xt7wwp9t2q46_78 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7wwp9t2q46/data/mets.xml https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7wwp9t2q46/data/59m61.dao.xml American Liberty League 37 linear feet archival material English University of Kentucky This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Jouett Shouse Collection (American Liberty League Pamphlets), No. 81 "Alternatives To The American Form Of Government: An Examination of Three European Dictatorships Whose Underlying Theories Bear upon Present Attempts to Regiment Industry and Agriculture in the United States," December 16, 1935 text No. 81 "Alternatives To The American Form Of Government: An Examination of Three European Dictatorships Whose Underlying Theories Bear upon Present Attempts to Regiment Industry and Agriculture in the United States," December 16, 1935 2013 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7wwp9t2q46/data/59m61/59m61_81/Am_Lib_Leag_81_001/Am_Lib_Leag_81_001.pdf section false xt7wwp9t2q46_78 xt7wwp9t2q46 Pamphlets Available .
* · * *
Copies of the following pamphlets and
other League literature may be obtained
upon application to the League’s national ALTERNATIVES TO THE
Statement of Principles and Purposes   F   
  Liberttjil Leipgueflts lgagormlw
n a ysis o e resi ent’s u g t essage
Economic security ° GOVERNMENT
Inflation .
The Thirty Hour Week Bill
The Holding Company Bill
L ·i·ii°°LCi°mii 1 Bill * * *
e a or e ations `
The Farmers’ Home Bill —
The TVA Amendments
The Supreme Court and the New Deal
The Revised AAA Amendments _ _
%`he P5esidg1t’s Tax Program · An Exam1nat1on of Three European
xpan mg ureaucracy . . .
Lawmaking by Executive Order D1Ct3·tOrSh1PS Whose Und€r1Ymg
§§;tE‘gg£?gS m F°d°"“1 Courts Theories Bear upon Present
Consumers and the AAA Attempts to Regiment In,
Budget Prospects _
Dangerous Experimentation dustry and Agr1culture
$]`p(p3{or§1;li§lann1ng-Mistaken But Not New p in tllc United States
The AAA and Our Form of Government
The National Labor Relations Act-Summary ·
of Conclusions from report of the National *
Lawyers Committee
gmaws Vglhiohtgeli S h b W B
ow to eet e ssue— peec y .E. orah ‘, . . .
The American Bar-The Trustee of American They that gwe up essential hbertv
. Institutions-Speech by Albert C'. Ritchie V to obtain a little temporary safety de»
FaBiea7r;a1S;¢Z1s}l?s)r;/1d1n the New Deal-Speech by wwe neither liberty my safetyj.
The People’s Money-Speech by Dr. W. E. Spahr ...B¢mjamm Fydnklm
Legislation-By Coercion or Constitution-
Speech by Jouett Shouse
` Recovery by Statute-Speech by Dr. Neil
The Imperilment of Democracy-Speech by Fitz-
gerald Hall _ V ERI
The Test of Citizenship-Speech by Dean Carl 9* an C44,
W. Ackerman Y  
Today’s Lessons for Tomorrow-Speech by Cap- `__ ;" `§
tain William H. Stayton E _  ,   5*
“Breathing Spells"—Speech by Jouett Shouse s   g,
The Duty of the Lawyer in the Present Crisis- . 'Ify L9"
Speech by James M. Beck r
The Constitution and the Supreme Court-
Speech by Borden Burr
The Economic Necessity in the Southern States
for a Return to the Constitution-Speech by
Forney Johnston
Our Growing National Debt and Inflation- AMERICAN LIBERTY LEAGUE
Speech by Dr. E. W. Kemmerer . IH ’
Inflation is Bad Business—Speech by Dr. Neil Natwna °“dq““"e”
NATIONAL pnsss Burrmue   rk · *
I l Document No. 81
December, 1935

l the United States helps to prevent excesses by
· · the party in power.
Altoraatlvoo to tho Amcmcau I 7. Parliamentary government is eliminated
V l entirely or weakened to such anlextent as to
. Forlll of Government `   give dictators unrestricted authority.
