xt7wwp9t379x https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7wwp9t379x/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1945 journals kaes_circulars_004_407_02 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 407 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 407 1945 2014 true xt7wwp9t379x section xt7wwp9t379x , i V . - ”
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CONTENTS I 10
is 1
·1 Page
SPECIES AND VARIETIES ................ . ................. 3 "
WHAT VARIETIES TO CHOOSE ............................ 5 ml
LESPEDEZA FOR PASTURE .....,.......................,.. 6 Q K0
ilIl1
LESPEDEZA FOR HAY ................................,.... 7
A 1*:11
" SEED PRODUCTION ...............................A....... 9 A
HARD SEEDS .............................................. 11 A ""
lllt
GERMINATION (VIABILITY) OF LESPEDEZA SEED ,....... 12 A no
SEEDING PRACTICES ..........................,........... 12 I dc
INOCULATION .........,................................... 13   ml
ENEMIES OF LESPEDEZA ...............................AA A 14 W
_ 1:11
WHAT TO SOW WITH LESPEDEZA ........................A A 15 on
LESPEDEZA IN THE ROTATION .........................A A 16 _ H11
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{Egg   By E. ]. Kmuny. RAt.1·n Knuxtzv, and   N, Fmzeus       Q
  if Lespedeza, chiefly Korean, alone or with grasses, was grown on t {  
  `  about 8 million acres in Kentucky in 1944-at least four times the     i,
   `V total acreage of all other legumes. Most of this large acreage has f  
,    been developed during the past 10 years. As acreage of other legumes l   "  
Y;   i has not fallen off, the 8 1nillion acres of lespedexa are a net gain in    
   V the legume acreage of the state. , . {
  Q  Lcspedeza is popular for several reasons. It meets the need for Q ['
    a pasture legume, especially on the poorer soils; it provides a valuable l y . f
   ¤ hay crop; it seldom fails to make a stand; and it seeds abundantly. . , if
   l lt can be grown with some success on almost any soil. even a much- .
  ~- depleted soil. This last feature, however, is not so great an advantage ‘
   .· iu the long run as might seem at hrst thought. For a few years lespe» y
 { dexa tnay give fair returns, and crops following it may yield better "
 c than formerly because of the nitrogen added to the soil by the legume _ ,
 ~ tmp. In time, however, the soil will become too exhausted even for A
  lespedeza, if the crop is removed and no manure or fertilizer is re- · 1 ;
  turned. This should be understood and every effort. should be made ; ii
  to supply the needed soil-improving materials before such a stage  
~ is reached. y `  
Page — 1 ,· {
. 3 _l SPECIES AND VARIETIES _ i A
5  ; The lespedezas of most importance in Kentucky are of three dis· Q i K
`   llltet Species, “Common lespedeza" generally known as _]apan clover, ·l
t. 6  G l{01`C?tn lespedeza, and the perennial Lespedeza sericea. Tennessee 76 .i  
M 7  _. and Kobe are giant varieties of Common, and Harbin is a dwarf  
 _ variety of Korean. I
·· 9 , (lonunon lespedeza has been abundant on wasteland, old pastures.
__ 11  _ ¥‘Htt. _  allf
and consequently the plants appear earlier in the spring. lts ezttlt [*0]
growth is much more rapid than that of other varieties; hentc tl   ma
furnishes somewhat earlier grazing. The seed ripens about tltttt  A illsl
° weeks earlier than seed of common or Kobe. All varieties of comtiittt
drop their leaves when killed by frost, but the leaves of Korean ittt · Us
retained most of the winter.  A UO
Harbin lespedeza matures much earlier than Korean and tlr .i  KO
plants are much smaller. It is not a valuable legume in Kentud<\· 1 A
Lespedeva sericca is a true perennial form, How long a sttttttl  A elif
A will last doubtless depends much upon the way the crop is used. -l I  
stand harvested for seed each year has been known to last as lm'!  { [ml
as lll years. but it is doubtful whether stands ettt l`ot· hay or pztstttttll A  (lll
will last that long. A·  
Though sericea has been available to Kentucky farmers let ·’ . im
number of years. few have adopted it. In competition with annual  » KC
lespedeza and other legumes it has failed so far to make an i1np01`€T*‘l[ i, I),.
place for itself. It is not entirely winter hardy in Kentucky. §‘€lA‘l  _ QC
seldom winterkills badly. lt begins growth much later in the S]>Y*'l*   [hy
} .

