xt7xks6j2r7g https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7xks6j2r7g/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1921 journals kaes_circulars_001_2_101 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 101 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 101 1921 2014 true xt7xks6j2r7g section xt7xks6j2r7g Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
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::~l wills IX 1 \'|·2.\l{ S: EGGS IN 1 YEAR
. Alwl/l‘1·;l» IX N<>\’liAll:l§ll )l<>I.'l`l·Il* JN .\l`<;l`s'l‘
How They Looked August 15th
l. l‘in l»o11¤·s 1pt~lvit· or luy l. l"in bonus close together (one
bum-sl wille uiuirt. li11:•·1·`s wimlth or less)_
2. \'··ni wilt- uml pliulllv. 2. \`t·ni yellow uml puckered.
3. Large, full, ilI‘i;}ili retl comb :2, l‘4tlt·, sl1rivt·letl comb and
and wulllvs. wnlllos.
4. Pale yellow to white bunk »l. Doris yellow beak and shanks.
and shunks.
l‘ul»lislit·tl in \‘lJllllL‘4'ii<¤Il with the ;1;;·1·it·i1lt11i·:i.l oxlonsion work <‘:1i·1·it·ll
Oll hy un-¤npt·l‘11ti¤¤11 nl` li1<· (Q`0ilL*§•* nl` .\;l‘i<·\lillll't‘, i`lli\`0l'Sil)' nt` Kvll-
tm-lay, with tho l'. S. i*l‘]Hl|'illlt'ili of .\;i·it·ulturt·, uml tlislril»ult·tl in _
f11i·tl1t-miioo wt thu \\’<¤l‘k }¤1·ox·illt·l for in tho .\¤·t o1` t`o1¤;i·¤·ss ol` Alziy
S, 1914.
]»CXill;§i<>ll, Ky., Many. l1¤ZIl_
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i i- __ _ * nj;  

 V   _,_ ._i..>..#,,   .
By J. Holmes Martin.
(Apply this test in late summer.)
\\'l1e11 a bird steps layiue, i11 the snnitner she usually starts llltlib
ing. The later a he:1 lays i11 tl1e Sllllllll|‘l` or tl1e longer tl1e in-:·i11d
0ver which she lays. the greater will he her prodtietioti. so that the
hfgh producer is the late layer and henee tl1e late tnolter. The length
0f Iilllé that, a l1e11 has been molting or has stopped laying can be
determhied by tl1e rate of renewal of the feathers. First the body
feathers are sl1ed. the tail 11ext llllti then tl1e wing. whieh molts from
the middle out. llolting is one of the most valuable t‘il·L\l`il(‘lL’l`$ ill
picking {119 cull because of the Slll1}\ii(‘lI}' of its use.
Color Changes Due to Laying
The pigmentation or (`OLOH (`IIANGICS should be observed by
daylight. Laying uses lll) the surplus tat i11 tl1e body, illltl it espe·
eially I`€1llO\’€S tl1e fat from tl1e skin. l11 yellow»ski11netl breeds this
loss 0f fat can readily be seen by the loss of tl1e yellow eolor. 'l`h··
tilfI·€l'€1l[ parts of tl1e body tend to bleaeh atul beeome white as tl1e
stored fat is used up. Tl1e changes oet·ur ill the following order;
The VENT changes very quickly with egg produt·tion so that .1
white 0r pink vent on a }'Ulll)\\'-SklIllll‘ii bird generally means that
the bird is laying, while a yellow vent means a bird is lltli laying.
It should be reeoguizetl that all yellow eolor changes are dependent
on the feed, eoarseness of skin and size ot` bird. ;\ heavy bird t`e.l
on an abundance of gieen feed. yellow corn. or other heavy inaterial
that will color the fat deep yellow will not bleach out nearly as
quickly as a s111aller or paler-colored bird.
The e0lor goes out ot` the l%li.\l{, lieginning at the base llllti grad-
ttally disappearing 1111til it linally leaves the front part of the upper
beak. The lower beak bleaelies faster [llilll the upper. and should
be used where the tipper beak is obsettred by h()l`II or black. On the
average-colored, yellow—skinned bird. a bleaelted beak means heavy
production for at least the past tour to six weeks.
The SHANKS are the slowest to bleaeh our llllil hence indicate
a tnueh longer period of produetion than the other parts. The yellow
goes out from tl1e scales on the front oi' the shanks first lllld finally
fl`OIH the scales o11 tl1e rear. The scales Oll tl1e bttek ot' the Silllllk
· are the last to bleach out and may generally be used as an index
to the natural depth of yellow color of the bird. A bleaelied-out

 {77 J}
/* , i
shank usually indicates fairly heavy production for at least fifteen
to twenty weeks. The yellow color comes back into the vent, ear
lobes, beak and shanks in the same order that it went out, only
the color returns much more quiekly than it goes out.
