xt7xgx44sc25 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7xgx44sc25/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1899 journals kaes_bulletins_084 English Lexington, Ky. : The Station, 1885- Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin n.84. text Bulletin n.84. 1899 2014 true xt7xgx44sc25 section xt7xgx44sc25   KENTUCKY   KL L
BULLETIN NO. 84. Us L    
L ——     L  
L The Elms cmd Their Diseases.  '·L L A  

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g  _ E , 5 :
V HART BOSWELL, Chairman, Lexington, Ky.
J. T. GATHRIGHT, Louisville, Ky.
,_ TIIOS. TODD, Shelbyville, Ky.
]. K. PATTERSON, President of the College. I ' ·
M. A. SCOVELL, Director, Secretary.
M. A-. SOOVELL, Director.
? A. M. PETER, I _
r   » Chemists. `
H. E. curzrrs, I
II. GARMAN, Entomologistainl Botanist.
C. VV. MATHEWS, Horticulturist.
J. N. HARPER, Agriculturist.
EDWARD RHORER, Secretary to Director.
I _ Aihlress of the Station—LEXlNGTON, KY. [
'I`lie Bulletins of the Station will be mailed free to any citizen of
Kentucky who sends his name and address to the Station for that
` purpose.
Correspondents will please notify the Director of changes in their
post-oiiicemlrlress, or of any failure to receive the Bulletins.
Aooaess :
Kncurueicv A<:rucur.TuiuL Exr>Ei.m), which is very slow of
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  , It has bee11 11oted by 111e i11 tl1e following counties: Boyd,
  4 1 Greenup, \Volfe, Fayette, Anderson, V\/OOdfOf(l,]€SS3I11lH€,
I _ Rockcastle, \Vhitley, Hardin, Grayson, Edmonson, \Varren,
Hickman. _ 4
. 4 3. The cliff or rock elm (U/71121.9 mrevzom). Leaves smooth
· and glossy, of medium size, with about twenty straight and
11early parallel veins 011 each side of tl1e 111idrib; but little
_ impressed, and only occasionally forked before reaching the
margin. \Vinter buds 11ot large a11d rou11d-oval. `Wing of
4 seed oval in outline; 11ot widest outwardly; everywhere
downy ; long»stalked. Bark light gray and rough, like some
of tl1e oaks. Branches with corky knots 3ll(l irregular ridges ; ·
these not present, however, 011 tl1e 1l€\\' growth. \Vood very
hard, taking a hue polish.
I have see11 this tree in cultivation, but it is 1lOt handled so ' `
far as I know by local lllll'S€l')'ll1Cll, and is llO[ well known in
g tl1e State, except to·wood—cutters i11 regions where tllé species
  grows. It is common along cliffs and rocky banks of the
— Kentucky River. The trees I have seen thus far are 11ot A
large, the trunk not exceeding te11 inches in diameter, and the
height 1lOt above forty feet. At the North tl1e species grows
to a height of roo feet or 111ore. The cliff el111 is well known
to people residing Oll tl1e banks of Kentucky River, wl1o-
4 _ seem to be impressed lll()1`€ by tl1e hardness of its wood than
by any other character. At Brooklyn Bridge, jessainine
County, numerous young elms of this species grow up along 2
the faces of tl1e cliffs, tl1e roots penetrating soil that has accu- i
l]1lll£ll€(l o11 ledges and in crevices. The wood is harder than
that of any other el111 native to the State, 2`tll(l is valued for
_ uses requiring strong [Illd durable timber, such as bridge
building. Quantities of tl1e timber have been shipped to
England from the l`nited States Zlllll Canada. A section of a
small tree llO\\' before me shows eighteen annual rings with _
a diameter of but two Z`tll(l a half inches. At tl1e same age a H
, white Ellll would have had more than twice this diameter.
The handsome, glossy leaves with numerous parallel veins, _
_ _ together with tl1e irregular corky growths o11 tl1e bra11cl1es,
are tl1e most convenient characters for distinguishing this elm. 4

