xt7z348gft7c https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7z348gft7c/data/mets.xml Shaler, Nathaniel Southgate, 1841-1906. 1876  books b96-12-34872063 English Printed for the Survey by J.P. Morgan & Co., : [Frankfort, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Forests and forestry Kentucky.Crandall, Albert Rogers, 1840- Report on the forests of Greenup, Carter, Boyd & Lawrence counties  / by N.S. Shaler and A.R. Crandall. text Report on the forests of Greenup, Carter, Boyd & Lawrence counties  / by N.S. Shaler and A.R. Crandall. 1876 2002 true xt7z348gft7c section xt7z348gft7c 
  Charts, Maps and Plates for Kentucky Geological Survey Reports of
                Progress, Series 11 (New Series), Volume 1

Moore, Philip North. Report on the Iron Ores of Greenup, Boyd & Carter Counties,
      the Kentucky Division of the Hanging Rock Iron Region.
      film 9 leaves of plates as placed following p. [136].

Moore, Philip North. The Iron Manufacture of the Kentucky Division of the Hanging
      Rock Region.
      film I folded plate as placed following p. 352.

Norwood, Charles Joseph. Report on the Geology of the Region Adjacent to the
      Louisville, Paducah & Southwestern Railroad With a Section.
      film 6 leaves of plates (some folded) as placed following p. 448. Some plates are
      misnumbered or unnumbered.

Norwood, Charles Joseph. Report of a Reconnoissance in the Lead Region oJ
      Livingston, Crittenden, and Caldwell Counties, Including a Sketch of Their
      General Wealth.
      film I folded map and 4 leaves of plates as placed following p. [494].

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GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY.



         N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR.



REPORTS OF PROGRESS.









         VOLUME I. NEW SERIES









             FRANKFORT, KY.:
   PRINTED FOR THE SURVEY BY JOHN P. MORTON & COMPANY,
          156 A-N 15 WEST MAI  STREET, LO-ASV-LL-. Ky.
                   1876

 This page in the original text is blank.

 









INTRODUCTORY LETTER.



To His Esrcelency, JAMES B. MCCREARY,
                                  Governor f Kenzlucky.
  SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my Biennial
Report on the progress of the Geological Survey. In it will
be found a general account of the operations of the Survey
during the years 1874 and 1875. The accompanying special
reports of myself, my assistants and aids, are submitted in part
in a printed form, and part in manuscripts ready for the printer
-the whole forming three volumes and a half of reports con-
cerning the economic wealth of the State, and half a volume
of the scientific memoirs. When the work now done is comn-
pletely written up, the fourth volume of reports of the new
series, and the first volume of memoirs, will be completed.
  The thanks of the Survey are due to the generous citizens,
whose names are too numerous for mention, who, by their
unfailing kindness, have aided every step of its work. My
own gratitude is due, in large measure, to the officers of the
Survey, who, by their unfaltering diligence, have made it pos-
sible for me to do far more than I expected to accomplish
with the limited means that have been at my command.
      I am, sir, most respectfully,
                   Your obedient servant,
                                 N. S. SHALER,
                 Director of the Kentucky Geological Surveye.
  FRANKFORT, 27th December, I875.
                                                      111 & I\.

 This page in the original text is blank.

 










PREFACE TO FIRST VOLUME.



  The reports contained in this volume represent a part of
the work done by the Geological Survey in the years 1873
and 1874. The order, or rather lack of order, in the succes-
sion of the reports, and the somewhat peculiar paging of
the volume, demand some explanation. These volumes of
reports are meant to give the results of the field and office
work of the Survey quite without order of arrangement, the
succession of the reports in the volumes being determined
solely by the time at which the work wvas ready for the press.
It is expected that these reports will serve only as preliminary
studies of the economic geology of the State. When the work
of research is complete, the general and economic geology
can then be treated in a connected manner. The scientific
papers, which are not distinctly connected with the economic
interests of the State, will be printed in quarto form apart
from the other reports. This separation is deemed desirable
on many accounts.
  The system of pagination, wherein the top of the page
gives the paging for the separate reports, while the bottom
shows the order in the volume, though a great variation from
the plan usually followed in such work, has the countenance of
the most skillfully conducted geological surveys. The sepa-
rate publication of the several reports which compose the
volumes of the Survey, in order that any memoir or report
may be purchased without paying for the other parts of the
volume, has served to make this method of paging quite
necessary. In accordance with this plan, the reports of the
Survey will be furnished in two shapes-as separate reports,
each containing the maps and other illustrations connected
therewith, and as volumes, each containing about five hund-

