xt7xwd3pwc2b_16 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7xwd3pwc2b/data/mets.xml https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7xwd3pwc2b/data/46m29.dao.xml unknown 0.3 Cubic Feet 1 box, 1 item archival material 46m29 English University of Kentucky The physical rights to the materials in this collection are held by the University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center.  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Works Progress Administration Fayette County Library Project records African Americans -- Kentucky Bookmobiles. Libraries and community -- Kentucky -- Fayette County. Libraries -- Kentucky -- Fayette County Libraries -- Kentucky. Library extension. Public libraries -- Kentucky Excerpted quotes regarding libraries and libraries in Kentucky text Excerpted quotes regarding libraries and libraries in Kentucky 2020 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7xwd3pwc2b/data/46m29/Box_1/Folder_16/Multipage116.pdf 1935-1939 1939 1935-1939 section false xt7xwd3pwc2b_16 xt7xwd3pwc2b The Public Library and Kentucky Schools*

Larger Areas:
1. The "Blue Grass," including 35 counties between Covington and Danville.

11. The "Pennyroyal," including 25 counties in southern Kentucky from the


Tennessee River to the edge of the “lue Grass.”

111. The Eastern Coal Fields, or "Hountains," including 27 counties comprising
the entire southeastern portion of the state.

IV. The Yestern Coal Fields, including 10 counties in Western Kentucky north
of the "Pennyroyal."

Smaller Areas:

V. The Louisville area and adjacent "

Hississippian Plateau," including 10

counties between the ”Blue Grass" and the'flostern Coal Fields.

V1. The "Jackson Purchase," including 8 counties in the western tip of the
state, that is, west of the lennessee River.

V11. The Eastern "Knobs," including 7 counties lying east of the "Blue GRass,"
and north of the "Mountains."

Comparison of School library and public library service to the Public school
Pupils of the State by Geographical areas for 1951-52.


Geographical Public Volumes Volumes Volumes Per Pupil
Area School fine for Public in Public Enrolled
T011ment School Libraries
Libraries "Schu3i*"-~*-~*—-~—@ete&r
Libraries Fublic Volumes
Libraries Per Pupil

1. Blue Grass 120,212 226,646 227,732 1.80 1.50 3;?8
ll. Pennyroyul 08,307 144,427 43,003 1.47 .44 1.91
111. Mountains 191,045 130.125 59,926 ‘94 .31 1.25
1v. 33stern Coal .69 2.27

v. Fields 56,852 50,505 39,392 1.53

v. Louisville 55,023 251.014 331.153 2.05 3.89 6.85
v1. Purchase 34,640 53,550 37,055 1.55 1.07 2.32
v11. Eastern Knobs 23,351 10,635 5,000 .80 .21 1.01


State totals
and averages 609,460 965,054 743,266 1.68 1.22

The foregoing figures show graphically the startling inadequacy of library service
in Kentucky and also reveal the great inequalities that exist in the different sections 0
of the state. When it is realized that those regions which have the larger number of
books per school pupil (as inadequate as this figure still is) have this advantage sole—
ly by virtue of the fact that there are one or two larger cities in the region with
sizeable book collections in schools or in public libraries, it is then possible to ap—
preciate the disproportionate lack of books and library service in the state as a
whole outside of the few larger population centers. The same observation emphasizes
the opening statement, namely, that economic and social factors determine the develop—
ment of library service in any cemmunity (or region). It is plainly indicated that


 rural and mountain areas are at a serious handicap and and must eventually have
assistance from the state for the development of necessary library services.