  { .`1
` I
The E/ms and Their Diseases. 57
The only other native elm with these corky growths is the I
next, and it is a small tree with small leaves, the corky
 ·: growths of twigs generally in the form of two ridges, one on ‘
" each side.
.Y The cliff elm has been observed by me along Kentucky ·
River, in Fayette, jessamine and Mercer counties. Recently  if `Q
. Dr. A. M. Peter, of the Station, has called my attention to a i Q
clump of these trees standing on the bank of North Elkhorn ; 4
Creek, about seven miles north of Lexington. A partly i  
decayed trunk observed here measured fifty-four inches in  
circumference, at about three and a half feet above the `°
U · ground. i ‘
4. The winged elm (l'/mus ez/zz/zz). Leaves small, 1anceo·
late; veins on each side of the midrib about xo, not strictly
I ' parallel. Buds small. Seed elongate, the wing fringed at I
the margin. Branches with flat, corky ridges, generally one  
on each side; these present even among the leaves on the `
young growth.
l This little Ellll is generally less than forty feet high, and A  
not often more than a foot in diameter of trunk. So far as I  
know its wood has no great value. Its distribution outside  
our borders is southern in general, and it has been observed l
by me only in the southern and western parts of the State. `*
It is more at less common in the following counties : Bell, ·‘}
\Vhitley, Rockcastle, lireckinridge, Grayson, Edmonson,  
2 Vifarren, Logan, Todd, Ohio, Christian, Hopkins, McCracken, , 4
i Fulton, Hickman. if
5. The English €‘llll ( U/mzzx mzzzj/Jes/1‘1's,). Leafsmooth on large · A
trees, of medium size, broad oval in shape and disposed to be { A
one-sided. Seed placed near the outer end of the wing. i Z
Branches (sometimes with corky growths) directed upwards  
and horizontally, the lower sometimes drooping so that they  
_ can be reached from the ground. Bark rough. \Vood hard.  
G This imported elm is very different from ours in its manner tg
of growth. The crown is compact like that of some of our , .
_ oaks and throws a dense shade. It does not grow to as great
L a height as either the white or cliff elm. In European coun-
' tries the wood is valued above that of our species. In culti-
g Q_  »·· _     .. ., _. rk., g` g `-“‘ ***7 MA,

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  ` 58 B11//c/1); Mw. 8,1.
,* · : vation the tree varies widely, and some of these variations pass
  as distinct species with those who are not informed as to their
i history.
· Tl1e Scotch or wych ehn (L'. I/107l/(UIL!/) has a rough leaf ·
V like our red elm, but its buds are not downy. It is the only
other imported elm likely to be encountered in the State ; but
it presents some puzzling variations that may lead to the im-
1 pressiou that we have niauy European elms. .
A Beginning in IS92 and continuing with greater or less fre--
quency ever since complaints have reached me concerning a ~ _
diseased condition of elm trees in this State. As early   Dec~ {
ember, isog, a bulletin prepared by me was issued by the ,
Station in which tp. 4,46 is a discussion of the trouble, with · ·
suggestions as to remedies. Previous to moz there is every
  probability that the trouble was under way. It was observed
`   in Massachusetts in may, and in Illinois in iss;.
i Since the " passing " of our elms has thus continued far so
long a time without teaching an end, we may hope that some
of these beautiful trees will still remain at the close of another
half century. lint if the death rate continues as during the
,» past two years this hope is not to be realized in Central Ken-
The lirst discernible evidence of disease is a loss of the leaves
at the ends of twigs, often at the tops of the trees. As the
trouble extends towards the trunk the foliage gradually drops
from other parts until finally the tree stands bare. The fallen
leaves may show no mark of insect work, certainly none that
· could cause tlicm to let go their hold on the branches, and the
only thing abnormal about them is a discoloration, sometimes
present, like that due to the blight fungus of potatoes, the tips
or side regions being more or less extensively black. Most of
the affected twigs show no external evidence of injury, but in Z
‘ still living trees one may sometimes hud part of them thickly
covered with little red wart—likre pustules, I-25 inch and less in I
* ` diameter. These represent a fungus that passes its early '
stages in the bark and emerges in this shape to develop its