* · f 8. Private property is abolished under Com-
  munism and made subject to the whims of
Communism in Soviet Russia, Fascism in Italy   lllo_ rliiovolfnlnonll under Faoololn and Nallonal
and National Socialism in Germany offer object   Soola lam- _ 1 _ _
lessons in present-day governmental trends}; ; ungérlnggfsgu  Zilgonelglxegggd ogggglvégzd
The theories underlying each have somet ing l . - . . . . '
in common with the regimentation of industry   ololn_ and Nallonal Soolallolng Wllll oonooqllollll
and agriculture which has been attempted in the   ;`§5;l`l$llXlmo€lr;(;;llgIlll{;’1lg;·nlgL lnlllallvo ollal“aolol"
U `t d St tes. As extreme examples of dictator- ; . . ‘ .
shlipse, thea governments of the three European   f lll Planllln§ nasdlalloll llof lglgovlllilo adnanaooa
countries show what might be the ultimate re- ol? ooonolnlo l S lln ol` any o _o ll l`oo lolalon
sult if steps already taken in the United States ;lIl;12oz)fol?i\;°£; o1ao;ol`Iag;l1§E~€g10W€P1¤g of the Stand-
_ are pursued to their logical end. _ . . ‘.
Constitutional inhibitions in the United States _ ll- Tllo Vallnloll olllnlnallon ol llnolnllloylnonl
stand as a bar to a government which would A; ln ai; ngllyn Wllooo ooonoinlo Polloloidalgl WhollY
follow the exact pattern of any of the three. l Coll lo o _lo as lnoanlng ooo as Won o llnoln‘
Nevertheless, the legislation already enacted has   plllylnollll ln a ollaln gang-
brought about an extraordinary centralization of z _ _
power. If those parading as "economic planners" l RUSSIHH C0mmun1sm
are able to throw off the restraint of the courts, I I d. .d Z R. ht Th U , f S _ S
they will at once become an all-powerful group   . lll tag mb], lgh S` of zlllontg ovlol tho'
and exercise. complete dominance over the eco- I lllalo .€pll lcs ao}-lono al` ol` _an anY o ol`
nomic Order The price paid by the Am€I.ica_n nation 1n the world in the assumption of control
' · · f all economic activities. Necessarily under
people would be the relinquishment of the O . . . . ·
_ liberties which are a vital part of their heritage. Sllclla .SYSl€lll> llldlvlllllals alo Slllllool lo lnolo
The three alternatives to the American form lleglllilcllolls lllal; glllywllollo tiloa f Tllo llllolglloo
of governmentabout which the most is known W lll alo allllep 9 as a llla ol O llollloo ln, ·o
by reason of actual experience are Communism, Ullll?‘l Slalfs lll€15lOnj0oXlS;°1onl· Tllgo Alnolloan
Fascism and National Socialism. Consequently, noon o Slnlp Y Coll . no. on lllo ono a, Sllllallon
it is appropriate to ascertain how these go./,€m_ as is the lot of Soviet citizens. In Soviet Russia
ments havehinfringedd upon individual rights lgoe g£Kgl£n1l;ol;llm%o‘§;loi`7}§l;Ll}Doli1oB ghaliolggil illglgfl
which are in erent in emocracy. * ¤ ¤
Examination of the systems now operating in ll; Sllllll lie llllllal?2 what llllusllall load ,alldbYlilll?`ll>
Russia Rely and Germany *l*S“l°§§S ats? a°,§S* cccil€£’c Sccicllcccilliccc ai li.?-lélci lc; TSE
1. In all three governments in ividua rig ts . . . > V .
are subordinated to the wishes of the dictators, glllll lllllllllllvg ll; Eevelep lllollnh, lg lovollng
always described as for the welfare of the nation. lllwll pllolless as a on P allo ln_W lo a Poloon
2_ The democratic priccipic of majority rule l§’;l,l§, f.‘€§§§§§“Ql;llh§@lp§§l2§.,l’,l§,Y§lEj$,§’l§l§ll lllll
's i nored in each of the three. . l . ·
1 3% Imprisonment, exile and even assassination ,0uf_;l`llgl%leC§;1OI§;l;fg}hTllQl;o dll§lSll€{°n;nll;;£lgéll fig;
are employed to overcome opposition. l . . . . . .
