xt7x69700k6v https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7x69700k6v/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1935-06 volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Problems in the Organization and Supervision of Instruction", vol. III, no. 4, June 1935 text Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Problems in the Organization and Supervision of Instruction", vol. III, no. 4, June 1935 1935 1935-06 2021 true xt7x69700k6v section xt7x69700k6v     

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Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post Office at
Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

Vol. III .2 June,1935 No. 4







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The new school year begins July 1, and many schools will open
soon after that date. Superintendents will hold pre—term confer-
ences with teachers and principals at which time the problems of
organizing learning will be taken up and the program planned for
the year. In order to assist superintendents in their programs of
organization this Bulletin is devoted to problems relating to the
Organization and Supervision of Instruction.

The materials in Part I were prepared by the members of the
professional staff of the State Department of Education.

The materials in Part II relate to the development of teaching
units in the elementary grades and will be helpful to the teacher in
improving instruction. These materials were prepared by Miss
Ethleen Daniels, Miss Frances K. Martin and Miss Helen Strickland,
of the University of Kentucky training school faculty.

It is my hope that these materials may be useful to the superin— '

tendents and their professional staffs in organizing an enriched pro-
gram of instruction for the children of the Commonwealth.

Superintendent of Public Instruction.


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GORDIE YOUNG, Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction


Each school superintendent of this Commonwealth is in a strate-

Wlu 0P9“ . gic position of leadership at all times. A question always appropri-
1 confer- ate for a person who is in a position of leadership to ask himself is:
blems 0f “Am I fulfilling my leadership responsibilities the best I can?”
nned f01‘ A short time ago Col. Leonard P. Ayers had an article in Forbes
grams Of 011 “What Makes Men Leaders.” In that article he says: “After
3' t0 the much careful observation I have come to the conclusion, that. despite
all the apparent contradictions of observable evidence, there are four
.8 0f the characteristics that are shared in common by almost all real leaders.”
These are listed and discussed in the following order.
teaching ’ 1. Knowledge of the field in which they work—This quality
:acher in serves as a foundation for the other qualities.
by Miss 1 2. Courage—This quality makes one willing to take a chance.
rickland, i 3. Activity—This quality is partly dependent upon the per-
» son’s store of courage. He is continually doing something. If he is
superin— right only part of the time, he is able to get a great deal accomplished.
hed pro- j 4. Ability to influence thc actions of others—This quality

makes one tactful and able to communicate thoughts to others.

. Educational meetings conducted throughout the year provide
one means. of putting into practice these characteristics of a leader.
Lotion. Such meetings may be made to furnish great potential possibilities, all
1 important to the work of teachers. Properly planned, they will influ—
ence the action of others. They may be made to supply some addi-
tional knowledge of a teacher’s field. Much activity should be pro-
Vided for all. All this should develop the comma of many if not all
those attending. '1
. Every school system should have some clearly defined educa-
tional obJectives, understood by the teachers and administrator,
toward which educational effort of the district is being directed in
Order to make Vivid to every teacher the importance of bending; every
efiort toward the realization of these goals. Through, a carefully
Planned series of teachers’ meetings, teachers can be made conscious
of these. educational objectives and the best method of attaining them.
f ‘ It 1_S hoped that the following outline will furnish suggestions
01 making the most out of teachers’ meetings.










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To acquaint the teachers with the state educational program.
To develop unified standards and objectives.

To acquaint teachers with the county program for the year.

To demonstrate new methods, procedures, and organizations.
To help in the understanding and solution of problems that the
group has in common.

For professional stimulation and growth—to give the teacher a
new visionfl‘finner urge”—to attain that new vision,


General meetings, for all. the teachers of the system.

Group meetings on the basis of common problems and interests.
Sectional meetings, these meetings may sometimes include school
boards and even the patrons.

Demonstration—tcaching meetings.

The combination of any two or more of the above.

Note—Exhibits and contests should be considered a part of the
program of educational meetings of the year. They should contrib-
ute to the realization of some of the educational objectives within the
county. If they cannot, their usefulness is doubtful.


Who should do it?




A county educational committee should determine:

(1) The educational objectives for the year.

(2) The approximate number and type of meetings, con-
tests, exhibits, etc.