Two additional comments on the fonegoing tabulation are offered: (1) The figures
show the total number of volumes available per pupil in the public schools. The
scope of this study does not include a consideration of the oroblem of library service
available to the pupils of non-public schools. Also there are thousands of young
people out of school and tons of thousands of adults all of chem need reading material
if for not other reason than to justify the state's effort to stamp out illiteracy.
Learning to read and write is oi no avail 1f, afterward, printed matter is not always

(2} lbs tabulated figures indicate the reported total of all books available
in 1931~32 in $33 several regions. This he no indication of the kind of books nor of
the condition of the books. It requires no imagination to be quite pessimistic on
these scores. It is all too probable that the vast majority of the book collections
in schools and in public libraries are rather nondesoript accumula ions both as to
selection and appearance; perhaps most of those books are venerable but unis spired

Conclusions: A tabulation of the library resources of Kentucky indicates the utter
inadequacy of books and library service to meet the needs of schools, and the still
more serious lack of books andlibrary so vice to meet the needs of young people and
adults out of school. it is known, noreover, that existing book collections, inade-
quate as they are ni numbers, are cvcn more inadequate in noint of kind and condition
of books that make up these collections. These conclusions apply to the state as a
whole, rural and suburban, with exceptions only in a very small number of t*e larger

There is a place and need for both school and public library service in all
communities. For economic reasons these services are best 'stablished on the basis
of a larger area to be served, a countv for example. In the case of public library
service nuw means of support are nodded for two extension of this service, specifically
tPe "regional plan“ involving cooperation between two or more counties, and ”state
financial aid" for counties that cannot support their own library ser ice. These new
means call for new libsrary legislation. In the meantime the State Library Commission
is the "backbone" of library sorticc available to t a large areas of the State that
otherwise lack service.

In the promotion of public library service in counties or communities where
none, or practically none, now exists the schools may play a signally important part,
receiving benegit themselves as they thus extend educational benefit to the community
as a whole.

The form of local administration most desirable for school library ser ice or for
public library service depends entirely on local differences and local circumstances,
and may often change fundamentally from the form adopted at the inception of such ser-
vice develops and attains a greater degree of permanency in the community. In general,
it is felt that ultimate separation of the two cortices in inevitable.

Finally, it is apparent that concertd action is required on the part of all the
educational forces of the stée, both school and libfiry, in cooperation with related
forces and with local leadership, in tn effort to provide the people of Kentucky,
children and adults, with school and public library service adequate to strengthen
instruction in school and to mak real the ideal of CONTINUING EDUCAFIUH THROUGHOUT

a Educational Bulletin, Department of Education. Vol.11 Jan.l?55, PP.56-ol



Radio add ress of Dr Frank P Graham; May 7 1938

Federal aid to education became a historic part of the American
system before even the adoption of the Constitution has been con—
tinued in a long succeSsiOn of congressional grants to the States
for agricultural voCational and higher edudation, and will be a
further fulfillment of the gree t American tradition of Eedera l aid
to the States for roads egriCulture, health, research, Ihugher
education and social securitygI Failure to provide‘Federal aid now
for the elementary and secondary schoOls is- a failure of the Ameri—
can system to follow through for the most basic of all our Ameri—
can institutions. It is a failure to carry forward the democratic
idea of more equal edueational opportunity for all the American
Ichildren. ‘ JEqual educatione l opportunity of the Children who are
. to be citizens of both the States and the Nation is the me in re—
sponsibility of our constitutional Republic of the States and

The main support of public educatiOn'will continue to be by the
States and localities It is proposed merely to supplement the
$2 GOO GOO GOO now provid.cd by the States and' localities with Fed—
eral appropriations which in the sixth year for all purpOses will
total $199 000 000. Of this amount six millions will be for teach—
er education in a country in which one—fourth of the teachers ha
not gone beyond the high school. Six milliOns Will be for ruralV
libraries, in View of the feet that of the 45 GOO 000. people with—
out local access to public libraries thirty nine and one+he lf
.million of them liVe in rural areas. Fifteen millions wi] 1 be for
adult educatiOn in a nation of 75_ 000 000 adults 36 C)QQ COO of
whom did not get beyond eiIghth gre de l5,IQQO 000 it is estimated
cannot read intelligently the daily newspaper and more than

7 GOO GOO cannot read at all and more especially in View of the
fact that the conception of adult educe tion has advanced from an
exclusive concern With the immigrant, the unskilled, the under-
schooled and the underprivileged to a coneern fer continuous and
universal voluntary education Of all adults 2-2-

Most important of all, one hundred and forty millions in the sixth
year are proposed for the elementary and seeondary echOOls The
approximately $300, 000 000 provided annually now for the less than
300 000 young men in the economically productive and socially de—
sirable Civilian ConservatiOn Corps emphasizes the far~reaching
value of the modest $140, QQO OOO propOSeId as Federal aid to the
States for theI more  Ithan 2I6I 3IQO QQO children in the public schools.