4_ Suppression Of free Speech and 3 free press ( Fascism and National Socialism 1S publ1c_owner-
is universal. p I   og 15.nd and ofdthec meanlsl of produlction apld
5. Education is restricted to a training of ls l"l.“ l°ll lll. lll no l`y· . ello Wo avo l o
youth along the lines desired by the govern- , Mlllllxlllll Sllllslllllllll fel QallllllllSlll· The uslrll"
ments. ( lp/lus valuei _the capitalistic Oproiit of which
6. Abolition of opposition parties makes it   llllx °.°llll° Ellllllllz no longol elllala Tllo Wolkols ”
impossible for Citizens to Express themselves On   theoretically receive the full fruits of their labor,
_ political issues and removes the factor which in l blll the lllllolllll Ol Such llllllo lo Woollllly Small-
. 1

 It requireS little Study, tl1€1`€f01"e» te reach the government. If considered desirable from the
conclusion that American workers as 21 eleee standpoint of general welfare, goods may be sold .
would not ehenge Plaees with Sewet W0I`ke1"e· below cost of production, the government meet-
In Russia those who had accumulated P1‘0l2‘ ing the loss. Industries are financed both by
erty P1‘101` to the chhense lrrhgevernment had It Subsidies and by credit from the government-
l`;3k€I]. Biwaiy fI`OH] li BIH. 16 PYOCCSS W3»S EIC- Owned bankS_
eompenied by e1101`111011S losses and Weeee as ee Economic planning, which has been developed
irresponsible gover£menth?SSurne€ 0011t1“§0{l- f in greater detail than in any other country, is
Tcrrorizat·ion——T e rut eSS ex e1`111111& 1011 0 entrusted to a state planning commission the
· all opposition to the Soviet regime $g11tg111eS· so-called Gosplan, under a Council of Labor and
Not only is it hazardous to er1t1e1Ze e _0111· ; Defense. The plans for the development of in-
munist Party from outside its ranks but it is t dustry ul-G transmitted to the trusts and COm_
equally dangerofis for gnglmbers of ttle lpeféy to j bipatilolns éhroiigh iéhe guprplme Ecmanornto Coun}
dISS€I1'l'» fI`OII1 po ICIGS O ~ OSB 1Il CCH I`O . .0ID-   gi _ g gsp an ggj gs f, g num gy g {gong O
munist leaders out of sympathy Wlth P1`eV9»1l1¤g   steel to be produced, the number of tractors to be
policies have been summarily eXee11te€l dt11‘111g   manufactured and other similar matters. There
the past year. Tl1011§&11f?lS 0; Pe1`S01r}_Si1heV§t_&)ee1H   are subsidiary planning sections in the Supreme
iled to Siberia an e se-W ere. e 8- 1 11 e » Economic Council, which is the People’s Com-
tigward the kulaks, small farm oWnerS who 1`e‘ i, missariat for Industry, and also in other Com-
eisted collectivizatiorndhas bein eSp1ee1?lg’ Seyec1i;°>·   missariats such as those for Trade and Transport.
Similar policies coul not e a op e 111 _e t More than 70 per cent of the population of the
UHIt€d Si38.t€S Wltl'1OI1t l1pI‘0Ol31I1g Bill i3l‘1€ i3I‘8.d1- E Sgvjgig Union jg On   f&rmS_ In ggpjgulturg gg
tions of American life. _ _ { in industry it is part of Communist theory to
political Methods,-The Soviet government 1S F operate in large units. Quite rapidly the collec-
a dictatorship of the proletariat. •The system of T tuuzutjuu uf ugluuuituru has guuu fOrW&rd7 up_
Soviets provides for representation H1 reglenal posing elements being "liquidated" by force.
bodies and in the Union Congress of Soviets. g Minor concessions have been made to individual-
But the voting system is such as to make the 1 istic desires of the peasants. Ninety per cent of
peasanltts donninant hovgr 1og’1;§1Se%?g;e€hlp£gSit)li; “ the cultiwiatedt lpnipl is occupied by collective,
one-pa y sys em w 10 p n _ ~ communa or s a —e arms.