Yhe E/my ami 7W4·*1`r Dz`.1‘v14gh examination of a diseased tree, living  
I or dead, without finding some of them. A
In August, 1899. two white elm trees growing on the "_g
College grounds were dug up and examined front the roots V
to the tips of the branches. One was alive but showed the [ A
disease itt naked twigs at the top; the other was dead. They ,
were both about 25 feet high, had a trunk diameter of about y  
seven inches, and appeared to be of the same age, about IS  
L years. The living tree, when tlte bark of the trunk was  
` removed from one side, was found to have been attacked by Q
the grubs of a small beetle,* which occurred in large numbers ·
i' *°*Probably /I/agda//.< (I/`Hllit`0//Ii.S`, a curculio known to inf-·st ehns. A
part of th· trunk is now sealed up in boxes to get the adult when it
emerges Until then it will be impossible to identify them positively.
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the =
5 in burrows made in the inner bark. \\»'ith them were a few .
g4 ` . larger grubs of the well-known ehn-tree borer (Sa;§crda ln`-
., dm/afa), a member of a family of wood-boring beetles. A ,
few adults of a third bettle* were found starting burrows in
, ` the bark preparatory to placing their eggs. Only one side of
the tree was occupied by the grubs, but on this side they
were present from the surface of the ground up to the origin
of the branches. In some of the twigs were found some of
the Hat-headed grubsi already mentioned, but they were not
V common and had evidently but recently become established
there. Most of the twigs were sound, and many bore some .
A leaves. On some of the dead ones was present some of the ·
A red nodules of the fungus mentioned in another connection. j
The roots were followed out from the tree to a distance of i
nineteen feet, and proved to be sound except that the bark > ‘
T when cut into was discolored, and no doubt had ceased to
Q perform its functions some time earlier. The bark of many
j of the dying twigs was also found to be of a rusty color,
- though no other evidence of disease was apparent. i
The dead tree was in much the same condition as the other,
except that the elm borers were here very nmnerous and had
occupied most of the inner bark. The roots were not injured i
by insects, nor were the twigs mined to such an extent as to `
i _ give ground for assuming that the injury had started in tllélll.
Everything, in short, pointed to the borers in the bark as the
inunediate cause of the dying. j
Bn! I·}I.VL`¢`/.\` are 210/ Mc _/irs/ mzmr (yi Mc 1I7]'1`21,g‘.
The white ehn has a peculiar way of sending its main roots
. out close to the surface of the ground. Sometimes a root upon
l which a tree chielly depends is covered in places with less than
two inches of soil. Roots after leaving the base of the trunk
actually turn toward the surface, where they extend for long
distances in the rich surface soil. The trees take11 up on the
college grounds for examination illustrate the point very well. ii
, The living tree had three main laterally directed roots of this
**t>ne of the Scolytidte, HT/osizzux 42,/>m‘1¢/zzs. l._
, . tl have reared the adult llat-headed apple tree borer (C/ixjnnmbv/h1·1's
jiwzarn/rz) from diseased elm, but these small grubs are probably the
young of some other beetle of the same family.

 `  1 .`
T he E/ms and T hair Diseases. 61
sort. They were vertically flattened for about eight inches
and then contracted rather abruptly to two inches in diameter, i
  tapering gradually from this point to their extremities. After
  leaving the trunk they rose toward the surface and lay for a
  distance of nineteen feet out from the tree among the roots of .
if clover and grasses. Besides their main roots were a few  _l»,
whip-like roots of the same sort, lying even nearer the surface   ·
than the large ones. The only other roots present were eight , I
small brace roots from one-half to one inch in diameter, ‘ _
which extended downward into the soil at an angle of about 45  
  degrees. So long as they were uncut the tree stood Hrmly in  
  place, though the soil was removed for a depth of several feet. ~
The long lateral roots were all cut and still the tree could not
be moved until these little roots were severed. The second
y · tree had more of the lateral roots, but they arose and extended ;
l outward like those of the first. The brace roots were of the  
. same character and of about the same number. ·
T Trees with such a root system are adapted to alluvial soils,
‘ rich and easily penetrated. A certain amount of moisture is  
also essential to them. Under natural conditions elms grow ij
among other plants, interspersed with other trees. The  
` ground, besides being rich and from situation moist, is pro-  
; tected during winter by a mulch of dead leaves and in summer Ai·¤
by shade and perhaps a tangle of undergrowth. Soil so pro- A}
l tected does not give up its moisture quickly. But let such trees  
T be exposed to the heat of the summer sun by cutting away all "
i other trees, or by keeping the grass browsed or mowed closely gf`.
, over their long roots, and they become eufeebled in time _o
Q ready to succumb when any sudden and exceptionally severe ‘
i drought or freeze comes. Even if the removal of our forests I _
i had no other effect than exposing the soil to the sun it is prob-  
  able that such isolated trees would suffer in time. But removal  
  of vast tracts of forest, coupled with tillage and otherprocesses  
h involved in peopling a country, is known to encourage drought  
in other ways: By favoring a rapid escape of rainfall by sur- _
face drainage, a process that is accelerated artihcially by
{° ditching, tile draining and the like, eventually leading to
  constant late smmner droughts from which not only trees but