 t   tit
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  I    
  l,l·`Sl‘FI)l·`7.·\ tx Kt=N’ruct<>li* _ ings with small grain. After the plants are up, they seem to be very _   l'
l>€ mt  V tlrouth resistant, and are able to compete remarkably well with weeds.   4
`lt L -
lgfljfc, i WHAT vAtztE1·t¤s T0 ct-toosz t
ortltt A All but a small fraction of the lespedeza grown in Kentucky is l
. Korean, undoubtedly the most generally useful variety for this state.
tnattt A While it does not differ much from other kinds of lespedeza in adap- . ’ i
out rt, i lation to soil and other conditions, it produces far more seed than 3 .
,ml,;,tt .i any other variety, with the possible exception of sericea. The impor-   I
tl, tht _. tance of good seeding habits in a forage crop can scarcely be over- At
lslcr Q  i emphasized. It assures plenty of seed at a relatively low price. Korean ‘ t' l
S form lespetleza is not only a heavy producer of seed, but it is also depend- ‘ i ‘ l
lose ttl A i\l>l€. Except in rare instances the seed ripens in all parts of the state A   A
c(,,·t·;;tt _ €Hl`ly enough to escape early frost (which is not true of other varieties},   f - ·
tntttott. _  and even in very dry years fair yields are obtained where soil condi- T t, t
5 wrlt ll0llS are favorable. The seed crop can be harvested more readily by t    
mu. tt   machinery than that of other varieties, with less loss by shattering. It Q
; tltttt  V also ripens early enough to permit seeding small grain in the stubble. -
ttnttttn V Another reason for the popularity of Korean lespedeza with farm-
·att att » urs is the ability of the seedlings to grow with nurse crops and other ·
 A crops. Consequently it is a good practice to include a few pounds of
ntl tht A ‘  Korean seed in pasture and hay mixtures.
mm.tt_  1 There are possibly some conditions where Kobe, Tennessee 76 or A ‘
I Smml OVW Common lespedeza rnay prove more desirable than KOYCHIT. lil y {
SMA _\   CXP€1`l1T1ents with comparable stands, Kobe, Tennessee 76. and Korean ~ i
is tam  A h*“`€ §lVGn about the same average yields of hay. The total pasturage i ‘
ymlmtl  A fllmlsltetl also is probably about the same. Korean furnishes e21l‘liC1`
 . Waxing. The other varieties remain palatable later in the fall, but
A I-An. A, `A fills l$ 110t of great importance where mixtures of grass and lCSpCCl€Z2\
mmm;  A A2§AA¤S€edezu. For good yields o[ hay, lespedeza requires [airly good soil. How- . i,
who, ~ ever, lair yields may be obtained on less productive soil by using phos- {  
lmm-, phate fertilizers, and very good yields from the use of both lime and ;  
F, mm. phosphate. On limestone soil at the \*Vestern Kentucky Substation, ; ‘;
T is to 1111 average of 1,285 pounds of hay was produced annually in a corn, _   A
, U, i Wheat, lespedeza rotation during a l2-year period, without liming or   ii y
Scveml t li€1`iiliZil1g. Applying 250 pounds of 20-percent superphosphate per E  
rimtwl MPG on the corn and wheat crops increased the yield of lespedeza » · ; iii
perror, hay to 2,406 pounds per acre. Land that received 4 tons of limestone l   ¥ Q
Thin during the period, in addition to the superphosphate, produced an V 2 Mi
mic or ?*"€Y¤g€ yield of 3,634 pounds of hay per acre. Fertile bottomland is   ’  
dem i<   li  
oecauit ff     _ ,  
l week 2, G1, y ‘
src tht   ;_  .» ?