 





PREFACE TO FIRST VOLUME.



red pages of matter. The plates in the volumes of reports
are not numbered in connective series, but separately for each
report.    This also was made          necessary    by the adoption       of
the plan of separately printing each report.
   At the present writing the following reports and memoirs
have been prepared for the press, or are in an advanced state
of preparation:

                         VOLUME 1. NEW SERIES.
PART   1. Report on the Timber Growth of Greenup, Carter, Boyd, and Lawrence Coun-
             ties, in Eastern Kentucky. By N. S. Shaler and Assistant A. R. Crandall.
PIARr  11. Report of the Botany of Barren and Edmonson Counties. By John Hussey,
             Botanical Assistant. With an Introduction by N. S. Shaler.
PART  111. Report on the Iron Ores of Greenup, Boyd, and Carter Counties, the Ken-
             tucky Division of the Hanging Rock Icon Region. By P. N. Moore,
             Assi stant.
PART  IV. Chemical Report of the Soils, Marls, Clays, Ores, Coals, Iron Furnace Pro-
             ducts, Mineral Waters, &c., &c., of Kentucky. By Robert Peter, M. D.,
             &c., &c., Chemist to the Kentucky Geological Survey. Assisted by John
             H. Talbutt, S. B., Chemical Assistant. The First Chemical Report in the
             New Series and the Fifth since the beginning of the Survey.
PART   V. The Iron Manufacture of the Kentucky Division of the Hanging Rock Iron
             Region. By P. N. Moore, Assistant.
PART  VI. Report on the Geology of the Region adjacent to the Louisville, Paducah and
             Southwestern Railroad, with a Section. By Chas. J. Norwood, Assistant.
PART VII. Report of a Reconnoissance in the Lead Region of Livingston, Crittenden,
             and Caldwell Counties, including a sketch of their General Wealth. By
             Chas. J. Norwood, Assistant.
 This volume is already stereotyped.


                        VOLUME 11. NEW SERIES.
PART   1. Report on the Geology of Greenup, Carter, and Boyd Counties, and a part of
             lawrence. By Assistant A. R. Crandall.
PARr   11. On the Geology of the Edmonson Coal and Iron District. By P. N. Moore,
             Assistant, and J. R. Proctor, with Map by W. B. Page, Assistant, C. W.
             Beckham, and John B. 'Marcou, Aids.
PART  111. On the Chemistry of the Hemp Plant. By Dr. R. Peter, Principal Chemist of
             the Survey.
I'ART  IV. On the Airdeic Furnace. By P. N. Moore, Assistant
PART   V. Topographical Report of W. B. Page, Assistant, for the year 1874.
PART  VI. On the Geology of the Line of the Prol osed Railway from Livingston Station
             to Cumberland Gap. By A. R. Crandall and C. J. Norwood, Assistant.
PART VII. Geology of the    -enry County Lead District.  By N. S. Shaler and C. J.
             Norwood, Assistant.
PART VIII. On the Geology of the proposed Lexington and Big Sandy Railway. By
             Assistant A. R. Crandall.
 This volume is partly stereotyped.
 'I



VI

 




PREFACE TO FIRST VOLUME.



                         VOLUME III. NEW SERIES.
PART    1. Report of N. S. Shaler, Director of the Survey, on the Conduct of the Survey
             for 1873.
PART   11. Biennial Report of N. S. Shaler, Director of the Survey, for the years 1874
             and 1875, giving a summary account of the principal economic results of the
             Survey during those years.
PART  III. Notes on the various Problems encountered in the prosecution of the Ken-
              tucky Geological Survey. By N. S. Shaler.
PART  IV. Plan for the organization of a State Cabinet. By N. S. Shaler.
PART   V. Description of the Preliminary Map of Kentucky. By N. S. Shaler.
This volume is partly stereotyped.

