xt7xwd3q021t https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7xwd3q021t/data/mets.xml Jewish Federation of the Bluegrass Kentucky Jewish Federation of the Bluegrass 1988 Newsletter of the Jewish Federation of the Bluegrass, previously named the Central Kentucky Jewish Association and Central Kentucky Jewish Federation. The Federation seeks to bring Jewish community members together through holiday parties, lectures, Yiddish courses, meals, and other celebrations of Jewish heritage and culture. They also host fundraisers and provide financial assistance for Jews in need, both locally and around the world. newsletters  English Jewish Federation of the Bluegrass  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Jewish Federation of the Bluegrass records Jews -- Kentucky -- Lexington Jews -- History Central Kentucky Jewish Federation newsletter, Summer 1988, volume 11 number 5 text Central Kentucky Jewish Federation newsletter, Summer 1988, volume 11 number 5 1988 1988 2020 true xt7xwd3q021t section xt7xwd3q021t  

“3:3" Komwcaky
l Emdrfiiom




veg. , -1

Camp Shalom was a huge success.
Forty-three campers, along with Director
Mark Scarr, and counsellors Sandi Adland,
Kelly Eichhorn, Lisa Campbell, Naomi and
Laura Clewett, Shayna Lerner and Eli Scarr
had an exciting three weeks of activities
in fresh air and sunshine.

They went on field trips to Raven Run,
Coldstream Farm, Woodland and Jacobsen
Parks and the Planetarium in Berea. On
site they learned about hugs and origami

Thanks to all who participated in
making this a wonderful Camp Shalom




Editor’s Note: The following was written
by David Harris for Ca ital U date, a
publication of The American Jewish Commit-


Israel is in trouble. Even were the
issues not enumerated daily for us both in
the print and electronic media, our
instincts tell us as much. But what is
not as obvious is what we can do from this
end to help.

Many American Jews have anguished and
agonized during the past four months.
Difficult questions without apparent
answers have been brought into sharp
focus. Confusion and uncertainty have
gripped parts of the community. But in
too many cases a paralysis has resulted.
People are not certain what to do, so, as
often as not, they do nothing.

Whether an individual agrees with, say,
the current Labor or Likud viewpoint,
there is a strong underlying case to be
made for Israel, and we need to make it.
Israel is faced with difficult, even
painful choices that go to the heart of
its security concerns. No other sovereign
state in the region must confront such
core survival issues. If the American
Jewish community does not fulfill its task
to interpret Israel sympathetically to
this country —- and this does not neces-
sarily require agreement with every action
taken in Jerusalem -— American support for
the Jewish state could erode.

Friends and supporters of Israel should
be concentrating their efforts on five
specific activities:

If we are to be

1. Learn the Facts.
maximally effective in
events, we ourselves need to be on top of
the issues. Too many of us are not. The
debate is becoming increasingly sophisti-
cated and requires a good understanding of
background and context. For many Ameri-
cans, it seems that the Arab-Israeli
conflict began on December 9, 1987, the
starting date of the current wave of
unrest. Obviously, that’s not true. We
have to be able to explain that more than
four decades of significant history have
brought us to this point. For example,

the current picture might be very differ-

ent if the Arabs, the




Palestinians, had been at all

since 1947.


2. Contact Members of Congress.
Perhaps uncertain of what to say, too few
friends of Israel have written to their
Congressmen and Senators. It is vital to
write these officials and urge their
continued support and understanding for
Israel’s predicament. Send an informative
article or sympathetic editorial that you
found in the press and urge the legislator
to place it in the Congressional Record.
Seek meetings with your members of Con-
gress; be sure to acknowledge if they
publicly say something favorable about

3. Do Not BE Afraid of the Media.
Lots of people complain about the media’s

reporting, but mostly they complain to
themselves and their friends. If you
think the media have mishandled a story,

shown a lack of objectivity, ignored the
context, used a misleading headline,
presented an unbalanced editorial, etc.,
say something. The assumption is incor—
rect that nothing can change the media’s

mind, so why even try. Indeed, if people
do nothing to show displeasure, then what
will ever change? Write directly to the

editor or the ombudsman, especially if you

can thoughtfully document a pattern of
unbalanced coverage. Submit letters to
the editor and opinion pieces. Place
phone calls or write letters to the

networks, particularly when an especially

offensive segment is shown, such as the
by-now notorious ABC piece on Israel and
South Africa.