for any group of individuals to_organ1ze a move- The workers in industry and in agriculture in
ment in opposition tothe policies of the govern- Russia have a status which would be repugnant
ment, Democratic pgincipges are unk§qoWn._ Free to Americans accustomed to opportunities for
speech is banned an ’ suc press as _ ere is can . individual effort and advancement. Each worker
exist only as the mcguthrlplnece pif {she gictgtoriehlpé · ngust perform the task assigned to him and at
Economic Contro .——- e w 0 e in us ria an . t e compensation fixed for him.
· agricultural system is in the hands of the gov- t Results-—In spite of a good many years of
ernment. Industry is handled through trusts I economic planning the Soviet Union has not suc-
and combinations owned byhthée govprgment. l ccedrid in obtaining a standard of living for its
The economic system in t e ovie mon was i peop e compara le to that of western European
reorganized in 1921, factories then existing being   countries or the United States. While unem-
distributed among a number of trusts which i ployment has been done away with as might be
were in turn divided among syndicates and later   true of any nation with complete control of all
among combinations. The1Suprenie Epgncgimii ‘ gconomglc activities, the standard of living has
Council was given genera contro wi na cecine during the depression even below its
authority over the combinations and trusts. The I previous pitiable level.
Council nominates the directors of the combine- Q The mistakes of "planning" have been quite
tions which in turn name directors of the trusts   as costly in Russia as have "uncontrolled" events
which in turn select directors of the factories. i in other countries. In spite of a program for an
' The Council also acts as a connecting link be-   increase in agricultural production, there are
tween various industries and has general super- thoroughly authenticated reportsithat each year
. vision over the distribution of pronts and losses. a large number of people die of starvation. There
Profits above percentages allotted for capital have been abnormally large losses of foodstuffs
extension and other special purposes go to the t on account of poor management, inefficiency and
4 5

 carelessness in government administration. Enor- d}‘>Sh`€S n1¤St he SnPPl`eS>S>ed by nn all‘P0Wel`llll
mous discrepancies exist between the goals for h1€1`a1`0h10al geyernrnent; _
agricultural production set up in the first and _ Educati0n.——Mussol1n1 has made edu0&t10n»
second Five Year Plans and actual accomplish- ineefer ne it han te de Wlth the Shalnng ef the
ments. Industrialization of Russia has made 0ha1`a0t€F and 1€lealS ef yenth, a nl0n0P0ly ef the
substantial progress. Many of the objectives of State The eletnentaty and Sewlidary schools
the first Five Year Plan with respect to indus- are need hy_the i·‘}.’0yel”nInent t0l` the dlSSennna‘
trial production were realized. The makers of t10n ef FaS01St PI`0Paganda· The h0yS and gn`lS
the Plan, however, failed to comprehend the ex- are giyen ne 0PP0l"tunlty he learn anythlng
pansion of transportation facilities which would edYeree_ te Fneeiem- An eeth TnnSt he taken by .
be necessary. Distribution of industrial and nn1VeI`Slty Pl`0feeS0l`e he nlalhtalh leyelty he the
agricultural products became clogged as a result. Fneelejv Yegllne and te 1nen1eete_Fnee1et_1dee1S ln
There were serious miscalculations also with re- the minds ef §tnd€ntS· JuSt ne in RnS_Slan C0Yn·
spect to the mechanism of industrial costs, in- nnln{SYn and in German Natl0nal S00lahSnl» the
cluding wages and prices. Real wages of workers Fascists hold it to be an_essent1al function of
did not advance as the planners supposed they 4 gevernrnent te 1nSt1llth0 faith ef the rnhne gl"0nP
would. The currency system failed to operate ln the lnlndS_ ef the Ylelng genel`atl0n·
as intended “ The training of Italian youth 1S such as to
Altogether, economic planning in Russia offers i make wer aPPea{` lneyltahle and eyen deSn`ahle
little which could be helpful in e solution of   rether then eysndehle end ehnexlene- leeele
Ameriean prehiems The Russian experienee drilled 1nto Ital1ans_of all ages 1nclude_m1l1tary
domongtraltos   gi planned ooonolny iS not an Ob€d1€DC€ 3.Dd S3iCI`1l."lC€ fOI'   F3iSC1Sl`i Sl`i3lZ€.
