xt7xsj19n651 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7xsj19n651/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1938 journals kaes_circulars_211_02 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 211 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 211 1938 2014 true xt7xsj19n651 section xt7xsj19n651 i
Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
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Lexington, Ky.
December, 1938
t_ Publisheu in connection with the agricultural extension work carried on by coopera-
ioirol the Collegekoi Agriculture. University of Kentucky, with the U. S. Department of
g§V‘§‘g;¤]\l;[2v¤§1d1glfitributed in furtherance of the work provided for in the Act of C0l1—

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 Circular N0. 211
This circular describes methods and practices that should be of
· assistance in producing “top" hogs live to six months from birth
_ ofthe pigs. Two peaks in the price of hogs occur with regularity,
one in March or April and the other between late july and early
September. Hog raisers can take advantage of these peak prices by
ltttring their hogs ready for market within six months or less from
The kind of breeding stock used is important. Purebred breed-
iug hogs are preferable because they transmit desirable character-
istics to their pigs, whereas grades and nondescripts often do not.
If purebred hogs are broad in spring of rib, long and deep of body,
full aud Plllllll) in the ham, their pigs usually will be of similar con-
fUI`llli\tl()ll. The superiority of purebred breeding stock is due to
many desirable characteristics, established by generations of rigid
selection and proper mating. Always, a purebred boar should be
Characteristics of a good boar are:
Appearance masculine, rugged, and characteristic of the breed
Back high and well arched ·
Bod';) lpéiag and deep, smooth, symmetrical, of even width from front
Heart girth full, broad spring of ribs
Underline straight and even
Hams full and plump
Legs straight, of mediu1n length. Pastern strong
Sound in all respects
.t\ desirable breeding sow is like the boar in conformation except
that she is feminine in appearance and has a well-developed udcler
with ten or more teats. Extremes in length of leg, size or other
characteristics should be avoided. The pork packer wants a hnished
hog which will yield a high percent of medium sized cuts of good

 ·l /{mz/110/<_y· l~]xl¢·11.s·fon (firm:/ur No. 2/I
' (ln;rlit_y, und it nnininitnn illllillllll. ol l2l1`T.T   ’~»   '*·/   .      —V,— · V.  
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Fmuiu: 1. A good type of purebred boar.
By crossbred is nieant the ollspring resulting when purebretls ul
one breed are bred to purebreds ol a dillerent breed. Many lm;
r raisers consider the crossbred superior to the purebred animal in
the [eed lot but experiments do not unilorrnly coniirnr this condu-
sion. On the contrary, tests show that there is little dillerence in the
[eed—lot perlornutnce, either in rate or economy ol growth, ol twr-
bred com mred with >urebred ho »·s.` As breedinv animals, ctw- gm
in 5 _
breds are not so szttislactory as purebreds because on farms pt‘:1tl1l`· lm
ing crossbreeding, replacements lor the breeding herd usuztlly HHN ML
be pttrcltasetl lrotn some breeder ol purebreds, whereas on l1|ll|l‘ ye;
keeping pttrebreds, 1‘epl;tce1nents may be made largely [rom the liltlll m;
herd. Many farmers find it profitable to produce both breeding Ur
Stoek and ntztrket hoes, a double enter arise which increases iltt°011\<’· re;
¤ .
` ll this is practiced, the breeding herd should be registered ptttt atv
breds. so
l"l‘€qll€1ltly there is 21 dillerence between strains ol l)llWblUl Ys

 T/we Pig rom liirlh lo Mar/:r·I in Six Mon/lm 5
c stntiii hogs, even within a breed. This difference may be quite as marked
as the difference between breeds. An illustration of this fact occur»
red in the Kentucky Ton Litter contest. Two purebred litters of
eight pigs each and of the same breed were fed together. They re-
ceived identical feed and care. XN’hen the pigs were 180 days old
one litter weighed 2,185 and the other only 1,915 pounds, a differ
ence of 270 pounds partly attributable to a difference in the two
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mh] in Fmum: 2. A good type of gilt.
*f¢`*"*“‘ .·\ gilt weighing 200 pounds and in thrifty condition is large
S, tlttir enough to breed, regardless of her age. Properly fed and cared for
]**`i*€***" from birth she should reach this size within six months, but every
ll *****‘* t effort should be made to have the sow [arrow by the time she is a
* l****'*‘ Wir old. The wisdom of this procedure is borne Ulll by a study
l*¤*¥**`*'* made by E. Z. Russell, of the De >artment ol Animal Husbandry,
y _ . l .
*`€€l€<[¤"| `