This committee should be composed of the superintendent,

principals, a small number of selected teachers, the county

farm agent and health officer, etc.

A small executive committee, with the superintendent as .

chairman, should be selected to fix the dates and work out
the details of the meetings.

Administratirc features.






Advertise the meetings well. Keep the objectives of the
meeting before the teachers.

Devote a part of the time of each meeting" to the intereSt ‘

of various groups and provide much teacher participa-

The demonstrations, experiences, and messages should be
those that will contribute to the needs of the group for
which they are planned.

Begin and close the meeting, and each part of the pI‘O'
gram, on scheduled time.

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e) Avoid, as far as possible, distractions, interruptions, etc.
Do not undertake too much at a meeting. Give the speaker
or demonstrator a reasonable amount of time for his
message and try to hold him to that time.

f) Through circulars, conferences, and previous planning,
get the teachers in a state of readiness for the meetings.

g) Plan a method of followup to see it your meetings are
accomplishing what they are planned to accomplish.

11) Every meeting should contribute something in the way of:

(1) Professional growth.

(2) Improved teaching ability.

(3) Better knowledge of the school system.
(4) A greater loyalty to the schools.

(5) General culture.


1. Instruction and discussion as to how to use course of study,
library, supplemental readers, and other helps.
2. Study group of educational problems.

., A directed study of professional literature, professional or edu—
cational changes, etc.


0. J. JONEs, Public School Supervisor

The attention of each teacher should be called to page twenty—one
of the Teachers Manual and Course of Study. This page gives a sug-
gested daily schedule for the one—teacher school with eight grades for
the school year 1935—36. This page should be studied carefully by
each teacher and special attention should be given to the subjects
that are to be taught in the one—teacher schools this .Vear.

. . This suggested daily schedule must be adjusted to suit any con-
ditions existing that are out of the ordinary. For a two-or-more-
teacher school the schedule will be adjusted accordingly and for a
one-teacher school, where the upper grades are given school service
in another building, the length of each recitation period should be
leng’ihened so as to distribute the work over the entire school day.
Each teacher should have the schedule very definitely in mind before
school begins so that she will know what books the children for each
grade are supposed to have. ln the one—teacher schools, for instance,
geography will he taught this year instead of health education and
igl‘lculture.‘ No teacher should make the mistake. of having a. child
my the agriculture book and later be compelled to tell the child the
hook Will not be used this year.






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After a teacher has thoroughy studied the schedule on page!’
twenty—one she should then turn to the discussion of the individuall
subjects, beginning with reading, on page twenty—six. The teacher
should become thoroughly familiar with the aims of each course that
she proposes to teach. it is recommended especially for the begin-
ning teacher that she familiarize herself with the suggestions in the
Teachers Manual for each subject, otherwise she may find she is
putting undue stress on some subject and neglecting others. At the
same time she may find very helpful suggestions that will greatly aid
her in keeping up interest in the subjects she is attempting to teach.

The State Course of Study should be used like a road map to
guide the tourist on his trip. Before school begins the teacher should
determine just what tour she is going to make with her children. She
should then use the Course of Study to determine the best road and
the most interesting points to be covered. if she will use the Course
of Study as it should be used she will be certain to visit the most
interesting points along the route, and will not stay so long at any
one place that she will be compelled to hurry the class past other
interesting points. Of course, she will want to take some side trips
from the main highway, but if she is following her road map she will
be able to determine just how many of these side trips she can talc
and at the same time lead the children over the principal routes by
the time school closes.

The beginning teacher who fails to stay rather close to a definite
plan that was determined before she started school in the fall may
iind that she has not covered as much ground and has not been able l0
point out as many interesting things to her pupils as the teacher who
has been ,rather careful in following a definite outline, or course of
study. It is no uncommon thing to find a teacher nearing the end of
the school term who is rudely awakened by the fact that she has led

her pupils over much more territory than the average teacher. 1th

also very common to find a teacher who comes to the close of the
school term with her pupils fully two months behind the pupils ill
some neighboring district.

The individual who has been over the r ad many times may till]
the risk of leaving her guide book or course of study neglected durmt
the school term and yet be able to reach most of the points of interest
along the route, but the beginning teacher is certainly running the
danger of some very rough detours unless she has daily access to he
road map, or course of study.