                         VOLUME IV. NEW SERIES.
PART    1. Second Chemical Report of Dr. R. Peter and Assistant John H. Talbutt.
PART   H1. Report on the Geology of the Counties of Bath, Menifee, Powell, and Lee.
             By Assistant A. R. Crandall.
PART  III. Report on the Iron Ores in the Region near Cumberland Gap. By P. N.
             Moore, Assistant.
PART  IV. Report of the Results of a Reconnoissance of the State Line from Cumber.
             land to Pound Gap, and on a Line from Abingdon, Virginia, to Mount
             Sterling, Kentucky. By P. N. Moore, Assistant.
PART   V. Report on the Breckinridge Coal Mines. By C. J. Norwood, Assistant.
PART  VI. Report on the Geology of the Kentucky Red Riser Iron District. By P. N.
              Moore, Assistant.
PART VII. Preliminary Report on the Geology of Martin County. By A. R. Crandall,
             Assistant.
PART VIII. Report on the Geology of the North and South-run6ing Railways of Western
             Kentucky. By C. J. Norwood, Assistant.
PART  IX. Topographical Report of W. B. I'age, Assistant, for i875.

       MEMOIRS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY.
Caine 1st, 1876, contains Memoirs on variod Scientific Questions ill-fst-atie of theG Geokeg,
                                   of the State.
PART    I. On the Antiquity and History of the Caverns of the Ohio Valley. By N. S.
             Shaler.
PART   II. On the History of the Buffalo, with special reference to the Fossils found at
              Big Bone Lick. By J. A. Allen.
PART  III. On the Brachiopods of the Cincinnati Group of the Upper Cambrian. By N.
             S. Shaler.
PART  IV. On the Prehistoric Remains of Kentucky. By Assistant Lucian Carr and
             N. S. Shaler.
PART   V. On the Prehistoric Cavern Dwellers of the Ed  .onson County Cave District.
             By F. W. Putnam, Assistant.
PART  VI. On the Zoology of the Cavern Districts of Kentucky.  By A. S. Packard and
             F. A. Sanborn, Assistants.
 This volume is partly stereotyped, and the plates are ready.

   The order of arrangement of the reports in the second and
fourth volumes, as well as their titles, may vary somewhat
from the list as above given; but the changes will be only
                                                                              V"T



VII

 




PREFACE TO FIRST VOLUME.



matters of detail. It is expected that all of the above matter
will be printed by September, 1876.
  The acknowledgments of the Survey, as far as it is possible
to give them, for the many favors it has received at the hands
of individuals and corporations within or without the State,
will be expressed in the Biennial Report of the Director.
  The law under which this present Survey acts requires that
it shall be a continuation of that begun by Dr. Owen. This
requirement has determined the order in which the work has
been taken up. By comparison with the reports made under
the direction of Dr. Owen, it will be seen that the Survey has
been reinstituted on the ground and with the objects which
guided him in his incomplete work. The later volumes will
show less effect from this limitation.
  It is but justice to the Survey to say, that the means at its
disposal have been exceedingly limited. The total amount
appropriated for all the expenses of the years i874 and i875
was thirty-three thousand five hundred dollars. Out of this
sum the costs of maintaining a force averaging twelve assist-
ants and aids, the expenses of the State Cabinet, of exhibi-
tions at Louisville, a chemical laboratory, the outfit of camps,
instruments, &c., and all the expenses of preparing the re-
sults for publication, including the making of lithographic
and stereotype plates. Only the most rigorous economy has
made it possible to do the large amount of field work that
has been done during the last two years; and this saving
has been brought about by the devotion and self-sacrifice
of my coadjutors of the Survey, who have not only been
willing to labor for small compensations, but have unhesita-
tingly adapted themselves to the rude and comfortless life
which has necessarily been followed in order to secure econ-
omy and convenience in the work.
                                                 N. S. S.
  DECEMBER, i875.
Vill



Villl

 





OFFICERS OF KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
     DURING THE TIME OF PREPARATION OF THE REPORTS CONTAINED
        IN THIS VOLUME, IN TRE ORDER OF THEIR APPOINTMENTS.