¤- W       ·· »   ,.     <‘‘·      i =; ·    '
im a   + t
o·i»»i·»··  ~ -   + <  —= i      , E
t   -‘`· T*EZT’Y‘” "`. °‘»” `   l t  
.   ·····.· A  ~   :·;#§·¤ ~ .2¢,::e·/%·#.»¤1‘i;;~ as  »=€.¤:?v—,·>·. as   Z ·i¤;       -. i ’
    ctws   l,e‘    
MS “‘“,`. i  F  ·.·.~   ·,~`?   `?QQi’° ‘>·    i ‘
Am- " i  *5 #~t;       ‘ii   .   R   t
umm"     Q  2             _·_» » `, ‘
:(l,   I     _--Y; q` V'. gg V ·. ly       N Z ·   'I-I   A _     .:2* ‘ I
[tion fill   ifi ~ ti fr   i_,,  g._,·‘l§   ` _ -'       2 . 1   t Q
,iqul:¤tl*     i‘=-`       Q-Ti ..r· S ~-='     ii·4 ii »   .
lm Om · mm of uma., i .1 Th · ‘ · {
, g on espe ezc. e part in the foreground was hmed,
dH¤lS"’ *h¤t at the buck, next ro the corn, was nov.

 S lixtrxstox (Z1t[’ M
off, thus reducing the value of the hay. Scalding also tends to prevent th:
the formation of new shoots after the hay crop is harvested. Korean -
lespedeza cut 4 or 5 inches high at the blooming stage or earlict. tltt
usually produces new branches from the stems, which mature Cllflllgll M
. seed for reseeding. This is one decided advantage of Korean for l1¤l'· lm
A crop which has not lodged will reseed itself in western Kentuckl act
if cut in very early September. ` p bri
Korean lespedeza produces its Hrst blooms about the middl€ tll ‘ _
August in central Kentucky in normal seasons. lf _]uly is very tlrtl ttl
however, blooming is delayed. Kobe blooms about 2 to 3 weeks lim`; he
consequently, if the latter is cut in the full-bloom stage, it will not set
reseed itself. But reseeding itself is not of great importance in grow rat
ing lespedeza hay, since the cost of seeding is usually not heavy. y gn
J .

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l     r
* l.l]$I‘l€l)IC/.\ IX Kl]N'lU(Zli\` 9   I A
plautl . Sericea lespetleza shottld be cut for hay when abottt l2 to l·l inches i .  
high. lf left much longer, the stems become woody and unpalatablc.      
ce rt- _-\ 4- or 5-inch stubble should be left, as the new shoots come from the E y `!:
good, stem rather than from the crown. The second cutting usually has      
if tht; l une stems and is leafier than the first.   {  
` mm  i Curing the Huy     yy y
·t{]jty_ ’ Lespedeza cures quicker than any other legume hay, which is one    
mm-j. important reason for its popularity. Hay cut in the morning can be ·    
stored safely the following day if conditions are favorable for curing.    
lt may even be baled safely the second day, according to the statement. l ‘ j A  
of some growers. It is the only legtune hay that can be baled from i `,
eedcd the windrow or swath, with little danger of damage in the bale. ` · E ;i
l €l`f’l’ Like all legume hays, the best quality is obtained where most of i Y ·
“’ll€l`*‘ the curing occurs in the windrow or cock. It scarcely pays to cock ,
’€€Ul`$· lespedeza, however, since it cures so quickly. The hay should be
Y hill raked before the leaves become dry enough to shatter—usually 5 or 6 T ,
»’ dill hours after cutting. If the hay has become too dry, raking should be r
his l` ‘ delayed until early the following morning, when enough moisture if
ile Ol will usually have been absorbed to prevent shattering. Sericea should , V
W€;'$*`· he raked before the leaves dry as they shatter very readily in handling.   if
acv1s~ ,
  Yields SEED PRODUCTION y V  
lwhcd Yields of 500 pounds of cleaned Korean seed per acre are not Z '
, unusual under favorable conditions in Kentucky, though the average ·   2
is about 200 pounds an acre. The best yields are usually obtained i  
the second or third year after a held is seeded, but in many instances _‘  
lu full i fair yields of clean seed are obtained the hrst year. A moderately " l f
tewltat thick stand produces much more seed than a dense, thick stand. i
lt it especially if the dense stand has lodged badly, as often happens.
ytlgittg Kobe and common lespedezas produce somewhat lower yields of _
l drop seed than Korean, and Tennessee 76 apparently produces slightly less
reyeut ` than Kobe and common.