By MARK GODM.\N, Public School Supervisor


The most satisfactory way to define either elementary 01‘ 1

ondary education is to do it on the basis of functions. What at
functions of the elementary school?

1. To give common training necessary for all children regardless of the"
wealth, social position, sex or possible vocational future,



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2. By means of this common training to better integrate the future citi-
zens of our democratic society.

The limitations of this article will permit only a brief discus-
sion of these two functions. What do we mean by giving a common
training necessary for all? The two big ideas here are “necessary”
and “all.” We know from our daily observation of people and What
they are doing and how they live, that there is a common body of
knowledge and information which all must have if they are to live
successfully in society. This common training involves such features
as accuracy in spelling the common words used in everyday affairs,
knowledge and understanding of necessary punctuation, ability to
write legibly and to read intelligently and also ability to express
oneself effectively in speech. This common training necessary for all
naturally involves the gaining of a command of the four fundamental
Operations of arithmetic and at least some features of simple interest
and percentage. Furthermore, it means the understanding of the
fundamental laws of health and a conscious observance of proper
health habits. It also means an understanding of the essential facts
of history, government and geography. A command of these things
is necessary regardless of one ’s position in life, sex or occupation. A
command of these fundainentalsmconstitutes the base upon which the
whole structure of education is built. It is just as necessary that the
modern child gain control of necessary elementary school subject
matter as it was necessary for his parents to acquire this training.

The second function of the elementary school, as pointed out
above, is through this common training to better integrate the future
Citlzeiis of our democratic society. The main idea here is “integra-
tlon.” Interpreted literally integration means “binding together.”
The great purpose of the lower school is to unify. If our democratic
seeial order is to perpetuate itself, it is imperative that our people
have an amount of like—mindedness, unity in thought, habits, ideals
and standards, as will insure a feeling of social unity. To insure
film, 1t is not only necessary that all possess a command of a. certain
llOdY‘ of subject matter, but. they must also possess certain ideals re-
garding which they think alike and feel alike—ideals such as patriot-
lsm, tolerance, unselfishness, loyalty and honesty. One might multi—
ply reasons why this function of the elementary school is vitally im—
DOrtant. The increasing complexity of modern life, the heterogeneity
of Our population and the increasing diversity of industrial occupa—
thnS, as Well as ways of living, all demand that the school which is
attended by all Should make it its business to see that all boys and
glrl§7 regardlcss of their abilities, master the essential and necessary
fiiiithlEalEifite: of the elementary schogl and at the’same time estab-
While and 1:11? alieneccssary for them 11. they are to function as worth-
citizen theheel u citizens. In order that the child may become such a
twin 7 ementaiy school must, through its common integrating

his tnlngu DI‘OVlde him With every opportunity to discover and develop
a cuts and aptitudes, form the habit of clear thinking, understand

g::;:i?:: :gclifilgn‘elationships and appreciate and desire the higher






I11 order that children may have opportunities to attend ele. thatt
mentary schools in which these ends are at least partially realized, it; mined
is necessary that certain standards should be attained in their organs follow

ization and administration. In this connection attention is called to‘ than s
pages 17—18 of the Report of the Kentucky Educational Commissionj her ca
Here one will find an excellent summary of the standards and ideals‘ er’s W

which should be attained in the organization and administration of pupils

elementary schools. They are as follows: ,

“1. For each child an intelligent, alert, and vigorous teacher trained specii- 311171181
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cally for elementary school work.
2. An effective organization for professional supervision, both by the state to go ;
and the local administrative unit. When ‘


3. A school environment for every elementary pupil that is safe, sanitary, -

and educationally effective. l in som
4. Attendance laws and an organization for the enforcement of compulsor,r M
attendance which will insure that every child is enrolled in some school merely
and that he attends every day that he and the school will profit mote day w‘

from his presence than from his absence. . 1
5. Courses of study set up in terms of the purposes of the elemental? Illtey
school and in terms of pupil and teacher activities and prepared in 5116 may b1
the ele

a way that they serve as usable tools. 1
6. Increased economy and educational efficiency through the most rant and k1

consolidation of schools practicable.