Experts indicate that the media seldom
will openly acknowledge error in imbal-
ance, but well-reasoned protests by

viewers or readers may nonetheless have a
beneficial impact. One example: A col-
league met with the editorial board of a
leading newspaper that had published
several editorials chiding Shamir for his
alleged intransigence on the
”land-for-peace" question. "I don’t deny

your right to make such statements," said
my colleague, ”but I assume you also are
writing editorials calling to task Arab

leaders for their failure to be forthcom-

ing.” The editors shamefacedly admitted
they had not but would now consider doing

continued .................... on page 3



 Five Ways to Help lei-eel, continued

4. Travel to Israel. This is not a
time for us to hold back on visiting
Israel. To the contrary, it is an oppor-
tunity to underscore our close links with
Israel, to share impressions with Israe-

lis, to learn more about the current
situation, and to assure Israelis that
they are not being abandoned. Recent

travellers report that life is continuing
normally and peacefully in most parts of
the country.

5. Talk about Israel with Non-Jews.
America’s support for Israel has always
been drawn from a broad spectrum of this
country’s population who have understood
the fundamental ethical, strategic and
historical ties that have bound the U.S.
and Israel for four decades. It is vital
that we find opportunities to meet with

representatives of Christian, civil
rights, ethnic, labor and other civic
groups to explain our perspectives and
hear theirs, and to answer their ques-

tions. But again, to do so effectively
requires a good grasp of the issues.

Simply put, if we do not undertake
these tasks, who will?


The 1988 General Assembly of the
Council of Jewish Federations will be held
in New Orleans from November 16-80. The
G.A.’s theme will be Areyvim Zeh Bazeh:
Responsibility and Service; Federation’s
Role in Creating a Caring Community. The
theme is taken from the Talmud: “Kol
Yisrael Areyvim Zeh Bazeh” (All Jews are
responsible for one another.) The SA as
it is usually referred to, is one of the
most exciting, stimulating and educational
meetings to take place each year. Imagine
a gathering of 3,000 Jews actively
discussing and disputing current issues of
concern and relevance to all. This is the
essence of the GA--Come and be a part of




MARVIN KRISLDV, son of Joseph and Evelyn
Krislov on his graduation from Yale Law
School. Marvin was on the staff of the
Yale Law Journal and his article on
Tenants Rights in Public Housing will
appear soon. He has a clerkship with a
Federal District Judge in San Francisco
for the coming year.

RUTH BELIN, daughter of Jo and Bob Belin
on being one of two valedictorians at
Henry Clay High School. She has won
several awards and scholarships including
the National Merit Scholarship, the
Lexington Woman’s Club award, French award
and Junior League Service award. She
plans to enroll at Yale University in the
fall and study international relations or

elected as the Dukakis delegate to the
National Democratic Convention in July.
Evelyn is president of the Greater Lexing—
ton Democratic Noman’s Club.

STEVEN CALLER on being named chairman of
the United Way Winner’s Circle campaign
for the second consecutive year. The
Winner’s Circle is a special designation
for personal gifts to the United Way that
exceed $1,500.

recent wedding.

SARA ADES, daughter of Harriet and Mike
Ades, on her graduation from Yale Univer-

RUSS HOOSNICK, On his graduation from
Boston University.











The CKJF Office is currently in the
process of identifying newcomers to the
Jewish community in preparation for
”Shalom Lexington”. If you know of anyone
new to the community within the past year,
or anyone we might have overlooked, please
contact the office (252—7622).





Editor‘s Note: 15 excerptec
from Jewish Post Tuae S, 19R~
The deCision isn’t in yet on what

President Reagan accomplished as far as
human rights in the summit, but the weight
of opinion thus far seems to state “very

His chief critic was A. M. Rosenthal,
op-ed columnist of the New York Times, who

wrote that ”The strangest episode came
when Mr. Reagan was asked by a student
about his interest in refuseniks and

dissidents. With great joviality, Mr.
Reagan said one of the most inane and
insensitive things any President has ever
uttered. It was all the fault of the
Soviet bureaucracy, he said. Why, we have
the same type of thing in the U. S. Every
once in‘a while somebody has to shake the
bureaucracy by the neck and say stop, what
are you dOIng? So he was bringing some
lists of the oppressed to Moscow to Mr.
Gorbachev, obviously so that he could just
go shake up those pesky bureaucrats.”