Loreatt - Sericea lespedeza blooms late and the seed does not ripen until A
earlier, _ the middle of October or later; consequently early October frosts t
nouglt reduce the yields greatly. Some extraordinary seed yields of sericea  
tr hay. have been reported in Kentucky—as much as 800 to 1,000 pounds an y
atuckr . acre where the crop was planted in rows and cultivated. Yields from
broadcast stands are lower.
dle ol Y h The largest average yields of lespedeza seed are obtained on fer-
—y dnt tile, low-lying land and there is a natural tendency for production to
;latCl`$ l>€ft>me Concentrated in such areas. The production of lespetlelll
ill tt0l wl OT any other farm seed, for that matter, is a job for the specialist
grow rather than for the general farmer. and most commercial seed is ·
g ¥mWll by experienced men on a scale large enough to justify the plll`-

 l0 Extension Cmcucan No. 407
chase ol machinery and other equipment necessary for handling the i (tm
crop most economically and for producing the highest grade of seed. Mi
High-grade connnon. Kobe. and Tennessee 76 lespedeza seed weighs ` bm
28 to 30 pounds per bushel. Korean seed, in the hull, weighs about mj
45 pounds and sericea lespedeza seed about 34 pounds. Hull—less seed the
of Korean and sericea weighs 58 to 60 pounds per bushel. l
1 . lan
. Hurveshng the Seed HSC
The small combine harvester is used to harvest perhaps 95 percent PHE
V of the lespedeza seed in Kentucky. Unquestionably the crop can he ‘ im.
harvested more cheaply with the combine than by any other method. ml.
and less seed is lost by shattering. If the crop is cut and combined ‘ Oui
from windrow it should be handled as little as possible to avoid shat- SCT
tering. Generally the practice is to combine the standing crop alter gm
it is dead ripe. Very little seed is lost when harvesting in this way. {O
Common lespedeza seed is harvested by the use of seed pans im
attached to the cutter bar oll the mower. These are made of metal See
in most instances, although some home-made wooden pans are used. ml
The top of the metal pan is covered with a perforated lid. As the l ESS
crop is cut, a man following the mower pulls the mowed plants over [hi
the pan, and most ol the seed shatters off into the pan. Wlhen the _
pan is full, the seed and chalT are scooped into bags and later cleaned.   U15
Mowers may be htted with reels to drag the cut material across thc [0,
-~ pan and also aid in threshing out the seed. By using such a red hu
one man can do the harvesting. · it
Kobe lespedeza and Tennessee 76 are generally harvested like
Korean for seed. However, seed pans may also be used when the crop
is mowed, in order to save the shattered seed, which may amount lll _
a considerable percentage ol the crop. The combine harvester should lll?
prove especially valuable for harvesting Kobe and Tennessee 76. llc
· Sericea lespedexa lor seed is usually cut with a mower and threslwtl _ (lll
with a grain separator or a combine used as a stationary thresher. Tilt lll
combine thresher is also used to harvest seed from the standing crrlll- l_l'l
though because the seed do Hol. mature at the same time the ripol ‘ lll
seed shatter easily and the green seed are dillicult to loosen lllllll I l“
the plant. gl
The grain separator also may be used to thresh all kinds ol lcS]ll" lll
A deza seed. Small lots of seed lor home use can be Hailed out wlllltllll _ lll
much trouble. Corn shredders may also be used. Sericea lespedezl l
may be threshed with a clover huller. Il
it
Cleaning the Seed  · C;
Most of the commercial seed crop is cleaned in plants where Hlllll  V lll
em power—driven cleaners are in use, with experienced operators lll ‘ lll
charge. These plants do an excellent job ol cleaning and, il a C0ll‘ A l"
giderable amount ol seed is to be cleaned, particularly i[ it conlllllll I lll
gl .

 l t is rg
| ly .,· Ve
I gs     v
lll·ZSl’l·Zl)I€Z;\ ix KI·]N'1`UCKY ll      
· the F dodder, it is best to have the work done by a reliable custom cleaner.   .  
seed. Much seed is sold to dealers and seedsmen without cleaning. The     ji
viglis ` buyers estimate the loss and pay accordingly. Naturally, they usually   jg  
bout make liberal estimates, and it is therefore more profitable to have      
seed the seed cleaned before selling.   { `Qi
i A fairly satisfactory job of cleaning can be done on a good hand ;   1V
fanning mill if the proper screens are used. A slotted top screen or ’    
"scalper" with perforations just wide enough to let the lespedeza seed   .2  
VCCHI pass through removes the larger weed seeds, such as ragweed. The ‘ g  
U bv ` lower screen, or sieve, should have round