The terms of the control of public education will continue to be
,in the hands of the States and localities. ProVision for local anf
State control is expressly written i'n the Federal bill .with the
freedom and autonomy of the localities and -States preserved as new
in the Selection Of teachers and curriculum the anagement of text
books, schOOl busses health Service and the entire administration
of the schools I~ I , I2I » - 2 . J2T‘iti

The twO main principles for the distribution of the Federal funds
will be equitable distribution between the races and democratic


distribution among the States according to the economic ability of
the States and the number of children per adult population. The fol-
lowing fabts established by committee studies which mnke the basis
for this principle will burn themselves into our American democratic
consciousness and move the people to action.

‘In 1930 the farm people in the United States obtained 9 percent of
the Nation's income and yet supported 31 percent of the Nation's
children. Southeastern farm people, with approximately 4,250,000
children, received 2 percent of the national income, while north—
eastern nonfarm people, with approXimately 8,500,000 children re—
ceived 42 percent of the national income. In three states less than
$30 per child was invested in public education, while in three states
more than $120 per child was invested. A higher tax rate is required
to provide the $30 per child in three states than is required to pro~
vide the $120 per child in the three other states. In the states

of the least economic ability the people pay the highest tax rate fo
the education of their children on the lowest plane in the Nation.

An economic, social, and cultural lag in any part of the country is
an economic, social and cultural damage to all parts of the country.
Forty percent of the young people 10 to 20 years old on farms in
1920 were in cities at the end of the decade. Sixty percent of this
net migration was from southern rural areas. -While some regions are
failing to reproduce their own population, the South has a 30 per
cent excess of births over deaths. ,The region with less than a third
of the population has more than 50 percent of the excess of births
over deaths in the Nation. ,A large proportion of the children who
in their nonproductivc years are supported and educated by rural
people become in their economically creative years the producers in
the vital industries and the citizens of the urban communities. The
quality of the education in these rural areas is a matter of vital
concern to the industries, the cities, and the people f the whole
country. Economic inability and educational overload Coincide in
the same rural and sectional areas to fix educatiOnal inequality and
to impair the foundations of our national democracy.~ Just-as with—
in the States children in rural localities can have a fairer educa—
tional opportunity only through State aid to the localities so chil—
dren in the rural States can have a more equal educational opportuni—
ty only through Federal aid to the States. Over half of the Ameri—
can States are rural States. ' , , , , ‘ 4 w

Our corporate business structure while drawing en the rural States,
on all elements of the population, all sections of the country, and
all resources of the Nation, concentrates the greatest wealth in
the metropolitan areas with the least number of children per adult
population. Much of the low valued raw source of this-wealth is
"bac fin the areas where are the greatest proportion of children.
These natural reseurces, theSe raw materials, the work of the peopke
in these tributary areas contribute greatly to wealth at its level
of hig est valuations and in its Centers of greate8t~coh0entration
where are-the least propertion of children. 'The Federal Government
is the only agency which can redress this economic'and-educational
imbalance between the metropolitan areas of the greatest concentra—
tion of wealth and the rural areas of the greatest concentration

Of children per adult population., Three7fourths of the cost of
public education is carried by taxation of property ehiefly local.


For the most part taxation pf agricultural property is taxation of
the people on the farms where the tax is imposed. It cannot be
shifted. Taxation of financial and industrial wealth, to an in—
creasing extent in our intergrated national industrial systems, is
shifted to the consumers of the whole Nation. Since all sections,
all resources, and all the people combine to produce the wealth
concentrated in the great centers and since all the people as con—
sumers help pay the taxes on this wealth it is that a little bit
of the income from this wealth as Federal aid to public education
should go back to the States whence it came and where are now the
largest proportion of chilcren whose equality and quality of educa~
tion determine the future of democracy in America.