Rosenthal said that ”This total distor-
tion of reality was so stunning that twice
American correspondents publicly offered
him a chance to get out of it. Twice Mr.
Reagan declined, clearly not knowing what
they were talking about - or what he was
talking about, for that matter.”

An opposite view came from the
Anti~Defamation League of B’nai B’rith.
In a letter from its national chairman
Burton S. Levinson and its national
director. Abraham Foxman, said: ”By word
and deed, you made us proud this week in
Moscow. Your commitment to religious
freedom and human rights has come through
loud and clear, and we know that your
efforts have been a source of strength and
comfort to tens of thousands of Soviet
Jews, as well as countless other victims
of Soviet human rights abuse.”

Representative Henry J. Hyde of Illi-
nois disagreed. "It was wrong,” he said
to ascribe repression to the bureaucrats
rather than characterize it as a central
part of the Soviet system.

Sen. Gordon J. Humphrey may have been
sarcastic when he told The New York Times
that "The President must have gotten
awfully impressed with the glamor and
glitter.” And Representative John Kemp



issued a press release in which he stated
that ”Human rights problems are endemic to
the Soviet Union, not Just the bureaucra-
cy, but the fundamental nature of govern—
ment . "


Editor‘s Note: The following has been
excerpted from an article appearing in the
Near East Regogt, May 33, 1988.

Sens. Mitch McConnell (R—KY.) and
Bennett Johnston iD—LA.) v01ced support
for continued strong U.S.-Israel ties,

praised Israel‘s success in
nation—building, and--in banquet
speeches-~urged its backers in this

country to persevere.

More than 1,500 people attended the
AIPAC conference dinner, including 35
Senators, 55 Representatives, officials
from the executive branch and diplomats
from the United Kingdom, West Germany,
Egypt and China.

McConnell noted that ”as Israel cele-
brates her 40th anniversary, you keep
hearing on the talk shows and reading in
the papers the question, ‘has Israel lost
its way?’ It‘s a sign of how rapidly the
world is changing that such a question
could be asked only 90 years after Isra-
el’s founding.

”Yet as Time magazine has said, 'lsrael
cannot afford to lose its way.’ And we
all know the reason why: because the
margin of error is so small.

There are enemies‘ on Israel’s borders
that threaten. There are enemies with
long-range missiles that threaten. There
are demographic trends that threaten.
Israel’s own increasing internal divisions
threaten, and the strain is unrelenting,“
McConnell stated.

“This small margin of error is why so
many supporters of lsrael, like myself,
are sensitive to any critiCism of Israeli
policy, believing that every criticism
saps Israel’s energy for dealing with the
dangers she faces.”

continued ........................ on page 5



 Senators Reaffirm Emport, continued

McConnell warned that "if the American
people aren’t educated through discussion,
they will not continue to appreciate why
we’re so important to Israel and why
Israel is so important to us....lf the
American people don’t have a firm appreci—
ation of the U.S.-lsrael relationship,
they will be worn down by the TV footage
of Palestinians being scattered by tear
gas and bullets and the evening news
reports of how many have been killed.”

He referred to a recent Gallup poll
which suggested that television images of
the Palestinian Arab uprising have begun
to weaken U.S. public support for aid to
Israel while increasing sentiment for
direct Israeli-PLO talks. "Clearly, the
job of educating Americans about Israel's
needs and vulnerabilities is not complete.
It’s not enough for American Jews to
support Israel, the rest of the country
must do so as well.“

Instead of ”hunkering down“ like a
Jack—rabbit waiting for a windstorm to
blow over, supporters of U.S.-Israel ties
should work at letting the American people
”understand what is at stake....that
Israel is a country very much like the
United States”.