7. The limitation of the elementary school period to the first six gradesa‘ A
rapidly as this becomes feasible. of a fig

8. A plan of state support that will provide for the child a defensilti. Weak
minimum educational program in terms of the teacher, buildings at m thl
equipment, materials of instruction, administration and supervision, all. a 61
length of school term. ' mathei

9. The provision for each elementary school of the state of an intelliglf pupils
rnd professionally—trained administrator.” 3 Check]
; t0 otln
the tea



f O. J. JONEs, Public School Supervisor SUG G.
' It is no uncommon thing to hear a second grade teacher say ll} J.
5 pupils from the first grade came to her room poorly prepare . .

‘7 same is true of the fourth grade teacher, and of the eighth gill

teacher. It is especially true of the ninth grade teacher, Who 0If Tl
‘ oor work done in l ClaSsro

_ blames the poor record of her students on the p
grades. We even hear college professors say that freshmen com“ and 0t

college English classes who should be studying fifth grade Englli SChool
When we hear such expressions come from teachers whol: I‘00111,'
supposed to be informed along the lines of professional attitudesj' 31:11:01

are inclined to think that such teachers have missed the real spil'lt



E articles and lectures on professional ethics. Regardless of the 5f, to fun
pathy we may feel for a person who is willing to knock other 11191“; if the

of her profession under such conditions, one is inclined to be ml. we, 5

lenient with her than with the teacher who frankly says she 1135‘ Under

interest in her pupils after they leave her room. -. 1

The real teacher will have an abiding interest in her pupllt‘ '

long as she lives, and will follow the career of each individuagllfi? from tl

with the longings of a parent. Each elementary teacher shou. . '




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that the future success of her pupils in the upper grades is deter-
mined, to a great extent, by the efficiency of her work and she should
follow the progress of her former pupils with even more interest
than she follows the progress of the pupils who are immediately under
her care. This is true because of the fact that the success of a teach-
er’s work, in the long run, will be measured by the success of her
pupils as they pass through the more advanced grades.

We once heard a real teacher bemoan the fact that two of her
former pupils had been sentenced to prison for some minor offense.
She wanted to know what she had failed to do that caused these boys
to go astray. The elementary teacher should have some such feeling
when she learns that one of her former pupils has failed to make good
in some of the advanced grades.

Many a pupil has made a poor showing in the upper grades
merely because he did not learn to read in the lower grades. Some
day we may know enough about the teaching profession to very defi-
nitely measure a teacher’s ability as a teacher of reading, so that she
may be definitely informed just where she is failing. Until such time
the elementary teacher should study her former pupils very carefully
and know wherein they are failing.

A definite record kept by an elementary teacher over a period
of a few years should enable her to get an estimate of her strong and
weak points as a teacher. If she finds her former pupils failing in
mathematics in the upper grades she should look to her laurels as a
mathematics teacher in the lower grades. If she finds that her former
pupils are failing in English in the upper grades she should then
check her methods in the teaching of reading. The same would apply
to other subjects. “By their fruits ye shall know them” applies in

the 1tdeaching profession as surely as it does in the botanical or social
wor .


J. W. BROOKER, Director of the Division of School Buildings
and Grounds '

The school teacher is not responsible for the school building or
classroom in which she teaches nor for the type of school furniture
and other equipment in the classroom in which she teaches. The
school teacher is responsible for the general appearance of the class-
room, the general arrangement of the furniture in the classroom and
the condition of the reference works and other instructional equip-
ment with which she is provided. The purpose of this brief article is
to furnish suggestions to school teachers,_ particularly those teaching
11_1 the smaller rural schools on ways and means of preserving attrac-

the, sanitary and healthful surroundings for the school children
under their care. ,

1. Seating arrangement
f a. School children should be seated so as to receive light
rom the left or in case of classrooms lighted from more than one side










so that light will be received from the left and rear or from the left1
and right. Under no circumstances should pupils be seated in such
a manner as to face toward the window, an outside door, transom, or
other kind of light.

b. School children should be seated in desks suited to their
size. In a room that is unilaterally lighted the smaller children
should be seated next to the windows and the larger ones 011 the other
side of the room.

