xt7xpn8xdp04 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7xpn8xdp04/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1957-01 bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "A Conference Report, Department of Education, Commonwealth of Kentucky", vol. XXV, no. 1, January 1957 text 
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0 Commonwealth of Kentucky '0












Published by

Superintendent of Public Instruction








Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
Frankfort. Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.





“Advancing Education in Kentucky” is a challenging phrase, one
worthy of the attention of all Kentuckians. It is our sincere hope that
in the coming months and years this slogan will become the hallmark
of educational improvement in the Commonwealth.

For too long Kentuckians have accepted a situation which placed
our State near the bottom of the ladder education-wise. The enactment
and financing of the Foundation Program makes it possible to work
toward a new day in education. However, money alone is not enough;

we must have the active support of interested citizens across the State
in promoting and advancing education.

We hope that from this Advancing Education in Kentucky Confer-
ence will come a resolve to “go back home and tell the story.” Through
the organization of local groups of interested citizens and with the

increased financial support available, we can create a new day in
Kentucky education.

Robert R. Martin
Superintendent of Public Instruction








Remarks of Presiding Officer and Introduction of Keynote Speaker
James L. Sublett, Asst. Superintendent of Public Instruction ........ 4

Keynote Address of the Advancing Education in Kentucky Conference
Robert R. Martin, Superintendent of Public Instruction ................ 5

The Role of Higher Education in Advancing Education in Kentucky
Frank G. Dickey, President, University of Kentucky ...................... 9

The Place of Evaluation in Advancing Education in Kentucky
W. F. O’Donnell, President, Eastern Kentucky State College ........ 12

The Evaluation of Higher Education
Miss Louise Combs, Director, Division of Teacher Certification

and Teacher Training, Department of Education .............................. 14
Local and State Study Committees in Advancing Education in
Ellis F. Hartford, Former Head of Bureau of Instruction,
Department of Education ...20


The Place of Vocational Education in Advancing Education in
James L. Patton, Head, Bureau of Vocational Education,
Department of Education ....... 23

In-Service Education as a Means of Advancing Education in Kentucky
Adron Doran, President, Morehead State College ............................ 25

The Program of Guidance Services in Advancing Education in
Curtis Phipps, Director, Division of Guidance Services,



Department of Education ..27
Understanding the Vocational Education Program ........................................ 29
The Exceptional Child, Status and Outlook .41

Advancing Education Through the Improvement of Instruction


Don Bale, Head, Bureau of Instruction .................................. Moderator
Section I —Bureau of Instruction .43
Section II—Principles of Supervision 53



In-Service Growth as a Means of Advancing Education in Kentucky ...... 59

Strengthening the Internal Accounting Program
Ted C. Gilbert, Head, Bureau of Administration and Finance,
Department of Education .67







..... 53

..... 59

...... 67

Providing an Adequate System of Pupil Records
Stanley Hecker, Director, Division of Records and Reports,
Department of Education.




Teaming—Up for Evaluation of the Twelve Grade Program ...................

Question and Answer Period

James L. Sublett, Presiding,

Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction ...............................


Interpreting the A.E.K. Program to the Community ................................

Closing Remarks
Robert R. Martin, Superintendent of
Public Instruction


Copy of Program, Advancing Education in Kentucky Conference ........

..... 72

..... 80







James L. Sublett,

Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction

In recognition of your punctuality here this morning, I do hereby
and without further delay, declare this Conference to be now in session.

I am honored to preside over a meeting that has attracted such a
distinguished representation of educators and friends of public education
in Kentucky. It is my firm conviction that a delegation such as this,
devoted to the high purpose of advancing education in Kentucky, has,
by its presence at this Conference, already illustrated that a new and
brighter day is dawning for the boys and girls in the public schools
across the State.

We have a Foundation Program for education in Kentucky; we
must now look toward building upon that foundation, an educational
structure of comparable statute to those of other States of comparable
resources. The Conference to which you will devote your energies and
your attention during the next three days is a step toward the con-
struction of that program.

This Conference has come about through several discussions by
various people, the outcome of which in every case has been the con-
clusion that the accomplishments and improvements that are already
apparent need to be known, and that sound cooperative planning with
emphasis on instruction should be the next step in the overall plan.

The phrase, “Advancing Education in Kentucky” will soon be heard
more and more, and has been chosen as the theme for this meeting.