"Remember the Children", a participato—
ry exhibit showing the Holocaust from a
child’s perspective, opened April 18th at
the Capital Children’s Museum in Washing—
ton, D.C. It will run through July Blst
at the museum, 800 3rd Street, N.E.,
between the hours of 10~5 daily.

"Nazi Book Burnings and the American
Response” is an exhibit co~sponsored by
the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council and
the Library of Congress’ Center for the
Book to memorialize the tragedy and to
remember lessons of those events. The
exhibit will run from April 11th through
September 11th on the first floor of the
Library of Congress’ Madison Building at
First Street and Independence Avenue,
S.E., in Washington, D.C.



The Louisville celebration of the 40th
anniversary of the State of Israel will
come to a musical climax wednesday eve—
ning, Aug. 17th when the loo-member Israel
Philharmonic Orchestra performs in the
Kentucky Center for the Arts Whitney Hall.

Julian Shapero and Shirley Markus,
chairmen for the event said when making
the announcement of the orchestra’s
concert ”this is the most exciting thing
which has happened musically to Louisville
in years and of course this orchestra,
which had its birth in pre—Israel
Palestine is the State’s most important
cultural group. We hope that people will
remember that not only is this orchestra
Israel’s best musical ambassador; but that
they are one of the top five orchestras
anywhere in the world as well". ”They
have what critics say is probably the
finest string section anywhere in the
orchestra world,“ he noted, adding ”every-
one hears about it and gets excited when
Isaac Stern or Yitzhak Pearlman is coming
to town, and collectively this is an even
greater occasion.”

In its Louisville performance the
orchestra will be conducted by a likewise
world—class conductor in the form of Kurt
Masur. Masur is probably best known for
his work as music director for many years
of Germany’s Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra.

The programme for the Louisville
Concert will be a familiar one for audi—
ences anywhere and will include a Haydn
symphony, the very well known "Pictures at
an Exhibition” and best of all Beethoven’s
5th Symphony.

There will be a patron’s reception with
the orchestra members and conductor Masur
present. The party, for everyone who
attends as a patron will include a buffet
and drinks and a chance to socialize with
the players. Patron tickets are $lES/per-
son. A limited number of patron seats
which can only be purchased through the
Louisville Federation office are avail—
able. All other tickets ($5—t50) are now
available at the Kentucky Center Box
Office or by calling (508)584-7777. If
there is enough interest, CKJF will
charter a bus to Louisville. For more
information contact the CKJF office





The significance of Jewish humor in the
Soviet Union is chronicled in a just
published collection of goues entitled
"The Jokes of Oppression: The Humor of
Soviet Jews,“ co—authored by David A.
Harris, Hashington Representative of the
American Jewish Committee and national
coordinator of the historic 1987 rally for
Soviet Jewry, and lzrail Rabinovich, a
native Soviet who now teaches Russian at

the Defense Language Institute in
Monterey, California. The 276—page book
is published by Jason Aronson Inc.

(Northvale, N.J.).

The book has been chosen as the main
selection of the Jewish Book Club for the
month of May and as alternate selection
for the Psychology Today Book Club. The
following are a sampling of the jokes:

Sarah and Khaim were discussing the
news again. .

“Sarah, have you read today’s Pravda?”
Khaim asked excitedly. They’re praising
the Jews.“

”At last!" Sarah exclaimed. “And what
did they write?”

”They wrote,” said Khaim, ”that Soviet
violinists are the best in the world.”

”Soviet intellectual development is
much more advanced than that of the
Israelis,” said the director of Odessa
OVIR (bureau which handles emigration) to
his wife. “For example, in Israel, the
debate about ‘Nho is a Jew‘ has been going
on for decades; but in our office, we can
decide the question in no more than five

Khaimovich sought the help of a psychi-

”Doctor, I have a three-way personality
split, ” Khaimovich complained.

“Good heavens! What exactly do you
mean?” asked the bewildered doctor.

”You see,“ Khaimovich explained, "I
think one thing, say another, and do a

”I'm very sorry, Khaimovich,” said the
doctor sadly, ”but we still have no cure
for the effects of party membership.“

' An American tourist visiting the Soviet
Union in the 19805 approached a man on a
Moscow street.



”what‘s the difference in political
structure between the United States and
the Soviet Union7” he asked.