 { . " -
. l` i i
, 1 I
 ,, » 62 /{Il//(’fl·}I [V0. 5,1.
`Q V all other plants suffer. A tree with an extensive root system
  i may not show the effect in one year, or two, but in the course
> of many years the available food supply becomes exhausted,
i having been in part leached away by the running waters, and
* no fresh humus being supplied, the inevitable result is exhaus-
tion for lack of both food and moisture. The effect shows
first by the death of tips of branches, the tree not having
T vitality sufficient to keep up the circulation in the extremities,
. and the tree becomes "stag headed," to use an imported term.
If one looks about in Bluegrass Kentucky he will see many
. trees in this condition. oaks, ash and maples The trouble is of 4 \
-course more or less serious according to the exposure of the
roots. {
Not only do trees fail to show signsof suffering immediately A _
after the surface is cleared, but it is known to experienced V l
. foresters that for a time they grow more rapidly and appear to
  be in better condition. This is explained as the result of an
`   increased food supply, due to the removal of competitors, toa
l more rapid decomposition of humus, which results from ,
exposure to the air, and to increased sunlight. It is only after l
a considerable period that the final effect of deforesting is felt
by the trees and perceived by man. Such results are not ‘
, restricted to this country, but are known among foresters the
- world over.
l take it we are no·.v witnessing some of these effects in Ke:i»—
tucky, and that our elms feel the change most keenly because l
of their manner of rooting. The debility brought about by
unfavorable conditions such as those described is taken advan- I
tage of by the elm tree borer* in some cases, which completes
· the ruin by girdling trees under the rough outer bark. T
This explanation carries its own suggestions as to means of `
saving the affected trees. Possibly a mulch of humus consist-
ing of decayed leaves and other nutrient materials could be y,
spread on the ground under the trees to supply the food needed l
E aml to protect the soil from rapid evaporation, and from heat l
, - ’*`l`wo other beetles belonging to the same familv as the elm borer, were i
reared by me some vears ago from diseased elms, they are /)l(/(U'!-MS  
/v·¢‘z·1'/i21i·zz.v and .\;l'/0t}‘¢’(`/II/5 uvzwms. `

 Yhc E/l}I5 and Yhcfr D1`sm.tcs. 63
and cold. At the least, the natural mulch under trees should
. not_ be destroyed. l
i To prevent the injuries of the beetles the suggestion made by
  me in the bulletin on shade tree insects, Hl1(l already referred
  to, must be repeated, namely, the coating of the bark with j
i whitewash containing Paris green or arsenate of lead to pre-  T ’
- vent the. placing of the eggs. Tl1e smell of carbolic i yi
’ acid is repulsive to insects, and a little of this might be l
added to advantage. The borers find rough places 011 tl1e bark *
to place their eggs, and cutting away the corky outer layer `l,' ` ;
>, before applying the whitewash is to be recominended, 110t only  
as rendering the surface less attractive to tl1e egg-layi11g adult,
{ but also as exposing a11y insects already in tl1e bark to the sun,
, _ which is said to destroy them. Quite Oftéll the grubs get into
It the bark at an injured place and spread from tl1is. Such  
[ i11juries should be sought for, a11d when found tl1e dead bark be  
l cut away. I11 some cases the beetles themselves will be revealed
  a11d lllfty be destroyed so as to prevent further i11jury. lf tl1e _
  . injured place is not extensive, by wasl1i11g it with asolution of  
  bluestone a11d then wrapping with S[Ol1t paper for a ti111e tl1e Ig
l bark may close over tl1e wound. Such injuries to fruit  
  trees are often treated i11 this way, and trees threatened witl1  
. destruction 111ay thus be completely restored. ij
_ It is a well known fact that wood—boring beetles spread from  
p diseased trees to others standing 1l€£lT, a11d to this extent the {
l elm disease may be said to be infectio11s. They llllly even be _
j brought i11to a neighborhood in rough lumber. It follows that Ii?
  dead elm trees and those so badly lll_ll1I`€(l that they cannot ',
  recover should be be b11r11ed as promptly as possible. The (
l grubs are in tl1e bark in winter,_and this is tl1e best time to -_
` dispose of such trees. In summer the adult beetles are abroad  
, for a considerable period engaged in placing their eggs, €il](l  
lg hence destroying trees at this season is not so likely to get all  
{ of tl1e insects. Tl1e burning should not be delayed, however,  
M 011 this account. '
5 Spurious Remedies.
I \Vhenever any disease appears, either of lllilll, of 2lllllll21lS, or
Q of plants, some cure-all bobs up and is hailed by the gullible
I .
»  `  ···· . ,   V _ AM A V - v  4*4 l I