nntemntie panaooah Military and Fascist training is now given to
_ 1,500,000 boys between the ages of six and eight
as preliminary to the regularmilitary training
Italian Fascism which is given to boys between the ages of eight
and fourteen and also between the ages of 18
Individual Rights.—According to Fascist the- and 22%- Elghteen ni0nthS_ ln the regular al`nly
ory, law, order and efiiciency are more desirable lell0WS the hnal tralnlng Pel`l0d and enheeqnently
than the liberty of the individual. Development ten _y€aI`S ef S€I‘V10€ With the I`€S€I`V€S nre
of a finer type of individual is claimed through l`eQtln`ed·_ i _ _ _
the supremacy ofthe government over activities Aeeerdlnate Mneeehnt "Wer hnnge ent nh I
of citizens, the baser tendencies otherwise being hlnnan enel"€lee_t0 a lnaxnnllln tenelen and Pla0eS
likely to gain the ascendancy. Citizens do not the Seal ef nehihty en the Pe0Ple Wh0 here the
gain true personality and freedom by giving ex- 00tn`age te feee _lt·” _ _ _ _
pression to their individual inclinations and Under l“eStl`l0tlVe P0h0leS epnhed he ednennen
. capacities but rather by submerging themselves end he pnhhe expreeeien hy e highly eennnhzen
in family, church and above all the state. Such and_ all·l00We1ffnl severnment, the freedom 1S
rights as individuals possess are those conferred laeklng Whleh le ne0eeSal`y fer the tnlleSt deVel0P·
_ npen them by the gevernmenh The Wil] of an ment of cultural life, Italy has failed to produce
individual in political matters counts for noth- 0tltStandlng hgtn"eS ln Seleneei hteI`attn"e and aft
ing unless it coincides with that of the ruling llndenthe Fneelet Tegnne- _ _
powers. The pntiie interest eivveye must ent- _ Pehheet Methede- he helleVee> le ene Whelelh i
governmental authority, offers amarked contrast eh el`lehoel`eeY ef mhelhgehoe eho morehty T
to American democracy in which political power seyerne- Thle lhheh group llhdel the Feeeiet d00‘
is restricted by individual rights and government trlne lhlleh he delnlhated by en elltetandlng
V is designed in the interest of the individual wel- leader er dletelolh _ _
fare. Under the Fascist doctrine all individual ln keeplhg Wlhh Feeeleh theery Perllalnehtary .
5 ~ 7

 government has been largely abolished. Instead ownership of property is useful as part of their
of the Chamber of Deputies as formerly con- economic structure because of the incentive to
stituted, there is a corporative parliament repre- productive activity. At all times, however,
senting not local constituencies but official groups owners of property must subordinate their in-
created by the government and controlled dividual interests to the national welfare. If the
through the Fascist party which is legally a government chooses it may at any time inter-
part of the governmental structure. All opposi- vene. Such intervention may take the form of
tion parties were dissolved in 1926. Prison sen- supervision, promotion or direct management.
tences await any who dare to attempt the revival If private owners fail to use their property in
of other parties. Members of the Fascist party the public interest it may even be confiscated.
must take an oath to follow without question the Industry and AgricuZture.——Italian industry is
orders of Il Duce. A breach of party discipline organized into what is known as the Corpora-
means expulsion from political life. tive State. The system includes syndicates,
As part of the policy of suppression of individ- I which are associations of employers and em-
ual liberties, moral intimidation and physical ployees; corporations, which are agencies some-
compulsion are used on behalf of the govern- what comparable to the NRA code authorities
ment. Criticism of the government and the with supervisory power over groups of industries;
spreading of what are regarded as false or exag- 4 and a National Council of Corporations with
gerated views are criminal offenses. Crimes of ‘ supreme authority over the whole structure. In-
this character are tried before a special tribunal   dustry is completely regimented. Wages and
chosen by Il Duce from military officers. The prices may be fixed. Strikes are prohibited, labor
procedure of a court martial is followed. Op- courts being provided for settlement of disputes
position to Fascism by an Italian residing abroad involving workers.