With democracy in retreat in many parts of the world may America
give a lift to the democratic hopes of the forgettsa millions in
all parts of the world with a new declaration for ejuitable and
democratic Federal aid to public education under flinte control in
the American way for the fairer chance and more equal opportunity
of all the children in all the states.

Congressional Record, May 10,1938



When.yoo came back to school this Year Sou mere
probably Surprised to find a new library in the reem
next to the offiee.

I”Why should we haVe'another library?" you probably
asked. "Isn‘t ours one of the best school libraries
in Fayette County?" Indeed it is; but this new library
is a different kind entirely. t cannot compete with
yours, and it will not try to duplicate your books.
Because, in this new library, we have mostly put books
which your father and mother or grown—up sister or
brother might like to come and get or have you bring home
to them. . ' '

For years the people in Fayette County have paid
taxes which helped buy the books in the Lexington Public
Library. But often the people were too busy to go into
Lexington to get these books to read., So now the Fayette
Community douncil has asked the W.P.AL and the Fayette
County School Board to_help it bring some of those forty-
four thousand books in the Lexington Public Library out
into the county where they can be borrowed more easily.
There are five book centers placed in the county already,
‘and more will be opened as soon as possible. Perhaps
you have already seen the little trailer which carries
the books back and forth to the centers, and which some—
times is able to visit private farms.

Though the book collections are small, we hope that

“.we can supply.books which every member of the family will

'enjoy. If Mother or Father wants a-special book, or kind
-of beck; be sure to ask Mrs. Collingsworth, the librarian,
to see if.she can get it from the library for them. She
is always glad to try. Of course we have more story books
than anything else,.but we can also getzbopks about sports
andlgames,:animals; aviation, farming, carpentry, garden—
-ing, home care, machinery, and lots of other interesting
subjects. If you are collecting stamps, for instance, or
’want to draw pictures, tell us about it, and we‘ll try to
vget=booksfabout it for:you. "Radio and_moving pictures are
fun;'but they can;never“take'the plaCe of a good book.


I \.
i KENW: CR \



We, the pupils of grade, resolve to adopt
and faithfully execute Wis set of rules. We pledge
ourselves as follows:

To reverence God.

To uphold the morals of our school.
To be courteous.jl_ '
To be prompt fl ‘

To be industrious.

To be a friend to these in need.

To be honest.”

To be obedient.

To read good books.

To strive for_bctter English.

To keep Our school room nest and clean.
To preserve all school property.

To befs geod sport at all times.
.To obs.erve the rules of health.

",To'be a Creeit to our school.

" '3? 65-41")!

ug"Tis education forms the common mind;
Just as the twig is bent the tree' s inclined

__———+ Pope.


17We went to vsshinton City  on our vece tion and Sew meny

pinteies ting things. First ,We seW the Capitol euilding With

-its huge dome' and man;I DWautiful paintingrs, s-nd the rooms
Where. the senetOr s and representatives met. ~ -»

; From the Capitol We Went to see Washing ton monument and
iLinool n memorial Later we drove to Mt. Vernon, the home
-30f Our Eirst president A“ -‘ »

gAt the Museum, We saw th eirplene mn which Lindbergh

- flew on his non~stop fli ght Erom New vork to Paris. We
also saw Wiley Post' 5 plane, the first auto, first airjle.ne
and first train. On our trip we saw Corrigan six times.

At the mint, we S? W them make 100,000 bills. They are now
making more$2 bills than e.t any other time. Our trip was
very instructive.

——— Loyall



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 Bell, Ira. firoblems of equalization of public education in Kentucky.
Ky. School Journal. Jan. 1939 p.10-15.


...a comparison of ten poor county (group B) districts in Kentucky with
ten more fortunate districts (group A). (B group is formed of mountain counties;
A group is in other part of the state). The revenue recicved from local taxation
is $29.00 in group A and less than .3.00 in group B, alttough local tax effort
in these two groups is identical averaging 65° schorl tax.

Sibraries in schools of Group A consist of 13000 elementary school library books
and 21000 high school library books as compared with 2,750 elementary library
books and 4350 high school library books in Group B.