Ver}? dertnrte
OHiciai_ _ threats to the accepted rights and liberties of
These illustrations are neither fantastic nor eur ertrtehs These uf us whe Partrerpated m the
[4] [5]

‘ ‘ ‘ "To June 16, 1934, the Administrator for In-
Eitaréilitiféiti itsthis€“ti$§L°ir‘tsLé`2§lZyt,}‘$£`§Z, . susan Reeevew hse isteeees gemieiseregive
a thorough, fearless and non—partizan survey of i erdere epgrevmg ge Blgiml $$58 cghgféflngnilvl $5
the feedemeetels ieveiveel is eeeseee eeeeeel . sttsffei iiiliiitieiids of stfa, activities of ailegis-
peheies- Peres er thee Surrey eee new under S lative niture. Countless ‘interpretations’ of codes
Wes'- The results will beam te take definite . have been issued by the NRA and the many code
ferm defies the eemies Session ef C0¤gI`€SS· And ~ authorities, of which there is no real record or
in that connection it should be remembered that , indexing, or even any trustworthy source of _in-
the next Congress will be called upon to make g formation. Finally, and perhaps most astounding
some very far-reaching decisions. Whether or T of ell, the NRA hes ?»d0Pt€d_h¤m€T0uS reselshees
not measures adopted as admittedly temporary · ahdtsctg ef resettgees Wnllertegggs ligsuréei {este;
exeeeleses dress the eee fee sees were Wee 1 §i?§s"§$ i“£2“tss s§ti$s°stss sas haspnot
ee see lei es mslsmeeeee consldemmm es 00m` l segregated such press releases having a legislative
pared Wren the preblem ef Whse new muse be l effect from those of an informational or news
done with the vast emergency bureaucracy that l character],
has been set up in Washington.   Ob h L Th C mmittec
i g t g qw e same o
"Lggi5lqtig»yt" The manner in which the l If ygu can ° estimated that the total
b E t- normal processes of govern- V _ _ ‘leg1slat1ve output from
y xecu Vue ment have been supplanted I FW|»6l it the NRA alone during the
Decree by extraordinary methods j period covered by its report
js illustrated Stylkjngly by   would exceed 10,000 pages of "law." The Com-
a report presented to the last Convention of the l Y¤1l9h€€ commented 9·PnY¥
American Bar Association by its Special Com- ; "Under these circumstances not only citizens
mittee on Administrative Law. I quote from V but even lawyers are _helpless in any effort to
that repent; t nscortznjnl the law apphcanli to odgivenf itntelacg
; ac s. e resum ion o nowe e o e
“I‘Q1`0m MMVI]; 4, {9313, lz? Jane l5,_(il934, as t becomes, td) term lit mildly, more ghan violent."
Iniizgd agiaxiexciznievg gliders? iggfggntgnlg gr;   The dispassronate report of the Committee Hf
proximately 1400 neges, ef which many are a S the American Bar Association above quoted te s
combination of several parts (as high as 15) and Q only part of the story, _but it serves to illustrate
represent a number of separate orders. The total l the fact that the National Recovery Adminis-
volume is, conservatively estimated, greater than 1 tration has become a vast law-making organiza-
the tetel ef the Preeedhlg f0¤f-Year period from l tion. As an inescapable piece of the picture it
March 1, 1929, te Mereh 4, 1933, during Which l must be pointed out that in frequent instances,
mee esders were eppreverh meet ef rnem not perhaps in a large majority, subordinate ofiicials,
h.ee3s ee lmpertenréeglelirrre neynnreereie Negriy some of them with little experience and others
ignnzlmgilrxgTliggyperiigguotvgn goings gsrzuregg “ with tittle olualiftglatron, not only write the laws
tec pellggg >1862_19O0’ and 10 per Cem Of the mm buWlieii tlileolnresiderlni has approved a code there
since .’
I is no appeal. Besides all of the administrative
I do net haye complgtg figures as to the EX_ , orders and directions from innumerable boards
1 ecutive Orders issued during the past six months, lneerprenng end eefeeeme ereV1s1e¤s.ef the etch
but it can be stated authoritatively that the ine NRA nee ereeeed eede e‘uenerr°1ee.Wh1eh
number is net less than 180 themselves issue rules and regulations having the
· What are these Orders? · I force of law and necessarily affecting the _da1ly
For the most part they are net perfunctory en 1 lives and conduct of millions of our citizens.