           NATHANIEL SOUTHGATE SHALER, Dirctor and Principal Geologist.
           ROBERT PETER, Principal Chmist.
           ALBERT ROGERS CRANDALL, firstAssistantin Geology.
           PHILIP NORTH MOORE, Assistant in Geology.
           CHARLES SCISENK, Assistnt in Topography.
           CHARLES JOSEPH NORWOOD, Assistant in Geology.
           WILLIAM BYRD PAGE, Assistnt in 70pography
           ALPHEUS SPRING PACKARD, JR., Assistant in Ewto-nolos tempo-ary.
           FRANCIS SANBORN, Assistant in Zoiolg, temporary.
           FREDERICK WVARD PUTNAM, Assistant in Ichthyolog, ltenporay.
           JOHN HUSSEY, Assistant in Botan'.
           LUCIAN CARR, Assistant in Ethnolgy.
           JOHN HOLLIDAY TALBUTT, Assistant in Ch-omistry.
           JOHN ROBERT PROCTER, Assistant in Geology.
           WILLIAM CUTTER MITCHELL, Assistant in 7Tpography.
           LEOPOLD TROUVELOT, Artist of the S;atter.


                               AIDS.
                  CHARLES WICKLIFFE BECKHAM.
                  JOHN ADAIR MONROE.
                  JOHN BELKNAP MARCOU.
                  ANTHON LEO JONAS.
                                                                 I X

 
















                 TABLE OF CONTENTS.

                      Th. reference is to the bottom paging  this Table.



                             VOLUME I. PART I.
REPORT ON THE FOREST TIMBER OF GREENUP, CARTER, BOYD, AND LAWRENCE COUN-
                TIES. BY N. S. SHALER AND A. R. CRANDALL. Page..
Introduction, by N. S. Shaler, 3. Plan of the Survey, 4. Value of our timber, 4. Influ-
    ence on water supply, 6. Protection of timber, 7. A. R. Crandall's introductory letter,
    8. His report and plan, 9. Table of old forest growth, 12, 13. Various species of oak,
    14. Beech and maple, 15. Chestnut, hickories, yellow poplar, black gum, t6. Ash,
    linden, sycamore, buckeye, elm, walnut, 17. Hemlock spruce, pines, red cedar, poplar.
    persimmon, wild cherry, I8. Black locust, honey locust, magnolia, birches, hackberry,
    sweet gum, mulberry, willows, ig. Catalpa, hornbeam, dogwood, service berry, sas-
    safras, pawpaw, holly, redbud, spicewood, hazelnut, witch-hazel, sumach, hawthorn,
    alder, leatherwood, crab apple, wild plums, grapevines, bitter-sweet, poison ivy, 20.
    Second growth, 21.   Annual consumption of wood at Mt. Savage Furnace, time
    required for second growth, 22. Table of second growth, 23, 24. Distribution of
    species as affected by topography, 25. Diagram of timber-growth on the knob-like
    hills on Triplett Creek, 26.

                                    PART 11.
REPORT ON THE BOTANY OF BARREN AND EDMONSON COUNTIES. BY JOHN HUSSEY,
     BOTANICAL ASSISTANT, WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY N. S. SHALER. Page 27.
Introduction, great value of the timber, 29. Industries it may support, 27, 28. Cause of
    treeless condition, restoration of the timber, 31. John R. Procter on limits of the
    "barrens," 32. J. Hussey's introductory letter, 33. Territory collected over; the
    oaks, &c., 34. Timber, soil, topography, prairie burning, &c., 35, 36. Prevailing
    rock and trees, 37. Botanical notes, 37 to 40. Economical notes, value of timber
    trees, poplar, 40. Sweet gum, hard wood, oaks, chestnut, 41. Hickories, elm, 42.
    Mulberry, sassafras, chestnut, turning wood, elm, dogwood, holly, hornbeam, iron-
    wood, 43. Fruit raising, 44. Conclusion, economical uses of the timber, 45. Botan-
    ijal catalogue of this region, 45 to 58. -

                                    PART III.
REPORT ON THE IRON ORES OF GREENUP, BOYD, AND CARTER COUNTIES: THE KEN.
    TUCKY DIVISION OF THE HANGING ROCK IRON REGION. BY P. N. MOORE. Page "g.
The iron ores, method of occurrence, 6t. Origin of the limonite, characteristics of the ores,
    62. Sulphur, and average per centage of iron in them, and theory of their formation,
    63. Atmospheric influence on, 66. Action of carbonated waters, 67. General division
    of the ores-Limestone Ores, 69. Table of composition of the limonite limestone ores,
    70. Table of composition of siderite limestone ores, 72. Their geological position
    and thickness, 73. IElustrative sketch, theory of formation, 74. Fire-clay, chert, low.
x