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, _ 6-l /Yu//efhz N0. 8,1.
  among human kind as a great scientific discovery. The elm
  I » tree disease is 11ot without its unfailing remedy, and more of
I, them are probably to follow. Time and again such bogus
, _ · remedies are relegated to the limbo from which they have been
, n resurrected, only to be dragged forth again on some new occa-
A sion. The /m{1m’r1`aZ Gaze!/e, of Louisville, Ky., published
the following in December, 1866 :
" A gentleman of Rochester [N. Y.] was lately in Saratoga
County, and was there shown an apple tree in fine healthy
A condition, which had been ill, subjected to treatment with cal-
4 omel, and thoroughly cured. This tree was afflicted with in- · L
sects, which were destroying it and rendering it unproductive_
A hole was bored into the body of the tree nearly through
the sap, and two grains of calomel inserted. As soon as this , _
A calomel was taken up by the sap, the vermin on the tree died,
j and it began to bear fruit and has done so for three years, to
; the entire satisfaction of the owner. Sulphur maybe mixed
  with the calomel and produce Z1 good effect. This is a fact
· worth knowing." V
Commenting on the above at the time, the editor of one of j
our entomological journals said, among other things; " I
lately heard of a lady who was cured of a violent headache by ` t
her husband presenting her with a ll€\V bonnet. As soon as
A _ the bonnet was put on her l1ead, the headacheleft her, and
never returned for three or four years afterward." The proof L
of cure is just as good in one case as in the other. It is a well I
known fact that neither sulphur nor calomel is soluble in V
water and hence they are not likely to be appropriated by trees I
in the way supposed. It has been proved by actual test that . j
_ sulphur introduced in augur holes made in fruit trees remains  
there intact for years, in one recorded instance until found, to =
the great astonishment of a wood—chopper, in the family wood-
pile. After all, it must be said of such remedies that they'   ,
imply in their originators a very different type of mind from I
, that of the superstitious man of olden times who looked upon
V the dying of certain trees as a premonition of disaster and, thus , _
paralized, did nothing to check the trouble. [
' " ‘Tis thought the king is dead; we will not stay,
The bay trees in our county are all withered."

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2* FIG. 1.-A, showing buds and leaves of red elm (Ulmus jG¢lva);
s' B, showing buds and leaves of white elm (U amerirana); C, twig of
_ white elm showing grooves n1ade by the buffalo tree hopper iu deposit-
5 ing eggs; D, red fungus (Neclria sp.) sometimes present on dead twigs
. of diseased white elms. A and B, reduced in size. C and D, natural size.
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i FIG. 2.——A, twig and leaves of winged elm (U/mus a/ata); B, leaf
of _Euglish elm (U. campeszfris) ; C, leaf of cliff elm (U racemasa) ; D,
twig of c1if1 elm showing irregular corky growths E, seed of cliE elm;
, F, seed of red elm.
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FIG. 3.—Stag-headed chmquepm oak (Quercus acumznala), growmg 4
on the Expcrnmeut Farm.  
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