 The Pig from Birth lo Mrirlccr in Six Mon/hs 7
~-an11<»1· Cm
near premises used by :1 large 11U1T1b€1“ of hwgs. $l1Cl1 locations um. H0
ally are heavily infested with worm eggs, and may harbor (lima mo
genus, Pigs are more susceptible to disease and worm i1il`esr;1l1(m mi
than hogs, hence the lIllP()1`[3lTCC ol l<€€pil1g them 011 (Yl(?2ll1 premj$(·\, iw
This susceptibility decreases as the pigs grow older. The interiul D
ol` the ll()llSC should be arranged conveniently, since it is S()lll€llIll(‘x
necessary for the caretaker to assist the sow :11 l`2ll`l`()\Vlllg time.
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Fmum: 3. A good farrcwing house.
` There is little diflierence in the cost ol constructing il well 111
poorly arranged l1o11se. l11 :1 properly built house less labor is 11*- dk
quired in caring for sow and pigs and more pigs will be raised pct mq
sow. Satisfactory llOg·l]()LlS€ plans may be obtained at il noniinzil WU
price from the Agricultural Engineering Department ol` the KC11 lig
tucky Experiment Station. 1:11
A Straw House. Straw 1n:1y be substituted lor lumber i11 llll` 1181
construction of :1 hog house. This has been done on many l`2ll`lll‘· Ol
A number ol straw houses 6 leet by 8 feet in size, have l)€CIl (31111- to
structed on one farm, at :1 cost of $8.50 each. The walls are made 1>l
». straw tamped between strips of woven wire fencing stapled to two th.
sides of seven medium-sized posts, set solidly in the ground. A tl<><»1· in
may be made of lumber and hinged to a post or, in lieu ol a tlom; lm

 'I`/ie Pig from Birth I0 fllarkrl in Six Mrml/is 9
\\'eIl- a bnrlap cloth may be suspended over the door opening. The house
Hihlt is 4% {get high on one side and 3 feet high on the other. It is cov-
>¤<>i‘ Cm] with metal roofing nailed to a detachable wooden frame.
usn— Houses not in use may be dismantled, the straw burned, and the
seasc roofs stored under a shelter until needed. The roofs 1nay be used
ation satisfactorily to make shade needed in summer, on farms not hay-
niso. ing adequate natural shade.
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FIGURE 4. A straw house that cost $8.50.
:lI or .»\ltho the majority of pigs become infested with worms, few
in lf die from them. Perhaps if the mortality were greater, preventive
tl per measures would be more widely adopted. Pigs heavily infested with
ninnl worms are undersized, stunted and rough coated, whereas pigs
Mn lightly infested may look thrifty, yet prove to be unprohtable. Be-
vause of the enormous number of worm eggs deposited on much-
1 tht- used hog lots, worm infestation increases in each succeeding farrow
arms of pigs. Worm eggs may live one to live years in the soil. Rigorous
con- control measures are, therefore, imperative.
(fc"' The adult round worm normally lives in the small intestine of
>*“"’ the pig. It is unattached and may be found at any point in the
d*""` intestinal tract. The adult worm is pinkish-white. lo or more inches
d("’f~ fflllg. {md about the size of gt lead pencil. It has been eslilllilletl lllill