It is now my pleasure to introduce to you, the man who deserves
the lion’s share of the credit for this conference. He has demonstrated
an ability to lead us toward a new age in public school education. It is
with a great deal of pleasure that I present to you, the Keynote Speaker
of this Conference, Dr. Robert R. Martin, Superintendent of Public


for ‘







It is


Robert R. Martin,
Superintendent of Public Instruction

Mr. Sublett, platform guests, administrators, supervisors, classroom
teachers, board members, and members of the Congress of Parents and
Teachers, I assure you that I am delighted to be here.

Mr. Sublett was most kind to me in his remarks, but I think that he
gave me credit for something that perhaps should not be mine. The
whole notion of this meeting comes from the realization that we have a
new program and from the concern that all the school people and the
friends of public education across the state have for it.

As I look at these people here on the platform and at you out
there, I know that you are the people who have the ability, and the
determination — that you are the people who have the will to accom-
plish a successful program for us. With that ability and determination
—— with that will to accomplish What needs to be accomplished in this
most crucial year of public education in this state, we need only to
formulate a campaign of progress and carry it through.

This is undoubtedly the crucial year in .public education in Ken—
tucky. It is potentially the greatest year for public education in the state
~ whether it will be, however, depends on you; depends on the 23,000
school teachers across the state, and upon the support they receive from
administrators, boards of education, and upon the support they receive
from the friends of public education.

But I believe that it is also a time when we should change a bit,
our emphasis. We, for a generation, have been talking about the ills
of education in Kentucky, and in a large measure, we have been suc-
cessful. But on the other hand we have also provided the enemies of
public education with a lot of good ammunition which they have used
against us when they have attacked the public schools. I think now that
the thing we need to concern ourselves with is that we have a ‘going
concern’ in public education. The public is obviously more interested
and enthusiastic with a ‘going concern’ than with an institution that is
constantly on the verge of crisis or in the midst of crisis.

We can now talk about the improvements of public education, but
we would be dishonest and certainly would not advance education if
we did not at the same time talk about the additional needs of public
education. Yet, we have to be sure that the tax-paying public in this
Commonwealth understands What has happened to the tax dollar they
have given us. As you have already heard, the Governor and the legis-
lature have given us $20,000,000 which we distributed last week in tenta-
tive allotments. This represents the largest increase, by far, in State-aid
for public education at any time in the history of Kentucky.

You know that we don’t lack for things to talk about — the things
about public education that are good. To begin with, for the first time



in history, every child in this state will have a nine months school term.
When you realize that last year there were twelve county school districts
that had terms of less than nine months, then you realize what a great
accomplishment this is in itself.

We, of course, know that we are going to have 350 fewer one—teacher
schools this year than we had before. That means that for the first time,
we are going to have fewer than 2,000 one-teacher schools. The one-
teacher schools, of course, performed a great service in their day in this
country, but all of us know that they are now completely outmoded. The
antiquated nature of the one-teacher school is further evidenced by the
almost impossible task of trying to get trained people to teach in the
one-teacher schools. Undoubtedly there must be six or eight—hundred of
them maintained for the forseeable future because of isolation or road
conditions. But we will consolidate the ones that can be consolidated
and I, for one, am willing to give an increment in order that those boys
and girls in one-teacher schools which must be maintained will have
the services of qualified teachers at the same level as other boys and
girls in the State.

We are going to have more adequate teacher salaries than we have
ever had in this State before. Last year, the median average classroom
teacher’s salary was some $2,350 more or less. We are thoroughly con-
vinced that across the State, the median average teacher’s salary will be
some $3,200. That is a great beginning — a great improvement; perhaps
it is the greatest improvement we have ever been able to point to in
any one year. But it is, of course, only a beginning. It just begins to pay
teachers and school people the salaries to which they are entitled — it is
a significant start.

We are going to have, by and large across the State, a supervisory
program. We expect to relieve our Principals of teaching duties in order
that they have more time to devote to supervision and instructional

Teacher loads have been reduced insofar as it has been possible to
do this by the addition of classrooms and by remodeling and rental
properties. Our school districts have constructed a great many class-
rooms and a great many more of them are planning to construct addi-
tional classrooms under the capital outlay provision of the Foundation

We are going to have more and better trained teachers in our
schools this fall than we have ever had. Our Superintendents and Boards
of Education are attempting to employ 1,500 to 2,000 more teachers than
ever before and accordingly we have a shortage of qualified teachers ——
but conversely, the more attractive aspects of the teaching profession
are definitely influencing many Kentucky teachers to stay in the State.
I was highly gratified in Eastern Kentucky last Saturday morning to
see some five or six teachers who have come back to Kentucky from
Florida and other States to teach. As we move forward, we can cer-
tainly expect an acceleration of that process.