may be penalized by deprivation of citizenship Each corporation is a governing authority for
and seizure of property. a section of economic life. Regulation of costs,
A free press is unknown in Italy as in other prices, imports and exports and planning of pro-
countries ruled by dictatorships. The govern- duction and distribution come within the exten-
ment controls rigidly the policies of all pub`- sive powers of the corporation. Every action
lishers of newspapers, magazines and books. within the system of syndicates and corporations,
Directors of the publishing companies must be however, is subject to approval by the National
approved by the government. Contributors to Council of Corporations which in turn is subject
publications must be registered and approved. to the dictatorship of Mussolini. Banking opera- ·
. The journalists are organized in government- tions and foreign exchange are under strict
controlled syndicates. Socialist and liberal peri- control. .
odicals have been prosecuted and suppressed. Agriculture is embraced within the scope of
Strict censorship is exercised. Even foreign news- the Corporative State. The Fascist position is
papers which do not meet the approval of the that small farms are out of date and incom-
Dictator are banned. The policies pursued in patible with the best interests of agriculture and
matters of this character would be intolerable in the progress of humanity. The agricultural pro-
the United States. gram is designed to provide self-sufficiency in
Economic Theories.-All economic questions the supply of cereals and includes the reclama-
are treated by the Fascists from the standpoint tum ef marsh lu»udS fer uS€ in agricultural PI`0‘
of national utility. The nation rather than the duction.
j individual is properly concerned with the produc- RcsuZts.—The economic planning under Fas-
tion and distribution of wealth. The doctrine of cism has not averted the hardships of depression.
laissez-faire (non—interference by the govern- Wages and salaries have gone down while the
ment in economic affairs) is repudiated. Fascism, ,. cost of living has not decreased to the same ex-
however, does not go to the Socialistic extreme tent. Public finances have been in a precarious
of public ownership. position and the balance of trade has been un-
While private ownership of property continues favorable. Such showing of prosperity as has
in nay, Fascism refuses to recognize as sm- been made bee been peeeibie tbrensb the serene
assailable private rights to property which exist ment’s manipulation of prices and a suppression
in the United States and are protected under our of information as to unemployment, destitution
Constitution. The Fascists believe that private and bankruptcies.
8 9

 iG€rman National Socialism death of von Hindenburg, approval being given
_ ‘ in a plebiscite vote.
Individual Riyals--·'l`he hihhhshphy af..Na" Germany is a one-party nation like Russia
tional Socialism lll G€I`1’D3»I1y 3S to ii'idiVlell·l9·l and Italy The Nazi party is the only legal
liberties is much like that of Italian Fascism. one_ Ai] others were albolighgdu The eleetieh
It rejects the theery lhah the highest ahhh le the system is farcical. In such elections as are held
community will result from freedom of l 1nd1v1d- ‘ the peopie have only the ehoiee gf yetjug {ey the
uals to further their own economic 1nterests. Nazi oandidates or against there Of cgursg,
T he ihleleeie ef the hhlhmhhhy, hahah always they may also fail to vote. Needless to say, the
have preference over thoseof individuals. The Nazi party is able to perpetuate jf,Sglf_
denial of liberties to individuals in the interest Hundreds of newspapers have been suppressed
of the state is similar te the Pllhelple Plevalhhg since Hitler came into power. They were either
ih Rheeiah Cemmhhlsm es Wah as lh hahah crushed by the government or their circulation
Fascism. Neither National Socialism nor Fas- dropped so that they had to suspenet The
cism, h0WeVe1`, abeliehee Pi“iVaie Pi`ePel`lYg as newspapers are not permitted to publish any-
dees Ceihh"lhhlSIh> Oh esierts the Shhlahahc · i thing adverse to the government. As part of
scheme of public ownership ei_all eeeehiiial lh‘ the relentless persecution of Jews there is a rule
dustries. National Socialism, in fact, 1S more that newspapers rnay be published only by
” like Fascism than Mai`Xiah Seeialiehh _ _ partnerships whose members can prove that their
Ruthless Toctics.—Suppression of all opposi- " own and their WiVee» ·¤Ai.yen» descent eeee back
tion has been ruthless. After Hitler gained con- to 1g()()_ One exeuse for suppression of news,
trol the leaders of the political oppos1t1on were papers, is ggmpgtjtign with Nazi ergehe A11
jailed OY eehi te eeheehliaiieh (lamps- The same newspaper writers must belong to a Nazi asso- .