unimportant documents. In many instances they . 1 Cen Snen Preeeenre ,ne Squared Wrenrne nbernee
are decrees having the force of law. In certain i %;`nne§nu2~§)n1?me1nre1ned eeder prevrerene ef the
‘ · ons 1
;2;(§tyea11ur8 to Obey them mvokes Severe The Brookings Institution has estimated that
Fu,-the,. illustrating the extent te which Inn, there are some 50 or 60 d1fferent admimstrative
making by Exeeutiye deeree has supplanted authortties 1n the Federal Government which arle
normal methods of legislation, the same report exerererng ene sewer ee rneke deelelene. Whle
deelareez intimately affect private rights. Freely it must
[6] [7 l

be admitted that Congress is compelled, because ministration which has assumed drastic control
of the enormity of our governmental machine, in the regulation of the whole petroleum industry,
to delegate some of its power. For years past the the Federal Alcohol Control Administration
Interstate Commerce Commission has been i., which has plenary powers over matters relating
charged with the duty of fixing rates and with I to the manufacture, distribution and sale of all
control over the transportation systems of the alcoholic beverages, and various other commis-
country, all of which is authority vested origi- 1 ‘ sions or boards scarcely less important.
nally in Congress and handed down only through ~· l It is not sought here to discuss whether any or
Congressional edict. It would be wholly impos- all of these _agencies are necessary for the proper
sible for Congress through its own machinery to conduct of the government, but the fact and the
administer the functions which have been vested method of their creation are called to your at-
in the Interstate Commerce Commission, but tention. If they are necessary, why should they
your attention is called to the very pertinent fact not be brought into being through legislative
that the law creating that Commission gave the enactment rather than by Executive Order based
right of appeal to the courts in all cases where a on legislative authority?
decision by the Commission might appear un- Moreover, granting that broad Executive au-
just or inequitable. As long as appeal is per- thority is desirable in emergency, should not
mitted the citizen enjoys the rights inherent Congress retain a larger measure of control?
under the Constitution, but when he is precluded The National Industrial Recovery Act might
from appeal, when his day in court is denied him, properly have specified the qualiications and
when the fiat of a government official can con- salaries and have required Senate confirmation
fiscate his property, it matters not how high- of the Executive appointees who were to revolu-
minded the official or how well—founded his con- tionize our industrial system and inaugurate a
clusions, the citizen is being deprived of one of public works program of unprecedented size.
the most sacred privileges of citizenship guar- And in the Agricultural Adjustment Act in which
anteed by our form of government. Congress vested power in the Secretary of Agri-
culture for an indefinite period until the Presi-
Congress Whether intentional or dent proclaims the end of the emergency, why
Suyyendeys not, more and more Con- would it not have been proper to hold a firm
gress has seemed willing to check on the officials chosen by the Secretary
Its P0we’V'$ make laws that permit to administer the Act? When Congress created
usurpation of authority by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, also an
administrative officials, and, whatever the mo- emergency agency, it designated the number of
tive, more and more oflicials have appeared in- directors to be appointed by the President, fixed
tent on asking Congress to permit the imposition ...,, their salaries and political qualifications and re-
of Federal authority without the privilege of   quired confirmation by the Senate.
appeal. What will be the end of such practice? Z. The emergency does not give excuse for dis-
Also Congress over a term of years has been , bursements from allotted funds free from any
gradually relinquishing to the Executive branch   supervision by Congress. And this brings me to
of the Government authority intended by the [ another striking citation.
Constitution to remain with the legislative
branch. Two striking examples at once present PWA Alloy; Billions of the people’s i
i themselves. The present Administration has M·ll· that money have been appro- ·
created through Executive Orders twenty-three 1 mus priated for expenditure
governmental agencies of tremendous power. Congress Refused under direction of the
These agencies include the two Export-Import Public Works Adminis-
Banks which have far-reaching powers over the tration. The allotments of these funds in frequent
Nation’s foreign trade, the National Emergency instances furnish examples of action by admin-
Council which exercises authority beyond that istrative authority in direct contravention of the
entrusted to any of the regular Executive De- prior determination of Congress. Reclamation
partments of the Government, the Farm Credit projects, river and harbor improvements, public
Administration which is one of the Government’s buildings and other governmental proposals,
most ambitious experiments in economic control, denied by Congress after investigation, have been
the National Labor Relations Board which sits financed by the PWA without reference to the
as arbiter in labor disputes, the Petroleum Ad- Congressional attitude.