Our facilities for transporting Kentucky’s school children have been
expanded and improved. If the people of this State see fit ——- and I








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fervently hope that they do —— to go to the polls in November and vote
for the $100,000,000 Road Bond Issue, our transportation problems Will
be tremendously alleviated. I am thoroughly convinced that good schools
and good roads go hand in hand. I am committed to support the Road
Bond issue and I believe that you should endorse it as the Department of
Education has done. It is a completely non—partisan issue because it is a
twelve—year program and it has tremendous implications for an im-
proved educational program in this State.

Generally, I think the thing to which we can point with greatest
pride is the rejuvenation in the esprit-de—corps - the spirit of our
teachers. As I talked to three or four groups of our teachers last week,
the thought came to me that I had never seen teachers so enthusiastically
awaiting the beginning of the new school year.

We have a great program. Before you on this platform there is a
panel who will discuss with you some of the ways and techniques that
we propose to use to improve instruction. This afternoon, we will have
another panel who will discuss with you how we can be sure that the
people in the State understand our program and understand what has
happened to it. We have come a long way in this State because we have
been willing to advance with the public. The last four or five years
have been highly significant in that we have called in the public and
asked them to concern themselves with our schools and with the building
of our schools. You know, it seems to me that we in the profession have
passed through three phases in this matter of public relations. To begin
with, we used to think that if people would just leave us alone, we’d do
alright. We didn’t want to be bothered with the public because they always
had confidence that we would know the answers. Then we got past that
and it became a matter of a “tell them” and “sell them” approach. Ob-
viously, we didn’t get very far with advancing education under those

methods. When we began to work with the public in Kentucky, then we
began to see results.

The shining result has been our Foundation Program, fully financed.
But the Foundation program is essentially a financing program. We
believe the time has come to consider instructional improvement and to
attempt to find a new approach to this — a new slogan, if you will, which
will point up the improvement of instruction, because money alone will
not do very much unless we have the ingenuity, the business judgment,
foresight, and the leadership to translate that money into services for
boys and girls throughout the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

In closing, I think of a story I heard recently that illustrates what
I have been trying to say about this Advancing Education in Kentucky
Program better than anything I have said or could attempt to say.

A great many people have the mistaken notion that World War II
began when Hitler’s Germany invaded Poland, precipitating England’s
and France’s entry into the war in defense of Poland under the stipula~
tions of alliances. Actually, however, that terrible page in human history
began much earlier, in 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
In the year 1938, when Chancellor Hitler and Prime Minister Chamber-


‘ lain met in Munich to discuss the fate of Czechoslovakia, the longsuffer—
; ing Chinese people had already been fighting the Japanese actively and
‘ passively for several years.
Day in and day out, month in and month out, just as rapidly as
they could consolidate their gains, the Japanese moved deeper and deeper
into China. But in that great unarmed country there were thinkers; there
were philosophers in China who were most concerned. They were con-
cerned about the apathy of the people — the unwillingness to stand up
against the invader. They called a meeting and discussed their perilous ex“
situation pro and con. Finally they decided that what they needed was a for
slogan — a rallying cry that would arouse the people to a renewed in K
resistance against the onslaughts of the enemy. And after they made caus
this decision they gave some thought as to who would be the best person firm
to give them their slogan. Finally they sought out an old school teacher. e 1
They explained their problem. They asked him to give them a slogan.
The old man looked up and pondered the request they had made. Fi- in t'
nally he said, “No, you are mistaken. You do not need a slogan. What ave
you need is a prayer, and I will give you a prayer.” And he began, “Oh colle
Lord, revitalize my China — but begin with me.” Revitalize my China '
—— but begin with me — Wt C
I hope that each of you this year and in the years to come will say 5:35:
that prayer with me as we say, “Oh Lord, revitalize public education Wher
in this State, but begin with me.” that
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Frank Dickey, President,
University of Kentucky

I would like first of all to congratulate Dr. Robert Martin on the
excellent and thoughtful educational leadership which he is providing
for our Commonwealth. It seems to me that this Advancing Education
in Kentucky Program is one which merits the support of everyone be-
cause instead of being in a position of begging and pleading as we have
sometimes been in the past, we are now in the business of planning for
the future.

I am particularly delighted that higher education has been included
on this program because all of us are in this boat together. We cannot
have strong elementary and secondary schools unless we have strong
colleges and universities.

During the past several centuries practically every leader has spoken
out concerning the relationships between democracy and education. Many
people have been led to believe that if only every child could start to
school earlier, stay in school a little longer, and graduate into a society
where he could have the benefits of present types of adult education,
that everything would be well with America and with the world.