Peliey Wae fellewed with respect te trade umeh ciation and the law stipulates the spirit in which
leaders. DiSe0Vei`Y ef an alleged Plel amehg they must write. Radio broadcasts as well as
Siiefm TYOOP leaders et the ehd ef Julie, 1934, the press are under strict governmental control.
Wee followed by the summary eheelihg ef ahaha All of the legal framework of government
80 persons. Afterwards e law adopted by the domination is in line with tho ideal of o "totali-
C3.blI1€h pI'OVQlCl.€Cl   "the IDGBSUYGS executed tg_{·i3,]_·i" State Whgrgin Organizations and in-
fer the Puipeee ef eiuehiiig the treitereus ailaeke dividuals exist only for the furtherance and
of June 30 and July 1 and 2 against the state glerjheatjeu gf fhg State
and the nation are hereby legalized as in self- Edu.eet?jen_...The edueatieha] System het ehly
J defense of the state}? is designed to inculcate Nazi ideals in the
Political M ethods.——The purpose has been to younger generation but tends to encourage mili-
concentrate all authority in the government of tarism. Military training is a necessary part of
the Reich. The former federal government of education. Obedience, order and a sense of the `
Germany has been transformed into a unitary common interest of Nazi Germany are held to
government. The former government was a be best taught by military training.
federation of states as in the United_States. The Nazi government has undertaken a re-
T Early in the Nazi regime the powers of the fed- organization of education as one of its primary
erated government were weakened by decrees concerns. Through education an attack is being
that gave the central government more author- made upon what is regarded as the cancer of
ity. This step of the process corresponds to Marxism, liberalism and democracy, the three
, what has taken place in the United States. The · being equally obnoxious to Nazi ideals. Students
s Nazi Reichstag later passed a law transferring are taught that the welfare of the community
the sovereign powers of the states to the federal precedes the welfare of the individual. Educa- .
government. The legislative functions of the . tion is directed less to the development of the
states were abolished. The Reichstag completed intellect than to the strengthening of the emo-
» the creation of the dictatorship through a law tions leading to loyalty, self-sacrifice and acqui-
i setting aside the Constitution and giving Hitler escence in the will of the state. Scholars and
. blanket power for four years. Civil rights of universities are agents of the government and
citizens guaranteed by the Weimar Constitution are denied the right of freedom of research.
i were suspended. Powers of the President were i Appointments to professorships in universities
J assumed by Chancellor Hitler following the are under the control of the Minister of Educa-
L 10 11

 . . ‘ t't -
tion. Academic freedom such as pigvails in the glooiglvgggfglglave been tested under our com 1 u
United States is now unknown in ermany. _ , · . h ,0 d
  Trrrrrrr-—rruurrrrv rrd rrrrrurrurr ~ r..lt£SI$.§t§y£‘§€1i§g`€i`§$r§e§§’ tféi? Niiiiiii
are mgimented to Serve the best Interests pf-the Socialism the statistics are misleading. Unem-
nation. There are no constitutional restrictions ploymemf ee the beginning ef the Hitler rule
as in the United States against complete control totaled about 6 ooo ooo reeent emeiel figures
of all economic activities. While private owner- Showing e 1_edue,eieu’te leee thee 1750 ooo In_
Ship. uf property. is p€rmitt€d.’ the govemmgnt dustry has been forced to put more, meh to work
mmms the pmvllege ur rrrrrrrrr rr appliovmg than are actually needed. Workers between the
the directorates of corporations. The Nazi gov- eeee ef 16 end 25 heve been removed from un_
ernment is aiming toward self-sufficiency and employment reeieeere end Sem te uveluntery
has adopted _a foreign trade P011<>Y <¤0¤S1StSnl? Soyvjcg ca,mpS_" Women workers and JGWS have
rrrrh nz-St1°nal1Sm‘ Exports are held rr rr drr been dismissed in large numbers and their places
Slmblg m rurrrirrrur VOIUIPG ru pay for HSGGSSMY given to German men. The lists of unemployed
Imports ur eww lrgaterlag {The f8’gT1cl,£t;§? 1 . have been further reduced by the elimination of
§ii°?`§’t’2°SSZ.“L1§€E”§t°cZt$%§”°c`t‘§tZ§’5Lt?0tpEi°..“bef”   rrrrrur rruurr rruurdgd rr grrruid ’u;,’°hr §°"‘  
. ‘ ` ernment. Large num ers o wor ers ave een
?m°‘°’ betwgen Sify and .°°““§rYd”r“d befweerfz   placed on farms during the harvest period, the
1I%dE1§tYY 2IY;gm%§Y§§g;;YS IS Sr lm arnrrrrrr PS r farmers supplying food and lodging am; the gov-