 





TABLE OF CONTENTS.



    grade ores, 75. The Block Ores, kidneys, 76. Geological position and characteristics
    of, 77. Quality, table of composition of lower block ores, limonite, 79. Ditto, ditto,
    of siderites, So. Table of composition of main block ores, limonites, 81. Ditto, ditto,
    of siderites, 82. The Kidney Ores, 83. Geographical position, 85. Table of composi-
    tion of kidney ores, 87. Geographical range of the ore divisions, 87. Area of the
    limestone ores, lower, 88. Area of upper limestone ores, go. Area of block ores-
    lower block ores, 91. Area of upper block ores, 93. Area of the kidney ores, 93.
    Description of indiidual ore beds-the lower liestone ore, 95. The loe-r block ores, 96.
    The Lambert ore, loo. Tables of analyses of Lambert ore, 103, 104. Composition
    of the carbonate of this bed, 0oS. Other ores of the lower group German ore, 105.
    Analyses of, io6. Garvin Hill ore, io6. Everman's Creek ore analysis, 107, io8.
    Crown ore analysis, log, Other ores, I1o. Raccoon Creek ores analyses, III.  avper
    block ores, 112. Geological position, 113. Best developments of, 114. At Raccoon
    Furnace, 114. Brown bank, at Buffalo Furnace, at Laurel Furnace, 115. Mt. Tom
    ore, at Iron Hills, Potato Knob ore, Barrett's Creek, &c., 115. Little Bleok Ore, geo-
    graphical distribution of, 117, 118. Analysis of this ore, 119. 7he upperrerriferos
    fins-t-o ore, geographical distribution of, &c., 120 to 124. Section of bench back of
    Amanda, 121. Fire-clays, limestone, &c., 122. Analysis of upper limestone ore, 123.
    Quality and thickness, 124. The kidnev ores, position and local names of, 125. Geo-
    graphical distribution of, 120 to 129. The red kidney ore, characteristics of, 129.
    Geographical distribution of, 130.  Other kidney ores, 130.  Range of, 131 to 133.
    Ale/1AgMls of oining, 134 to 136.


                                    PART IV.
CHEMICAL REPORT OF THE SOILS, MARLS, CLAYS, ORES, COALS, IRON FURNACE PRO-
    DUCTS, MINERAL WATERS, &c., &c., OF KENTUCKY. BY ROBERT PETER, M. D.,
    ETC., ETC., CHEMIST TO THE KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, ASSISTED BY JOHN
    H. TALBSUTT, S. B., CHEMICAL ASSISTANT. THE FIRST CHEMICAL REPORT IN THE
    NEW SERIES, AND THE FIFTH SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE SURVEY.
Introductory letter of Dr. Peter, 139. Table of extremes of variations of composition of
    soils, 140. Method of soil analysis, conditions of fertility, 141. Utility of soil anal-
    yses, 142 to 145. Sampling soils, 143. Exhaustion of soil demonstrated by analysis,
    144. Influence of hoed crops on soil, 144. Alkalies in the insoluble silicates of soil,
    145. General remarks on the limestones, iron ores, and coals analyzed, 145, 146.
    Comparison of some Kentucky coals with some Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana coals, 146 to
    148. Tables, average composition of coals of northeastern Kentucky, of southwestern
    Kentucky, and of selected coals from Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, 147. Table of the
    extremes of composition of these coals, 148. Tables of composition of average and
    selected samples of coals, 149. Determination of sulphur in coals, i5o. Theory of free
    sulphur in coals, 150. General remarks on composition of marls, shales, uses as min-
    eral paint, 150. Ditto on fire-clays and plastic clays, 151. Remarks on pig irons
    analyzed, and their extremes of composition, 151.