Body Changes Due to Laying
1{eavy production is also shown by the quality of the SKIN.
Fat goes out from the skin and body with production, so that the
heavy producers have a soft, velvety skin that is not underlaid by
layers of hard fat. The abdomen, in particular, is soft and pliable.
One of the finer indications, yet one of the most valuable in
picking the high layer, is the fineness of the HIQAIJ and the closeness
and dryness of l·`l£.\'l`1ll<]lilNG. The head of a high layer is fine. The
wattles and earlobes lit closely to the beak and are not loose and
~“‘·‘l:’ flabby. The 1`ace is cleanvcut. The eye is full, round and prominent,
’*""‘1 especially when seen from the front. 'I`he high layer is trim;
lh`) that is. the feathers lie closer to the body but. after heavy produc-
llgm tion, the oil does not keep the plumage relatively sleek and glossy,
T lic the plumage becoming worh and tlirtadbare.
ltlt \'
miih Temperament and Activity
rs in A good layer is more active and nervous and yet more easily
handled than a poor layer. A high layer shows more friendliness and
yet elusiveness than a poor bird. A low producer is shy and stays
on the edge of the flock and will squawk when caught.
~d ll? \\`hile the characters discust here deal specifically with the.
espe· present ye;ir's production. it should be borne in mind that a high
: this producer one year is, generally speaking, a high producer in all other
'l`h·· years.
SUNW Health and Vigor
LA A ln order to lay well a hen must have a sound body and be
that “‘i‘)l*<’l`* illlll Ul'}-\l·'l`llY· (`tlllstitlltioiial vigor is essential
Wing- if the hen is to hold up under the exhaustion of heavy laying. Good
1*1**111 hatches and strong. vigorous chicks are impossible without vigor
(1 {wl and vitality in the parent stock. A good constitution is as much a
Vtwml heritable character as feather color.
qv as The following indications of high and low vitality should be
‘ kept in mind when culling the flock;
grad- High Vitality Low Vitality
llllll¢‘l` 1, 1h·oatl, (loop head. 1. Long, slim head (Cl'O\\'·llC‘il(ll.
‘ll*’“l‘l 2. Bright, prominent eye. 2. Dull, sunken eye.
*11 the 3. Long. deep body. ll. Short, shallow body.
ll**¤l"Y 4. Strong, parallel legs. 4. Knock-kneed.
5. Stylish carriage. 5. llroopy appearance.
1lll`t5€ l”lllLi\*I'S 2ll'U 111·111·e1·11 1111· 111·11 pin l1··111·s.1
Just below the ven; 111*e 111e 111*0 lllll 111* pelvic 1111111·s, 01111 1111
each side, projecting t()\\`2ll`llS 1110 11*111*. lly ]llll(‘lll[§ 1l1(‘ 1i11g1·1·s, 11111,
between 111ese bones. 111e \\'l1l1ll Zl])1ll`1 ('llll 1111 11C1(‘1'llllll0l1 (S1·1— 1·111
above.) I1 111e ends 111 111e bones 1ll'(} $1111 Llll(1 1111111110 111111 1110
\\ll(11l1 01 111*0 Ol` 1l11'€O Ol'(llIl1ll‘}' 1i11g;e1·s (\'Lll`}'ll1g 11*1111 1110 size of the
hen) (jill] be pluced between 1111*111, 111e 111211 is, 111 1111 p1·111111l11li1y. 111y-
111g 111 111e 11111e of €XLlllllllL11l()ll. I1 1110 bones 111`1= 1:111sc 111g1·1l11~1· 111111
111e points ll2ll`(l, 111e 1111*11 is p1·01111bly 1101 laying.
The whole ABDOMEN is diluted, us well 11s the 1*11111, so 111111 1l11—
pelvic bones are 11·111csp1·1·1111 111111 1110 keel 111· 111·1·11s11111111· is 1`111·1·1·11
down, away 1l'()ll1 1he pelvic bones, so LIS 10 give li.ll`gC C.\l’.\("l'1`Y.
Changes in Comb, Wattles and Ear Lobes
The COMB, \V;\T'l`Ll·]S 111111 EAR l1()Ill·]S L‘l1llll`gC or (?()ll1l`il(‘1. de-
pending on the ovary. If the 0011111, \\'2l11l(‘S 111111 11111* l11111»s 1110 1111*1;*,
full and smooth, 0: h111·11 und waxy, 1110 l1i1·11 is l11y111g 1l€ZlVlly. I1 the
4 C()llll) is l1111p 111e b11‘1l is 011ly laying sligl11ly, 11111 is 1101 l1l}'1ll;§ 111 1111
*1 whe11 t11e (:01111) is dried (10\\'I1, especially 111 1111111111g 111119,