[8] [9] a

Of course, the whole excuse for the Public l $4.00, while in another instance the amount dis-
Works program has been to afford employment. { tributed was $6.00 at an administrative cost of
Beyond question that program has put many   $576.00. The Senator did not name the state
men back to work. But in doing so the Federal E or the counties involved. I am certain, however,
Government not merely has borne the enormous f that he has adequate evidence to sustain his
cost of luxurious buildings and other enterprises 5 statements.
not now required, but also has assumed the large f Let me call your attention to an instance in
responsibility of their maintenance for years to , my native state of Kentucky. Floyd County in
come. Such employment as has been created the eastern part of that state has a population
thereby is at enormous cost to the American Y of 41,942. Those charged with the duty of ad-
people for succeeding generations. ministering relief were entrusted with $430,000
One of the most pressing and vexed problems of relief funds and indictments are now pending
confronting the Nation at this time is relief for against seven of them alleging a conspiracy to
the unemployed and the destitute. Let me make divert a total of $122,500. Five of the seven are
it very clear that the American Liberty League accused of actually using the funds for their own
does not challenge the theory that the Govern- private interests. A very important point of the
ment has an obligation to care for a citizen who whole situation is the fact that a total of $430,-
through no fault of his own but through inability 000 of relief funds was provided for Floyd
to get work is unable to care for himself. Ade- County, Kentucky, within less than a year, and
quate appropriations must be made for this pur- that the total general property tax levied in that
pose, and I feel sure I reflect the sentiment of county in the year 1932, the latest figures avail-
the members of the League when I say that they able, was $390,000 as shown by the compilations
are entirely willing to bear their part of the of the Census Bureau. Of the- general property
necessary tax burdens involved in such appro- tax levied in 1932, $101,000 was for state pur-
priations. Discussion of the matter, therefore, V poses, $118,000 for county purposes, $31,000 for
does not include the principle of the necessity of cities, towns and villages and $140,000 for school
relief, nor, primarily, the matter of cost, though districts. The total governmental cost payments
obviously every effort should be made to prevent _ of Floyd County and the cities, towns and vil-
waste or extravagance in any direction. On the lages and school districts in it amounted for the
other hand there are important questions of year 1932 to $454,000. The total revenue re-
policy in which the whole people are interested— 4 ceipts of Floyd County and the cities, towns and
those receiving relief, those administering it and villages and school districts within it amounted
the taxpayers who must foot the bills. to $448,000 for the year 1932. In other words,
It is my belief that those in charge of the the amount of relief money, $430,000, almost all
Federal Relief Administration in Washington . of it from the Federal Treasury, that was poured
have done their duty conscientiously, painstak—   into the county within less than a year was
ingly and honestly. Their integrity is beyond   greater by $40,000 than the total general prop-
suspicion. Also it is my belief that considering , erty tax levied in the county in 1932 and almost
the machinery with which they have had to work t equal to the total governmental cost of the cities,
and the haste with which that machinery had to towns, villages and school districts of the county
be gotten into action they have done the job with for the year 1932.
a very fair degree of efficiency. On the other Within the past two weeks in the City of
hand, there are numerous complaints to the effect Washington the Daily News, a Scripps-Howard
that millions in relief funds have been wasted be- paper which is an ardent partizan of the present
cause of unwise or inept administrative methods Administration, has published a survey of the
in the states or the sub-divisions of the states. relief situation. Mind you, Washington is the
' seat of the Federal Government. It is not an
Complaints on Senator Borah of Idaho industrial city but it has the unfailing source of
I. F d is authority for the charge enormous Government payrolls from week to
Re wf W"' that in one hundred coun- week, from month to month, from year to year.
Distribution ties of a certain state it In so far as its income is concerned it has been less
cost $5,100.00 to admin- affected by the depression than any other city of
ister $4,700.00 of relief funds. In a certain in- the Nation. On the other hand within the past
stance he declared that at an administrative cost eighteen months thousands of additional em-
of $572.00 the total amount distributed was ployees have been added to the Government pay-
[10 ] [ 11 ]

 roll. And yet this survey of the_relief situation l our people and onr government allke for the ole-
in Waanington made by tho Dattfl N ews fe¤¤d pensation of relief. It is the American Red Cross.