“Just like in your country, we also

have two political parties,“ the Soviet
replied. ”The only difference is that
while one is in power, the other is in

when the Odessa Jew was advised at the
Rome transit point that she had been
accepted for resettlement in New York, she
began to cry.

“What 5 the matter?” asked the soczal
worker. ”He thought you wanted to go to
New York.”

“No, no, you can’t force me to go
there. I absolutely refuse to get on the
plane,” she screamed.

”But where is it you want to go?” the

soc1al worker asked.
”Brooklyn, USA'” she said emphatically.

Editor‘s Note: The following was excerpt~
ed from the Lexington Herald~Leader
Scoreboard. Mav 31, 1988.

At Idle Hour C.C.

Yesterday, Biff Vanderpool aced the
Ell~yard llth holy using a E—iron.
Witnessing the shot were Theodus Washing—
ton, Jack Chang and Bernie Rosenburg.

Editor’s Note: The following was excerpt'
ed from the Lexington-Herald Leader. June

8, 1988.


An item in Tuesday’s Herald-Leader incor-
rectly reported a hole-in—one at Idle Hour
Countrv Club. There was no hole-in-one



KET is in the process of showing a series
of Shalom Sesame programs (Sesame Street
taped in Israel). They are being shown on
Sunday mornings, 10:00 a.m. on Channel
Qé-Cable l8.






The Stars of David is the national
support network for Jewish and
partly—Jewish adoptive families of all
sizes, ages and origins. Encompassing
every branch of Judaism, its local chap-
ters and national mailings serve conven-
tional adoptive families as well as

prospective parents, single parents,
grandparents, intermarried couples, and
interracial families with biological


The Stars of David is co-sponsored by
Temple Shalom Emeth of Burlington, Massa-
chusetts and by the Northeast Council of
the Union of American Hebrew Congrega-
tions. Although all members are available
to each other through the Membership List
for advice on every aspect of adoption,
the Stars of David is not an adoption

To join, please return $6 (or more)
with your name, address, phone number and
the names, birthdates, and countries of
origin of your children to Phyllis Nissen,
2A Lisa lane, Reading, MA. 01867.


The following missions are available:

Summer Singles Mission — July 17-87
Summer Singles Mission — July 31—Aug. 10
Prime Minister’s Mission - August 14—19
Jubilee Missions — Europe/Israel
October 9—19
UJA Women’s Division National Board
Jubilee Mission - October 9—19
Young Leadership Cabinets’ Livnot Mission
October 28-31
Fall Study Mission - November 6-16
Winter Family Mission — Dec.2€-Jan. 1
Winter Students Mission - Dec. 85—Jan.4

For details, contact the CKJF office


Day grows darker
And darker.
Gangs come nearer to the town,
Gangs muddled with blood
From killing children hardened,
Coming closer zealously greedy,
Cutting heads,
Exhausted, terrified heads.
And my head too,
My head that’s yet so young,
And too my heart,
That lullabied deep inside the joy of

...A survivor tragic

Hill enumerate the slain.

My dead name will he write

Along with many others in letters small
On a lengthly list.

Oh, may he not forget at least

To note on that long list

How old I was!

Let him leastwise note,

That my heart was bloody young
That strong, like fear,

Has my will to live,

Strong and crazed,

Like my final day.

—- Leyb Kvitko (1893-1958)

On the night of August 12, 1952,
twenty—four leading Jewish poets, writers
and intellectual figures were executed in
the basement of Moscow’s notorious
Lubianka Prison. These were not random
executions, but the culmination of a
calculated campaign to eradicate Jewish
life in the Soviet Union.



Mr. & Mrs. Jeff Heller and Mr. & Mrs.
David Doctrow invite you to join us on
Friday, August 5, 8:00 p.m. at Temple
Adath Israel for the baby naming of Rachel
Lauren Heller. An Oneg Shabbat will be
held in Rachel’s honor.