0. Desks should not be placed against the wall at the side or
back of the classroom. Aisles between rows of desks should be with
enough to furnish adequate, clear passageway. Unusually wide aisles
between desks should be avoided. An eighteen—inch aisle along the
window and a sixteen— or eighteen—inch aisle between rows of desh
with six feet at the teacher’s end of the classroom, eighteen inchei
between the rear of the room and the rear row of desks and a that
foot aisle along the side wall of the classroom are minimum require
ments which should be observed. If combination desks are use
they should be close enough together in the row so that when th
pupil sits erect his desk is within about two inches of his body. This
arrangement encourages correct posture and avoids scooting under
or lounging over the desk. After the desks are properly placed they
should be fastened down preferably to strips with three or four (lesh
in a group.

d. There should be no stage or platform in the school room
If there is a platform in the classroom it should be removed. Unde:
no condition should the teacher’s desk be elevated on the platform.

2. Sanitation

a. School children should be encouraged to keep the 013$“
room looking tidy. Paper and litter should be removed from it
floor by the children periodically throughout the day. The Schfll‘
room should be swept only after school hours when vacated bylh
children. ‘

b. The children should be held responsible for the cond‘:
tion of their desks. Each desk should be kept clean and in 0rd?l
Books and other material should not be kept on t0p of the desk will:
it is not in use. Under no circumstances should a child be permill‘vi
to store lunch baskets, half—eaten apples, candy or other articles,“
food in his desk. A screened lunch cupboard which can be 6251]?
made should be furnished for the storage of lunch boxes. ,

c. The common drinking cup should not be toleraih
Pupils should be required to have individual drinking cups.

d. An inexpensive floor mat should be provided SO “if
children may clean the mud from their shoes before enteringt

e. The blackboard and chalk trough should be cleaflf
daily. Each pupil should be required to clean off his work from h
blackboard as soon as he has finished. The chalk trough should;
cleaned out after school hours when the floor is being swept. ’
maps, globes, library books and other instructional equipment 5110ll
be dusted daily.



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f. Toilets should be inspected daily by the teacher and
should be cleaned daily at the time the classroom is swept.

g. Cloakrooms and small storage rooms should receive the
same attention as the classroom. There is a tendency on the part of
teachers to neglect these small rooms because they are not seen by the
general public.

3. Stoves .

a. Ashes should be removed from the stove daily. This
should be done after school hours. If ashes are permitted to pile up
under the grate of. the stove the grate bars will be burned out quickly
and needless expense incurred.

b. A container should be furnished for coal, wood or other
fuel. It should never be piled out upon the floor.

0. A cheap home-made jacket can be provided for plain
open stoves. Such a jacket will cause the air of the classroom to
re-circulate, thus providing a more even temperature throughout the

d. Unless a humidifier is provided with the stove, a small
bucket of water should be placed upon the stove to improve the hu-
midity of the room.

4. Window shades

a. The teacher should supervise the handling of the window

shades, even though it requires the sacrifice of a little time from her
regular routine of work. Under no conditions should the shades be
drawn when the sun is not shining.
. b. The window shade should be regulated to get the max—
imum amount of: light from the top of the window. One foot of space
at the top of the window gives more light on the far side of the room
than is received from the entire lower half of the window.

c. Broken shades and shades that will not work properly
should be repaired immediately.

d. The purpose of a window shade is to prevent the direct
rays of sunlight from shining upon the desk tops and in the face of
the pupils, consequently, window shades Should be drawn only when
it is necessary to afford this protection to the children.

e. All windowsshould be left unshaded outside of class
hours. This will permit the sunlight to enter and disinfect the room
when school is not in session.

5. General
. a. Broken window panes, broken locks, leaky roofs and the
hke should be reported to the trustees and the superintendent of
schools by the teacher and she should insist that they be immediately

b. Windows should be washed regularly. It is suggested
that they be washed every two months on the outside and on the in-
Slde every month.

0. Modest mural decoration is desirable. Walls should
not be cluttered up with a great number of cheap pictures and decora-












tion. A few carefully selected pictures add to the attractiveness of
the room. Correct work produced by the school children may be
exhibited periodically but should be left on display for a short time

Moss WALTON, Director of Census and Attendance

Teachers frequently fail to realize that they have a definite re-

sponsibility for securing good attendance. School administrators,
have, in many ways, attempted to set clearly before them their spe- i
citic responsibilities in regard to this matter. There are still teachers 1
who consider their duties ended when they have t