0 G GC 1 · ernment paying a greater part of t e wages.
Industry cmd Agriculture.——German industry Ohh k · 1 on 1 ed
is regimented under the control of the Minister !iStS€f1amOIg€gI{Fagggréggsirq pilélic §rO;1&€;g·I;j(;}étS·
of Industry. All industries must be in the hands The nrioo of tho absorption of tho unemployed
of individuals who will put the interest of the has been oe doonno in the Standard of nvinge
state above that of the stockholders. While Th h · {tn kh { d 1 ‘ {
Hitler and other leaders have sought to en- Wage; ariggogito §fW;`vor;;o;;;T B§01?t§%gD.1§0?d
courage private initiative in business, the party prices down tho tondonoy noo boon upward.
program advocates abolition of unearned in- Finnnooo of tho Gonnon government oro in o
comes, the nationalization of big business and precarious condition. Unomnloymonn rodnonon,
d€PSYJ°m‘?€l? Sl?OI`€S» the °§¤§§°StigH1,‘€§ lan? fur made work and rearmament have been expensive
commu? Y PUYPOSSS an S S 0*101* 0 m' and have necessitated borrowing. Loans have
YSYSSS SISYSYYJ Thr? _=‘%€°Y€mmSnJ° COm1`O1S_7O been obtained by commandeering the resources
SYS Sm- cial institutions. Such budget statistics as are
ThS GSI'm9~¤ SOVSYHITISUJ6 has POWSY to YS- blished ar misleadin and unintelli 'ble.
strict new factories, machinery and investments, pu 9 g gl
establish new cartels, control prices and regu- S
late profits. Amalgamation and reorganiza- V Democracy .
tion of associations and trade groups have been The United States is the outstanding demo-
takrngeplaccf vvlncht will lit into thc scheme for cratic nation of the world. The form of democ-
regu a ion o in us_ry. racy provided under our Constitution has stood
Strikes are prohibited and German workers the test of wars, domestic strife and depressions
must submit to the wage scales and working con- i over a period of nearly a century and a half.
d1t1ons decreed by_ councils in the government- The rights, privileges and opportunities of
controlled corporat1ons. Property of labor unions democracy have become an ingrained part of the
has been seized., The laboring groups have no _ lives of the American people. The nation has
such freedom to demand their rights as in the prospered under the policy of freedom from rigid
United States. economic control. Other nations with different
ResuZts.—Just as in Russia and Italy, the governments have Similarly been affected by
economic planning of Nazi Germany has failed W01"ld‘WidS fnrrrs nf d€PI`SSSiOn· _
to grapple successfully with the world-wide de- Rrrrrr trends foward urrrrruirrrad arul*hOYitY»
pression. German methods of dealing with eco- mg?t(§ntat1°nf Qfdtniiustry. and. agrlculturer and
nemie prebleme heve nee preved Superior to cur ai ment o in 1v1dual liberties, all character-

 istic of Communism, Fascism and National So-
cialism, represent a departure from de