333 Naller Ave., Suite 5
Lexington, KY. 40504
(606) 258-7622

Gail R. Cohen, President
Linda Ravvin, M.l.S., Administrator
Charlotte Levy, Editor
Betty Hickey, Office Manager

Council of Jewwish Federations






Tisha b’Av is one of the two major fast
days in the Jewish calendar, in terms both
of its significance and of its duration.
Tisha b’Av marks a group experience: a
religious catastrophe within a national
and political catastrophe. What are we
observing on Tisha b’Av? We are marking
instances of Jewish tragedy, a remarkable
number of which are associated with this
date or, at least, with this season.

In the Mishnah (800 C.E.), the Rabbis
recorded five events that occurred on the
ninth day of Av. The first was the
Israelites’ tearful acceptance of the
false report about the Land brought back
by ten of the twelve scouts sent out by
Moses (the two accurate reports, the
minority view, were presented by Joshua
and Caleb). As a result, according to
tradition, not only was it ”decreed
against our fathers that they should not
enter into the Land,” but God also told
them, ”You wept without cause; therefore,
I will make this an eternal day of mourn-
ing for you.” It was at that time decreed
that the Temple would be destroyed on the
9th of Av and our people go into exile.
(How does this accord with the doctrine of
free will?) The First and Second Temples
were destroyed at this time (by
Nebuchadnezzar, in 586 B.C.E., and by
Titus, in 70 C.E.). Bar Kokhba’s last
fortress, at Betar, fell on Tisha b’Av,
and the city of Jerusalem plowed over by
Hadrian in 135 C.E. (who established a
Roman city, Aelia Capitolina, on the
site). Hadrian’s decree against the Jews
forbade all visits by Jews to Jerusalem,
except for one day a year, Tisha b’Av, at
which time—~upon payment of a heavy
tollu-they were permitted to go to the
site of the destroyed Temple and pray.
Over the years, these sorrowful visits to
the only remaining section of the wall of
the outer courtyard of the Temple gave the
wall its name: to our people, it is the
Western Wall; to those who mocked us, it
was the ”Wailing Wall,” where Jews came to

In 1290, on Tisha b’Av, King Edward I
signed an edict banishing all Jews from
England. In lQQE, on Tisha b’Av, the Jews
were expelled from Spain.

In 1938, Hayyim Schauss wrote (in
Festivals of the Jewish Year), “It is not



surprising, then, that every woe that
befell Jews on that particular day was
tied up, in the Jewish mind, with the
general woe and misfortune that came with
the day. . . Even in our own day a great
catastrophe is bound up with Tishoh B’Dv.
It was on that day, in 1914, that Russia
ordered the mobilization of her armies and
the World War started; a year later there
was an evacuation of all Jews from the
border provinces of Russia. It marked the
beginning of a great catastrophe for
Jewish life in East Europe [a time of
pogroms, massacres, dire poverty and, as a
result, an attempt by many to emigrate]
and the Jews of that region still remember
that their misfortunes began on Tishoh
B’UV-” This year Tisha b’Av falls on July
23 9: an.


July 4, 1976 — Israeli commandos fly
undetected 8,000 miles to Uganda, free 104
hostages of a hijacked Air France jetliner
held at Entebbe airport, and return them
safely to Israel.

July 15, 1839 — The Spanish Inquisition,
which led to the expulsion of the Jews in
1492, is abolished after almost three and
a half centuries.

August 1, 1975 — Signing of the Helsinki
accords between East and West European
countries pledging increased cooperation
and the enforcement of human rights.
August 12, 1952 — "The Night of the
Murdered Poets.” Eb Yiddish writers are
shot to death on Stalin’s orders.

August 29, 1897 - Convened and chaired by
Theodor Herzl to “show what Zionism is and
wants“ and to establish “the national
assembly of the Jewish people," the First
Zionist Congress opens in Basle, Switzer-




Statement from CKJF
nd Justice.

to CounCil for Peace
Approved by CKJF Board. May

fl] [1.

lhile there are disagreements within
the American Jewish community and in
Israel over the events in the West Bank
and Gaza Strip and over the peace process.
there is agreement. both in Israel and
among American Jews. that the issues
underlying the turmoil in the West Bank
and Gaza Strip only can be resolved
through a political settlement between the
parties to this conflict. There is also
wide recognition of Israel’s responsibili-
ty to restore order to the west Bank and
Gaza Strip. and to assure the peaceful
administration of dailv affairs until a
political settlement is achieved.