But it is becoming increasingly clear that this is a sad illusion. In
the 56 years of the present century we have had many times as much
education as in the entire 19th century, yet we have already killed more
people than were killed in any previous century and several combined.

It would almost appear that the more education we have, the more
effective we are in killing each other. But be more specific if you like.
In Germany, perhaps the most literate nation in human history, highly
educated leaders methodically exterminated six and a half million people
in cold blood. In England and France, the graduates of such institutions
as Oxford and the Sorbonne muddled their way to Munich in a second
World War. Here in America the graduates of our greatest institutions
often times represent us in ways which embarrass us greatly.

‘I could no longer believe that just more education is the solution
to our problem. More important than more education is the task of
achieving a different kind of education. We must, in fact, conceive a
new role and a new place for education and this task is one which cuts
across all levels from kindergarten through our graduate schools.

But my purpose today is that of dealing with, specifically, the role
of higher education —— the future role of higher education, in Kentucky.
Perhaps this is well because those of us involved in higher education
must realize that we have some major re-thinking which needs to be
done. Most of us are primarily interested today in teacher education and
a special part of this program is to be devoted to this tremendously im-
portant area.

I should like to take just a moment or two to say something con-
cerning the relationships of the institutions of higher education to teacher




education. Our institutions in Kentucky have long been famed for their
contributions to teacher education and public education. I think that it
is wise that we recognize the fact that Kentucky has been a pioneer in
many educational, cooperative ventures. In our teaching, in the research
program, and particularly in the service which has been rendered by
the institutions of public higher education to the schools of our State,
we have excelled. But we must be prepared in the next year to do even
more because only through the cooperative efforts of all interested persons
can we make the sort of progress about which Dr. Martin has been
talking. During these next few years the institutions of higher education
must strengthen themselves so that they can meet not only the onslaught
of large increases in enrollment but also offer quality of an educational
program not known in the past.

To do these things, the colleges and universities will need expanded
staffs, larger budgets, and increased vision because we cannot afford
to substitute quantity for quality in these days ahead. We already have
a gigantic lag to overcome. Just as one type of example of this, we found
that in a recent Gallup poll about thirty percent of the adult Americans
polled were unable to identify at all such names as Beethoven, Napoleon,
and Shakespeare. Ten percent of these people had no idea of who Co-
lumbus was and about two-thirds had never heard of Karl Marx, Aris-
totle, or Tolstoy. Eight out of ten had never heard of Freud and practi-
cally no one could identify Reubens. This cultural survey included Ameri-
cans who had graduated from grade school, form high school, and some
who had college degrees. Freud was described by one woman as a King of
Egypt and Karl Marx was named as a movie comedian; Shakespeare was
listed as the founder of the dictionary. In this quiz the answer didn’t
have to be very specific. If he or she said that Aristotle was a philosopher
or that Shakespeare was a writer or a dramatist or a poet or a playwright
or that Beethoven was a musician, he or she was credited with being able
to identify the name.

Perhaps our greatest job in public higher education and the advance-
ment of education in Kentucky is that of changing the values which
many people hold foremost in their minds relative to college and uni-
versity programs. As our society grows more complex and complicated
we shall need more trained people. There have never been too many
educated people in the world. Now we face the challenge of training
enough merely to keep this ponderous and complicated machine moving
efficiently. Our colleges must prepare a sufficient number of persons to
man the important posts in our educational system. We must look to
the time when we can provide a sufficient number of teachers for our
Kentucky schools prepared by Kentucky colleges and universities. We
must be prepared to train the educational leadership needed in these
days ahead. And in addition to the need for preparing additional per-
sons, we must face up to the task of strengthening the social structure
of our nation so we can increase its mobility and adaptability to meet
changing conditions.

As yet, too many qualified young men and young women right here
in Kentucky find education and the choice of their life’s work beyond


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the possibility of realization». Too many barriers of race and creed still
remain. Intolerance and bigotry have not been banished from the land.
Here there is much for education to do. We must begin to think in terms
of educational programs in our colleges and universities with a broad
foundation which will give to every man and woman a full knowledge
of humanities and the sciences. No longer can an engineer be well pre-
pared until he understands the social, economic, and other problems of
his world. In like manner, teachers must have a fuller understanding
of these problems. Only people with an educated understanding
of our strengths and weaknesses and with the will to make the improve-
ments we need can guide us through these critical times.