 10 K€7lv[‘llL'](jl Exlertsion Circular N0. 2]]
each female produces 25 to 30 million eggs. Treatments ellectitt init
against worms have no effect on the eggs; hence treated anititalt on
become a menace il allowed to run on lots which are to he ttsttl scrt
later by pigs. · tttlt
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Frcvruz 5. A pig suffering from worms and enteritis.
4A t
Usually within lour to six weeks alter it has been deposited with .
· the droppings, the egg becomes infective—that is, a little wttrttt
develops within the microscopic egg. Protected by a three-layeretl.
horny shell the infective egg is difficult to destroy. \t\]hen swallmtetl I
by the pig the infective egg passes into the small intestine, wltcw lu
it hatches. The little worm passes into the blood stream; then tttt U
thru the liver, the heart and lungs. In the lungs the worm grr>tt‘~ lll
. . . . ll
considerably and crawls into the air passages where it causes mtttlt 1]
. . . . . ~ Qi f
irritation and coughing, and lrequently causes thumps. .·\lttt
coughing the worms out of the lungs, the pig swallows them atitl I
K . . . . _ _ . tt
they hnd their way again to the small intestine where they tout- S
. . . · _ '|
plete their growth. About ten days are required lor the totnplt·ttttt1 }
~ . . . · zt
ol the iourney thru the bloodstream and back to the intestines.
, . _ A ra
CUIIHOI of Rottrirl llormx. ;\ plan perlecletl by the liltlt‘·iU "l
. . . . . . . .‘ . , tu
Animal lndustry ts very ellective in retlnt-ing inlnry lront tttttm

 T/10 Pig from Birth to Mm/cet in Six Mon.//ts ll
zum mtggtatiori. \’VllCll portable f2l1`l`OWlUg houses are used, as is done
t .
mlm on most l{CIllUCky f2U“1TlS, lllC}’ Sll0l1l(l l)C Cl€21IlC(l [l1()l’Oly and then
¤ \ _ . . . . .
, um Suttblyetl with holllllg W&ll€1` to ezlell hve gallons ol which has been
added a l3—ounce can of lye. '1`he house should then be placed on
clean ground, that is, ground that has had no hogs on it for three
years, or ground that has been plowed since it was used by hogs.
'l`he pigs should be kept on the clean territory until at least four
months old or, better, until they weigh l()() pounds. lt is advisable,
‘ but not absolutely lleeessilry, to keep the pigs on clean territory
until ready for market. Pigs weighing l()() pounds or more are
somewhat resistant to worm infestation. Because it was tried iirst
_ in McLean County, Illinois, this plan of parasite and disease con-
ét trol was called the “McLean system ol swine sanitation.
I ll il central laiiowing house is used, the steps ol the plan are:
3 1. Wash the farrowing house thoroly with boiling water and lye ta 13—ounce
i can to 5 gallons water).
  2. Wash the s0w’s sides and udder with soap and water before she is put t
it into the clean farrowing quarters. Remove all mud and dirt. It may
y contain millions of worm eggs and germs.
l 3. When the pigs are a few days old, haul (do not drive) the sow and pigs
Fi to a clean pasture——a field which has been cultivated since last used by
hogs, or one on which no hogs have run for 3 years. i
4. Corinne the pigs to this pasture until they are at least 4 months old, after
_, which they may run in old hog lots without risk of serious injury from
(l “l'l* wo1·m infestation.
"l"‘l';' ornmt PARASITES
' ., Other worms commonl Y found in Kentuck · ho rs are the thorn»
llottttl _ _ _ — _ _
“,lmk_ head, the wlnpworm, two species ol stomach worm, two species ol
wu lm lung worm, the nodular worm, the kidney worm, and the tongue
Umm worm. All these may be controlled successfully by use of the fore-
¤ - V s . . · .--. t
‘nuult going procedure. lhe use of the ‘McLean System ol Sanitation
WU also largely prevents Hlth-borne diseases such as necrotic enteritis.
in itutl Results from demonstrations in this and other states indicate
y com- that the following advantages result when the “Mcl.ean System of
pletittu Sttnitation" is used in raising hogs: more pigs are raised per sow:
nes. zthttut 20 percent of the feed is saved: the usual number of pigs are
.t·;tu ttl rzused from one—fourth to one-third fewer sows, and the pigs reach
wttntt tnarket weight sooner.