With respect to the continuing violence
in the territories, American Jews and
Israelis as well are disturbed by the use
of excessive force in some situations by
the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in quell—
ing the disturbances. The top leadership
of the IDF who are directly responsible
for IDF operations in the Nest Bank.
openly reflected these concerns.

Every day for several months,
soldiers, most of whom are still in their
teens. and civilians doing their service
in the Reserves. have been confronted with
sustained and widespread violence. which
has included the use of rocks. slingshots.
molotov cocktails. gasoline bombs and
knives. Tragic injuries and deaths on
both sides have resulted and have horri—
fied Americans and Israelis alike.

Israel. reflecting its democratic value


system. has been taking measures. includ-
ing military trials and other means. to
correct departures from its long standing
policy of restraint in the use of force.
Israel continues to struggle with the
dilemma of developing effective responses
to end the violence while avoiding exces—

sive force. particularly individual acts
of brutality. Such dilemmas typically are
faced by western democracies. such as
Israel and the US. where the means to
achieve a desired end-—in this case. the
cessation of violence in the
territories——always are a consideration.
Both Prime Minister Shamir and Foreign
Minister Peres agree that all substantive
issues between Israel and the Arabs must
be resolved in direct. face-to-face



bilateral negotiations. The Israeli
leaders also agree that negotiations with
the Arabs must be conducted in the absence
of pressures from third party countries.
However. a vigorous debate has emerged
within Israel regarding the modalities of
negotiation. namely whether or not Israel
should agree to an international confer~
ence. with the participation of the five
permanent members of the UN Security
Council. to bring about direct talks.
Labor. under the leadership of Shimon
Peres, has accepted an international
conference. with no authority to veto or
impose a settlement. as a means of bring’
ing Jordan’s King Hussein to the negotiat~
ing table. Mr. Peres proposes that the
international conference only should serve
as a convening body which would then lead
immediately to direct. bilateral negotia—
tions. (King Hussein claims he needs an
”international umbrella" to resist the
pressures placed on him by Syria and the
PLO.) Mr. Peres believes that the
establishment of a negotiating framework

acceptable to key Arab leaders. particu°
larly King Hussein. is the only realistic
mechanism for achieving direct negotia~

tions. Other important parties. including
the Palestinians. the Soviet Union and
even King Hussein. have thus far rejected
the kind of non-authoritative internation-
al conference envisioned by Mr. Peres or
by Secretary Shultz as part of the Ameri-
can peace initiative.

Likud. under the leadership of Yitzhak
Shamir. has argued that a conference with
the US. the Soviet Union. China. France.
and Great Britain would immediately place
Israel in an unbalanced and disadvanta-
geous situation. The Soviet Union and
China. which have no diplomatic relations
with Israel. have been openly and consis—
tently hostile toward Israel. Mr. Shamir
has warned that Israel would risk isola—
tion in the international arena more
severe than it faces today if it rejected
what these participants. including Great
Britain and France. regard as a fair
settlement. At the same time. the Prime
Minister did accept an American proposal
to meet with King Hussein under US and
Soviet Union auspices during the Washing—
ton Summit in December. 1987. but that

proposal was summarily rejected by King
continued ........ . .............. on page 10


 Overview Towanj Peace. continue


further contends
King Hussein and

are a (79555“

The Prime Minister
that direct talks with
Palestinian representatives
sarv affirmation of their recognition of
lsrael’s right to exist, as well as the
fulfillment of the Camp David Accords.
signed by lsrael. Egypt, and the US, spell
out the framework for direct negotiations.
The negotiating framework of Camp David
does not call for an international confer—

In the final analysis, ~the issue
revolves around an assessment of where the
greatest risk for Israel lies. Labor
perceives the dangers of the status guo as
so serious that it is willing to assume
the risks of an international conference
if that will break the present impasse and
lead to negotiations with the Arabs.
Likud views the dangers attendant to an
international conference as outweighing
the risks of maintaining the status quo
until Arab leaders are prepared to enter
direct, face-to-face bilateral negotia—
tions. as Sadat did.

Full agreement may be lacking in Israel
on all procedural and substantive ques—
tions relating to the peace