I think you can understand my plea for a broader type of education,
for I would want a definition of education to fit the time. Several weeks
ago I suggested in my remarks to the August graduates at our commence-
ment program that an educated man in today’s world is one who is
trained and conditioned to be an effective citizen. He will have been
educated to contribute to the economic well—being to the limit of his
creative and productive skill. He will have been educated to contribute
to social stability by his understanding of the world around him and by
his tolerance of the rights and opinions of others. He will have been
educated to contribute to the moral stability of his nation by his accept—
ance and practice of fundamental principles such as personal honor and
integrity, belief in: a Supreme Being, and government by law instead of
by men. And he will have been educated to contribute to the political
stability by his reasoned, thinking approach to public issues and his
ability to lead or follow with equal intelligence. It seems to me that if.
we keep some such definition in mind, we, as educators, will not think
so much, then, in terms of graduating engineers or accountants or doctors
or agriculturalists or lawyers or teachers, but rather as graduating men
and women trained to be effective citizens of our democracy and of the

world. Men and women ready and willing to assume leadership in a
nation crying for more intelligent direction.

. Higher education must be that part of our educational system which
Will prepare men and women for positions of leadership in our society.
What the world needs to know at this juncture is that higher education
is not just another four years of baby sitting. What the world needs to
know is that our colleges and universities believe in quality education
and the preparation of leaders for our society regardless of the profession
or calling in life. This, my friends, is my thinking of the role of higher
education and the task of advancing education in Kentucky.





W. F. O’Donnell, President,
Eastern Kentucky State College

I am, for a few moments, to discuss the place of evaluation in Ad~
vancing Education in Kentucky. My remarks will be brief because of the
limitation of time imposed on me and in consideration of your patience.
I wanted very much to reduce to writing everything that I intended to
say on this occasion, but someone over at our place said the other day
that a speech that is reduced to writing and read is like a kiss that is
delivered by the boy to his favorite girl over a telephone. It is not as
thrilling as it is when delivered personally, but it is more easily kept
under control.

Now, there is nothing new about the need for evaluation, and the
need for evaluation isn’t confined at all to educators and educational
institutions. A continuous program of evaluation of the administration,
the policies, the procedures, the personnel of any organization is necessary
if that organization continues or wishes to continue to move forward. And
that is just as true of colleges and universities and state and local school
systems as it is to those who go to great efforts to sell us the idea that
we should look sharp and be sharp and whatever the rest of it is —— any
way, to call out — how are you fixed for blades.

Now, the worth of any idea or any movement or any organization is
determined by the change that takes place as the result of our having
accepted and implicated that idea or that movement. Evaluation in edu-
cation in our state program is intended to aid in the achievement of the
purposes which Colonel Martin has just outlined for us. Through the
evaluation of the program we will discover the weaknesses of it and be
in a position to do something about it. And if we don’t evaluate them,
the weaknesses may persist, as indeed they have persisted in many school

We have had some experience in Kentucky in the evaluation of edu-
cational programs. The teachers’ colleges of Kentucky, along with the
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education embarked upon
a program of evaluation some years ago that has worked wonders for
the institutions that are members of the Association and have partici-
pated in that evaluation program. Evaluation has been a mighty force
in upgrading the teachers’ colleges.

The evaluation has concerned itself with the training and experience
of the faculty. The teaching load, the ratio between the number of
teachers and the number of students, the size of the library, the personnel
service, the laboratory schools and things of that kind and a study made
on the campus in preparation for a visit by representatives from other
colleges on the outside has produced a wonderful change in teacher
education here in Kentucky —- in fact, throughout the nation.






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Now, we should determine from time to time in providing the serv-
ices which the expanded program here enables us to provide, whether
or not we are moving in the right direction and through the most effec—
tive channels. The job to be done is a tremendous job and is going to
require the best possible contribution for every member of the team.
It is not a question, my friends, of what is good and what is bad in the
program, the techniques, the procedures, the objectives — not a question
of what is good and what is bad —— but it is a question of what is good
and what is not good enough. Evaluation is a cooperative venture and
every member of the team — the superintendent, the principal, the su-
pervisor, the teacher — every member of the team gains something from
this program through increased professional. confidence. Of course, it
involves human beings and no person should be left to feel in the carry-
ing out of this program that any deficiencies revealed in the public
school system that is to be evaluated would be held against the teacher
or the superintendent or the principal. I say it is a cooperative enterprise
involving human beings, and everybody should have a part in it.

Now, I think we need not be in a hurry about full implementation
of this program. I know that Dr. Martin and his associates are eager
to do everything possible to bring to full realization all the hopes and
dreams of those who have so long worked for this Foundation Program.
Former President Hutchins of the University of Chicago took a look at
the presidency some years after he left there and he said that in his
eagerness to make changes he moved rapidly, and he said, “if I had it
all to do over I am sure that what I would accomplish would take a much
longer time, but wh