 l2 Kenlzzc/ty Extension Circular No. 2/1
Lice. Lice cause constant irritation and rubbing. Hogs liearili L liiise
infested with lice are unprolitable. ln her short lifetime oi (mc i my
month, each female louse produces about 100 eggs. The eggs hatth oil ii
and mature in about a month. Obviously, lice increase in numhti off
at a rapid rate. \‘Vhat, therefore, may be expected of il hog suppolt oil i
ing a heavy infestation of these bloodsuckers, especially when it it hun;
known that the louse punctures the skin anew each time it feeds? abut
Mzuige. Mange is caused by a small mite, almost too small lo ht goot
seen by the naked eye. It burrows into the skin and lives there.
causing great irritation, and the skin of the animal forms in heart
wrinkles wherever infested. Unless control measures are used tht
infestation spreads.
A satisfactory remedy for both lice and mange is crude oil. Pen
the animals in an enclosure of such size that they are crowded. Then (
. spray each animal thoroly with the oil. Left in the pen a while .
after treatment, the animals in moving about become fairly well gm
saturated with the oil. Crankcase oil may be used but not on wliiit mcs
or partly white hogs because it may cause irritation.  
A week before the sow is due to [arrow, she should be put imo is U
the farrowing house so she may become thoroly acquainted with ii`.}
lier new surroundings. Usually, if a sow has made her bed elsewhere Him
before being put into the farrowing house, she is discontented and Sho,
i may break out and return to the place where she Hrst made her hctl. (106
The sow should receive kind treatment at all times and should hc
visited frequently by her attendant, since she may need assistzititt wm
during farrowing. If she is afraid of her master, she may not ptr- thc
mit him to handle the pigs or assist the weak ones in nursing fol {M
the Hist time. lt is next to impossible to assist a wild, vicious sow uu
It is atlvisable not to attempt to assist the sow at larrowing time llllr lm
less absolutely necessary. Pig
Three or four days before the pigs are (lne to arrive. hczll- wc]
[>l`0(lllGiUg feeds, suell as eorn, should be reduced to a inininllllll lll tra
the sow's feed. In fact, some hog men leave out the grain entird} the
illltl Slll)Sllllll(f Wheat bran. lf wheat bran or a similar feed is lllll im

 The Pig from Birth lo Mar/cet in Six M on!/zs 13
V ut-uilgble, reduce the grain ztllowémce and feed */3 to */2 pound Of
earih linseed oil meal daily to each sow. This reduces feverishness in the
f one sow and wards off constipation. lf the sow is on pasture, linseed
hatth oil meal may be unnecessary. lf constipation develops, give a dose
tmhet of 4 to 6 tablespoons of Epsom salts or (5 to 8 tablespoons of castor
pport oil in the feed. On the day she farrows, unless the sow is very
1 it it hungry, she should be allowed no feed but should have access to an
ids? hbtmdant supply of pure drinking water. The following plan is a
to ht- good one to use after the sow farrowsz
lhffh Ration for a 300 lb. sow
hum 1st day—N0 feed. Plenty of water.
id fh`,   2nd day——3 pints wheat middlings or shipstuff.
3rd day—6 pints wheat middlings or shipstuff.
. l’e1t 4th to 8th day—9 pints wheat middlings or shipstuii.
  On the eighth day add corn and tankage (or skim milk) to the
V _ grain mixture. Gradually increase daily the amount of each of
i YH these feeds until the sow is receiving daily 41/Q quarts of middlings .
“ mf tor similar feed), l pint of tankage or 1% gallons of skim milk,
all the grain she will eat, and salt. A full feed should not be
reached before the pigs are Zlé or 3 weeks old. A common mistake
* ****'* is to overfeed the sow while the pigs are too young. Sows fed heav-
f “'**l* ily before their pigs are 2*/3 or 3 weeks old may produce too much
Wl*€*`*? milk for the pigs, which' causes scours. For this reason the sow
d i****l should be brought up to a full feed gradually, so that her milk flow
“*` bcff does not overfeed the pigs.
ml bf The Cree];. As soon as the pigs begin to eat (which will be
mm when they are about 3 weeks old), a creep should be prepared for
A W- them in which they can eat, unmolested by other hogs. A supply
ng lm of shelled corn, tankage, and salt should be kept before the pigs at
S mw all times. A creep may be made of slats nailed on rails nailed to
mf lm, posts. The top of the enclosure is covered with poultry wire. The
pigs enter thru an opening protected by a door hung so as to swing
in and out. This style of creep protects the pigs from chickens as
hfiff well as from older hogs. \tVhatever type of creep is used, the 611-
***** ‘“ · ` ttttnce should be such that the pigs can go thru without bending
****`Cll their backs. Pigs that continually exercise their backs in this man-
‘* Hm **¢1` may become swaybacked and undesirable in ill)l)€Zll`Z`lI"lCC.