Bath -oun6-Limonite iron ore and Barren -cot- limestones, analyses, 152, 153.
Bourbon coont-Limestone, 291.
Boyd cont-Grey limestone ore analyses, 153 to 155. Limonite ores, x55, 156. Coals, 156
    to x6o.  (See also page 301.) Mode of determination of the sulphur; the relation
    between specific gravity and ash per centage in these coals, 160. Marly shale, analyses
    and uses, 16o, 161. Pig iron analyses, i61, 162. Soils analyzed, 162 to 164.
Bracken  ount-Soils, analyses, &c., 164, 165. Silicious mudstone analysis, t66.
Breckinride -.Inty-Under-clay, red, analysis, 166.
                                                                                  xi



Xi

 







TABLE OF CONTENTS.



Bwt/ercolUty-Iron ores, analyses, 167, 168. Coal, limestone, 169.
Canopyv couniy-Lead ore, analysis, 170.
Campbelcounty-Marly shale, marl, clay shale, clays, sands, analyses and uses, 170 to 172,
    178. Soils, analyses and remarks, 172 to 177. Silt analysis, 176. Nitrates in soils,
    177. Fertility demonstrated by chemical analysis, 177. Blue limestone and marly
    shale analysis, 178.
Carter county-Fire-clays and clay shale, analyses and remarks, 179 to x8i. Table of com-
    parative composition of clays, i8a. Coals of Carter county, analyses and remarks,
    j82 to 184. (See also page 301.) Coke of Coalton coal, analysis, x85. Iron carbon-
    ate ores and limestones, analyses, &c., 185 to x88. Limonite iron ores, 188 to 191.
    Limestones, 192. Pig irons, 193. Soils of Carter, analyses and remarks, 194 to 200.
Edmnnson county-Limonite iron ores of, analyses and remarks on, 200 to 201. Coals, analy-
    ses and remarks on, 201, 203. Cast iron from Baker Furnace, analysis, 203. (See also
    298, 299.)
Fayette county-Soils, analyses and remarks on, 204. Hemp culture, 205. Alkalies in
    the insoluble silicates, use of lime, 205. Quicklime and calcite, analyses, &c., 2o6,
    207. Waters of Fayette county-surface, springs, and bored wells-analyses and
    remarks on, 2o8, 211.
Franklin county-Marly shales, analyses, use as paint, &c., 211 to 213. Water from bored
    well, 214. Col. Hunt Reynolds' sulphur well water, analysis and remarks, 215, 2t6.
IWuton county-Soil, analysis, &c., 216.  Mineral water, 217. Clays and silicious concre-
    lions, 217. Soft sandstone, 218. Clay, post tertiary (Illinois), 219.
Groyson county-Clay iron-stone, 219. Limonite iron ore, marly shale, 220, 221. Soft
    sandstone, 222. Coals, 222 to 225. Grayson Springs mineral waters, analyses and
    remarks, 225 to 232. Centre Spring, Moreman Spring, 225. McAtee Spring, Stump
    Spring, Jar Spring, 226. Eye Spring, White Sulphur Spring, Hymenial Spring, 227.
    Rock Spring, Artesian well, 229. Table of composition of these waters, 229. Re-
    marks, barigine, 228. Glairine, crenic, and apocrenic acids, &c., 230. Composition
    of glairine, 231. Chalybeate waters, analyses, 232. Soils 233 to 236. (See also page
    299.)
Greenup county-Fire-clays, analyses and remarks, 236, 237. Coals, 238 to 241. (See also
    302.) Relation of ash to specific gravity, 24z. Limestones, 241, 242. Clay iron-
    stones, 242 to 244. Limonites, 244 to 250. Pig irons, 251, 252. Soils, 252, 253.
lIa,-din co-nwi-Soils, analyses and remarks, 253 to 265.
Henry eo-nt-Galena (lead ore), 265. Marly shale, 265, 266.
Hopkins couu/--Coals, analyses and remarks, 266, 277. Limonite, ochreous, 267, 268.
Kenton onty-Silicious grits, analyses, &c., 268, 269. Clays and marly shales, 269, 270.
    Limestone, 270, 271.
Lawrence county-Coals, analyses, remarks, 271 to 273. Red Hematite, 273.
Iiingston county-Galena (lead ores), analyses, &c., 273, 274.
Lyon -ont-Limonile iron ores, analyses, and remarks, 274, 275. (See also page 297.)
,IfMen fee c-on/i-Coals, analyses, &c., 275 to 277.
il--onttomeoy oo/nv-Quicklime, analysis, &c., 277.
Muh/enb.rg -ont-Limonite iron ores, analyses and remarks, 277 to 279. Clay iron-
    stones, 279, 280. Limestone and clay, 280, 281. Pig irons, Airdrie Furnace, 281, 282.
    Coke and ash, Airdrie Furnace, 283. Coals, &c., fibrous coal, and carbonaceous mud,
    283 to 287.
Ohio county-Coals, analyses and remarks, 288. (See appendix.) Soils, 289, 290.
XIt



Nit

 




TABLE OF CONTENTS.