abpfoxnnatoly 72,000 Parsons, er ono evt ef i In both war and peace it has carried on. When
every Seven ef the Population ef tno Nations floods or drought or tornadoes or fire or pesti-
Capital, new en rehef rene- of this Humber I lence or any other afllictions have taken their
67,000 ara boing eereptfer by Federal funds and   disastrous toll, its ministrations and its benefac-
5,000 by lnuyato onantlos ef ono klnu ei e¤ether· l tions have ameliorated sunering and loss. Its
$oVonty·S1X Po? eent ef these eu robot In Wasn   work has been done without favoritism and with-
mates, aooofding te tno estimate ef tno N ewes, * out scandal. It- is the natural agency to be em-
a1`€ eelered Pooplo and tnoy represent tnn`ty‘n1no l ployed in the present emergency and it should be
· per cent of the entire colored population of the   eo ernployeel
oity· Connnonting user} tno Posslblo tuturo ot' l Fairly it may be assumed that the President
fects of present relief act1vit1es,the News reached I and his advisers desire to eliminate any eharge
this Significant eenelueien, “Tnat although tno}`o t of partizan politics in the allotment or expendi-
is petting tight now that eee be dono about It, ture of relief money. Without the slightest re-
relief IS building a Yaoo ef peeple Satlanod te be t flection but rather with full measure of praise to
011 1‘€li€f· Wnat effect this Win have en tho att1‘ the task that has been performed by the Federal
todo and ability ef tututo gonotatlona Wo een Emergency Relief Administration, Congress can
only guess." specify that future appropriations for direct
_ _ , relief are to be handled by the Red Cross. Thus —
Keep Relief T1he,_eepe1d1eDre;1e¤T§f vsoould be remoxaed anydbasis of the suggestion
· Was o IS nnbo an- o o attem ted o itical a vanta e.
Free ·f°:O:m’ Tmmt effect upon the morale of p P g
of PO`l¢I·tTC$ tht? people is I3.? II1OI‘€• lm- Red Crycss The Red Cross has 3 rg-
_ portant. But there IS. a E . d rnarkahle rgcgyd for ell-;-
further point which I should like to emphasize mcwnt an oienoy and eoonon-iy_ There
as earnestly as I may, and that is that the most s Economical are especial reasons why it
dangerous circumstance connected with the entire can operate more cheaply
relief situation is the utilization of a political than other organizations {te oilioiale are not
agency to administer relief. The whole opera- mere temporary job holders but are experts in
tion should be free from any taint of politics. V their various lines of work. It has the advantage
Regardless of what Pa1'tY_m1ght be 111 OHEGB, Pellet of countless volunteer workers. Furthermore, it
expenditures should not in any circumstance be has frequently been able to secure free or re-
used for political advantage, 1101* should there be duced transportation privileges granted in times
allowed even the remote temptation so to use U of special stress. It is a quasi-governmental in-
them. : stitution with the President of the United States
The distribution of largesses from the public   as its President. It is nation—wide in organiza-
treasury is one of the most ancient devices by tion eeope_ It has ohaptere throughout the
· which bureaucracies and other undemocratic l eountry_ It holde the oonfidenee ofthe pgOplg_
governments have sought to maintain themselves j While the Rnd Cross has always raised ite gwn
in power. Heretofore in the United States such funds without looking to the government for
attempts have been restricted to the operations apprgpyigtigns, it handled a large quantity of
of municipal political mach1nes in some of our wheat and cotton which was turned over to it by
larger cities. There they have been remarkably authority of Congress in 1932 and 1933. In
effective and have constituted the chief defense March of 1932 Congress adopted what was then
against periodic efforts of reform. Now, for the an unprecedented measure when it directed that
first time, there is the possibility that this per- 40 million bushels of wheat stored under the
n1c1ous system may be tried on a nation-wide stabilization program of the Federal Farm Board
scale. I do not say it 1S be1ng_tr1ed, but I do say I be allotted to the Red Cross for use in admin-
we have provided the mach1nery_for_ such an istering relief to the Nation’s, needy. Subse-
attempt and nntil that machinery is dismantled quently in 1932 and in the early part of 1933
1t_w1ll constitute a permanent temptation for Congress provided that additional wheat stocks
misuse. and also cotton held by the Farm Board be given
For many years there has been a wholly non- to the Red Cross. Altogether the Red Cross re-
p0l1fZ,1C8.l, hl1II13,I11t3,I'18,I1 OI`g8,1'l1Z8,t·1OI1 l1t1l1Z€d by ggiygd in this manner 85 million bushels gf wheat
[12] [13]

and 884,063 bales of cotton. Under its direction   to extensive self-help programs, which, in my
the wheat was made into 10,688,307 barrels of 1 Judgment, is to be commended. These enter-
flour, 4,885 tons of cereal and 233,901 tons og , prrges, to; wcliateyer kindéhcaq.? béest }1eEcont1nued
feed for livestock. The cotton was converte i un er e .11:60 ion o e _ e era mergency
into 103,650,778 yards of cloth and sheeting, Q Relief Administration. But 1t1s earnestly urged
66,733,524 ready-made garments and 3,179,941 l that in the disbursement of direct relief which
blankets and comforts. In addition, both wheat l will still be neciisarg an coris1d(e1riblehhme;a.s&1re£
and cotton were used in barter to meet costs of I the Red Cross s ou e ut1 1ze o e u es
manufacture, packing and shipping, as Congress R extent possible. _ _ _
had voted nothing to cover expenses. The ad- l America cannot continue indefinitely the effort
ministrative outlay, such as the necessary cler- , to spend herself out of the depression. Portu-
ical force, printing, postage, telephone, felegraph,   natelg there are evideinceis {)n many d1%:7ct1ons of
t . e borne b the Red Cross itse f with an a su s an ia reviva o usiness. e are a
gxiiexitdithre of $72,5,000 from its treasury. nation of vast resources and_tremendous poten-
The distribution of the wheat and cotton prod- t13l1t1€S. But these arebnot inexgaustible. fThe
t h d t of eve five ersons in the time has come for a so er consi eration o our
§atidi}1?C Theciliiditliduals rgeiving the relief in fiscal situation and for a stern determination on
3081 of the 3098 counties in the Uigited Stiates, the partdof; ofgcials evkeryéwlzere il? cut expend)1-
and 'n Porto Rico, Alaska and ot er out ying ures an o a ance u ge s. o one can e
possehsions, totaled 26,000,000. Participating more acutely aware of this than the President.