 14 Kcnttzc/cy Extension Cirzsu/ur No. 2]] V
1 Full Feeding. From the time the pigs reach 2% or 3 iveqttui mh
age, ;t [ull feed should be supplied to the sow and pigs. This slmuid mw
be done regardless ol whether the litter is intended for breeding or
for market. A 300-pound sow on full feed eats about 8.l potiiiilr  i
daily, or 2.7 pounds ol` grain for each 100 pounds of her it·ejghl_ V»
But after the pigs have begun to eat, the amount of feed needed [rrr  
her and the pigs increases rapidly.
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` tl1€ SOW fl`Olll ll1C pigs, since she eau more readily adapt l1C1`h€ll ll' I gt;]
11€W Slll`l`0llll(lll1gS. Three or four (lQl\`$ before removing ll1<¥ Wl? |·`l
plll l1€l` 011 kl lllllCll·l`€(lll(fC(l allowanee of eorn alone. This Yillllllll to

T/uz Pig from Birl/1 fo A/Iarkrrt in Six Months 15
eeks ni reduces the milk flow, because corn alone does not supply the ele-
should ments necessary to produce a large flow of milk.
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  Fmuma 7. An ideal pig creep. (Courtesy Breeders Gazette.;
Selffeeding consists in keeping feed constantly before the hogs.
Many farmers use the self feeder for feeding weaned pigs. Self fed
X? l11`€ ?11`1`11'€ gain, than hand-fed pigs, and less labor is required in self feeding.
111161*11 Pigs waste less feed when self fed than when hand-fed. The sav-
10 $@111 iw is more marked if the self feeder is set on a floor from which
11 wtf Seattered grain may be removed. Grain tramped into mud or dirt
1l1C $011 is not relished.
tm `L The proportion of protein leed needed is greatest while p1gs are
1·r>xr . . . .
‘l‘ 1<11111g, the requirement decreasing gradually as they grow older.
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I ll; lilfiltlll Ieed is more expensive than grain. As they grow older,
ye in ’ ., · ·__ I . . . . .
‘” stff-fed >1<>s eat relativelv less )l`Ol,<:?lll feed and relativelv more Grain.
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`_ l`1`C(]11Gllll\', when mrs are hand fed, the >ro rortnon of )1`O1€lH feed
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‘l V U1 {{121111 IS not varied aeeorrlirig to their needs, thus ll1Cl`C2\Sll1g

 16 l{zrnI·z1c/cy Exlmzsion. Cirzru/r1rNo. 2Il
sornewhat the cost of p1`OClLlC[l01l. r1`h€ l2lb01` l`€(1Ull`€1ll€nt can [yo wl1Cl
reduced by two—thirds when self feeding is practiced. only
Full—fetl hogs are l`C2l(ly [O 1T1211`l<€K lll1l`l}’ (l2l)’S 0I` Ill01‘e, snow- tank
than hogs gl`()\\/ll tt) l00 t)l` l25 pOLlH(lS OH 3. Slllilll ZIHOWVHIICC of [ged, El. in
during the sunnner, and finished on new corn in the fall. ln con- be p
trast with slowly developed hogs, full—fed hogs usually are may (hw
for market early in the fall, when prices are at the peak. Other
factors favoring full feeding are smaller risk of loss, less ovcrlieatl
expense, less interest on investment, less labor, and less use of .
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Frcmm 8. A self feeder for shelled corn.
. . . . 5
Rarely are pigs given a lull feed unless self fed, from a Ieetlci.
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lhe pig eats at frequent intervals, both day and night. Hand feed- H
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ing twice or three times daily all the feed that the pigs will eat doe
not ensure 21 full feed. Pigs are full fed only when feed is kept hc- i I
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would result. mh
V _ _ _ _ _ . I skin
l`y/2e.v of Se/[ l·eerIer.s`. Self feeders l