                                    APPENDIX.
Bourboen counts-Limestone, analysis, &c., 291.
State of Ohio-Selected coals, analyses, &c., 291 to 293. Comparison of specific gravity
    with ash, 293.
S/a/c of I//i-is-Selectcd coals, analyses, &c., 293, 294.
S/a/c of Ldiana-Selected coals, analyses, &c., 294 to 296.
Caizfornia-AdobiS soil, analysis, &c., 296, 297.
Lyon o-nt-Water from interior of "pot-iron ore," analysis, 297.
Edonson county (continu-d-Limonite iron ore and Nolin Furnace pig iron, analyses, &c.,
    288, 289.
Gravoon coun/y (continud)-Limonite iron ore, Nolin Furnace, analysis, &c., 299, 300.
Boyd coun/y (con-inucd)oal No. 7, analysis, &c., 301.
Cartr county (con/inued)-Coals, analyses, &c., 301.
Croenup county (-on/inucd)-Coals, analyses, &c., 302, 303.
Ohio coon/v (con/inucd)-Coals, 303, 304.
Table 1. Composition of soils, &c., 305 to 307.
Table 11. Composition of limestones, 307.
Table Ill (A). Composition of limolnite iron ores, 308, 309.
Table Ill (B) Composition of carbonate iron ores, 310.
Table IV. Composition of coals, 311 to 313.
Table V (A). Composition of marls, shales, &c., 314.
Table V (u). Composition of clays, 315.
Table VI. Composition of pig irons, 316.

                                      PART V.
THE IRON MANUFACTURE OF 'HE KENTUCKY DIVISION OF THE HANGING ROCK IRON
                        REGION. BY P. N. MOORE. Page 317.
Origin of name, extent of region, kind of iron made, 319. List of the charcoal and
    stone-coal furnaces, 320. List of those formerly in blast, &c., 321. Why they were
    abandoned, and description of the present charcoal furnaces, 322, 323. Table of
    details of structure of charcoal furnaces, 324. Remarks on, 328. Kinds of iron
    made, 325, 326. Sampling ores and coals, 326, 327. Average consumption of char
    coal, effects on the forests, 329. Average yield of ore, consumption of charcoal,
    329, 330. Proportions of limestone and charcoal used, 330, 331. Roasting the ores,
    331 to 334. Quality of the charcoal pig iron of this region, analyses, &c., 334
    to 337. The stone coal iron manufacture, 337. The coal used, the Coalton or No.
    7, 337 to 345. Analyses of this coal, 339 to 341. Comparative analyses of the Indiana
    Block, the Big Muddy coals of Illinois, the Hocking Valley, and Jackson coals of Ohio,
    343 to 346. Details of structure of the Ashland and Norton Iron Works Furnaces, 346.
    Ore and fuel used at Ashland Furnace, &c., 346, 347. Record of Ashland Furnace
    consumption and production for past five years, comparison with Ohio and Indiana
    Furnaces, 348. Average consumption and production of Norton Furnace, and descrip-
    tion, 349. Fuel used (Coalton coal), statistics of its working, 350, 351. Quality of the
    stone-coal iron made, analyses, 352. Statistics of iron production, 352, 353. Table of
    iron production in this region, 353.

                                     PART VI.
REPORT ON THE GEOLOGY OF THE REGION ADJACENT TO THE LOUISVILLE, PADUCAHI
    AND SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD, WITH A SECTION. BY CHAS. J. NORWOOD. Pang
    355-
Mr. Norwood's introductory letter, 357. Introductory, 358, 359. General geolo, 360.
    I)ip and strike, 360 to 362. Table of dips and strikes, 361. Lower carboniferous, the
    St. Louis Group, 362. Lithographic beds, chert beds, cavernous limestone, sinkholes,
                                                                                   xIII



Xlll

 




TABLE OF CONTENTS.