were 3746 Red Cross chapters, their branches and In his Hrst message to_ Congress following his
other units. Local administrativlel expensesrrvlvere Q inéauguratéon he emphasizedtheddeficittlthinliex-
met from the treasuries of the c apters. ere 1S mg an impressive y poin e ou a or
is no question that if Congress had provided for L three long years the Federal Ciovernment has
this relief operation through a governmental been on the road to bankruptcy. He candidly
agency, the administrative costs would have   held tchatfn$1o§a1t_recoveryéqdepends upon the
reached a very large total. ly securi y o _ e a ion s cre 1 .
The suggestions concerning the Red Cross are I Early this year in another message to Congress
offered for consideration in connection with the the Y1‘0S1d011t urged that the h11dg0t Sh011ld be
disbursement of direct relief whethe}1; in the form I 5101551;;% fe} the §0%§’§01` r}}i1]0t 31110 f1`0111 {11}]%
of money or of goods. There is owever an- 1 0 0110 - 0 011g1`0SS W 10
other important phase to the whole relief prob- 1 0011V0110S 110Xt 111011th 11111St 1110k0 the 0li>P1‘0P1‘10·
lem. The accepted American method of dealing , t1011S f01‘ th0t P_01`10d· The 0ft01‘t th0t 10 0X01`t0d
with such situations has been wherever possible ¤ to held 0XP011d1t1~11‘0S W1th111 P1`0P01‘ h01111dS, the
to provide an opportunity for work rather than l 0XOI'01S0 of realleconomy wlill lilavle an important
outright charity. It was this theory which was , bearmg upon t e speed wit w 10 recovery may
responsible for the establishment of the Civil be 0000111Ph0h0d 0110 UP011 the P01'001101 P0Y·
Works Administration and the Civilian Consor- ehelesy ef our people as Well- _ _
vation Corps. I am not suggesting that all the Th0 S0t0g¤01`dS_ ef P01`00110l hh01‘tY Wh10h the
activities cariiied oii by these groulps have been ?011St1ti;1t10¤r§10V1d0S,ath§ 1g§ht_0f the 111<;l`t1V1d1c1§·l
of marked va ue. am asserting t at it is wiser l 0 W01` 1 00 i S0V0 11 <1u11‘0 P1`0P0 Y 0 ·
and better for a man in need of assistance to be   d_11tY ef 801/’01`11111011t te f0St01f 0110 P1‘0t00t,th0t
given the opportunity to earn his bread in the , 1'1ght, Elie 0PP01`tL12111tY §01‘ g11';10t1V0t011d 011t01'·
sweat of his face. Further I maintain that some I P1`1§0·* 000 01`0_ 0 01111 0 1011 S 01100 t1P011
chance should be afforded to determine as be- 1 Wh10h the A11101`10011 P00P10 have h1111d0d 111 3
tween those who are willing to work when work 1 0011t111’Y 0110 0 half the 1110St §11000SSf111 g0V01‘11-
is offered and those who want the Government , 1¤011t01 St1`110t111`0 thus f01‘ 00171000 by 170011- Be
to Support them   S€1f..h€·lp_ zealous, my countrymen, In pr€S€I°V1Hg  
structure for succeeding generations.
Obs aye The Administration’s re- V
{ly fe/fable lief program has not yet T T
6 been made public. News-
T0 Dcles paper dispatches from
Warm Springs, however, in-
dicate that careful consideration is being given
[14] [15]