    363. Section of the rocks from Cecelia Junction to East View, 364. Origin of oclitic
    limestone, 365. Paleontology of the St. Louis Group, 365, 366. Chester Group, 366.
    Statement of its series of strata in Hardin and Grayson, 367. Description of same,
    367 to 370. Paleontology of Chester Group, 370, 371. Coal measures, 37!. Number
    of the coal beds, &c., 371 to 373. Upper coal measures, 373. Condensed section of,
    374, 375. Section of the rocks and coals in the first division-from Green river east-
    w-ard, 375, 376. Section in second division-from Green riser to Pond river, 376, 377.
    Section in third division-the district west of Nortonsville, 377. Dat-inbttoo of the
    csr/, 378, 379. Description of the coals and their associate rocks, the Anvil Rock,
    379 to 381. Coal A, 381 to 384. Analysis of, 382. Of coke of, 383. Quality of, 383.
    The slate, the shale, their fossils, 384. Coal B, 384 to 389. Analysis of fibrous coal,
    385. Analyses of Coal B, 387. Clay slips, 385, 386. The under-clay, analysis and
    uses of, 387, 388. The slate, the limestone, and its organic remains, 388. The sand-
    stone, Coal C, Coat D, its quality and composition, 389, 391. Analyses of 7 samples
    of Coal 1), 390. The slate, the clay over the slate, 391. Its fossils, the paleontology
    of Coat D, the blue shale, 392. The sandstone, 393. Coa] E, 393, 394. The slate,
    the shale, 394. Coal F, the limestone, 394. Coals G, H, and I, 395. The limestone
    and its fossils, Coals J, K, and L, 396. The state and fossils, the shale, 397. The
    conglomerate, sub-congt-merate coal, 398. Table of distances between the coals, coal
    in the Chester Group, and section at Manyan's, on Nolin river, 399. Analysis of this
    coat of the Chester Group, its fossils, etc., 400. Sampling coats for analysis, 401, 402.
    Table of analyses of these coals, 403. Ieaorzrogeoof, 404. Section of the Chester
    beds, first cut west of Big Clifty Creek, 405, 406. Section at cut at 79th mile-post,
    407. Section at fault opposite bridge over Bennett's Fork, 407. Section near Spring
    Lick, 408. Section on Evan Rogers' land, 409. Section on Jas. Ferguson's land, 410.
    Section near J. MI. Sandifur's house, 41!. Section -est of the last, 412. Section at
    Lewis Creek tunnel, and at cut near depot at Rockport, 415. Section in ravine back
    of the Reno House, Greenville, 418. Section one mile east from Ricketts' orchard,
    419. Section at Gordon's Station, 420. Coal at St. Charles mine, 422, 423. Section
    near Princeton, 427. Mint-sand ining, 429 to 435. List of the mines, 430. System
    of mining, 430 to 433. Skerens, 433, 434. Shafts, 434, 435.  Ic/o on o -Z coal/rude,
    435. Coal exported, table of, 436, 437. Xa/es on the rn/o, 438. The Taylor mine,
    Render mine, 438. Section at, 439. The McHenry mine, Rockport mine, 439. Ana]-
    ysis of coal from, 44o. The Richmond mine, Louisville and Stroud City mine, 440.
    The Ross mine, analysis of coal from, 441. The St. Louis Company's mine, Cypress
    mine, Coppage mine, Mercer's mine, 441. Analysis of coal from, 442. The Muhten-
    burg mine, 442. Analysis of Coal B from, 443. The Gordon Coal Company's mine,
    Quinn's mine, Arbuckle's mine, the Caney Creek mine, 443. Analysis of coal from,
    section of strata at, faults at, 444 to 446. The St. Charles mine, 446. Section at, 447.


                                    PART VI1.
REPORT OF A RECONNOISSANCE IN THE LEAD REGION OF LIVINGSTON, CRITTENDEN,
    AND CALDWEt.L COUNTIES, INCLUDING A SKETCH OF THEIR GENERAL WEALTH.
    BY CHAS. J NORWOOID    Pagr ,q.
Introductory letter, 451.  irings/sn osuntj-, general gology', 452 to 474. Alluvium, bluff
    (or Iess), coal measures, 452, 453. Sectcon of the rocks