xt7z348gj914 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7z348gj914/data/mets.xml South Dakota Webster, J. E. (John Edward) 1936 ii, 14 leaves; 27 cm. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Library Program libraries and the Federal Information Preservation Network. Call number Y 3.W 89/2:13/2-11 books English Washington, D.C.: Works Progress Administration, Social Research Division This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. South Dakota Works Progress Administration Publications Unemployed -- South Dakota -- Sioux Falls Public welfare -- South Dakota -- Sioux Falls Survey of Cases Closed from Relief Rolls in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, in July 1935 text Survey of Cases Closed from Relief Rolls in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, in July 1935 1936 1936 2019 true xt7z348gj914 section xt7z348gj914 W 513/5 {(31 I; ‘UNWERSITVOFKENTUCKYfi 1 _ I E
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» , -. HarrY‘L. Hopkins, Adinin'ispratgr ‘, '
Corringt-on Gill, ~- ~ , ’ -- . I ' 3 ~ 3 ‘1
Assistant-Administrator ’ . '- V . 1 ' Howard B. Myers, Director,
9: . . ' , .t- " ' ' 7 ' ' . ”Social Research Division
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January 11, 1936 _ t’ Series II No. 11

During October and November 1935 a series of special inquiries
was conducted in a group cf ‘western and southwestern states to
study the condition of cases closed from the relief rolls in an— .1
ticipation of the Works Program and in accordance with the policy
- of transferring unemployable cases from Federal to local care.This
group of studies was planned to supplement the information ob~
tained from earlier inquiries into the results of administrative ’
closings in Georgial/.
This series of studies was carried out in about the same manner ‘
as the Georgia studies. .Background information in each community
was secured from relief agency officials and from citizens fa—
miliar with the problems of relief. Family interviews were
conducted in order to secure primary data bearing on the family
composition, the occupational experience of the workers, and the
economic status of each household for comparable periods before '
and after the closings.
Both urban and rural communities were.covered by field surveys.
The cities chosen were Sioux Falls; South Dakota and ’Little Rock,
Arkansas; the rural areas included Custer! Corson, Hand and
Hutchinson counties in scuth Dakota “and Kit Carson and Weld
counties in Colorado. I
These communities were selected not for the purpose of giving a
picture of conditions prevailing generally in theUnited.States but
because they show clearly certain kinds of problems.Their value in
giving direction to future administrative policy is increased by
the fact that they display diverse conditions. Two of the studies I
— those in Colorado and Arkansas — cover only unemployable cases ,
and hence throw light upon the problems confronting the state and
local agencies that are assuming the care of such cases. The two .
South Dakota inquiries, including only employable cases, yield
_ information upon the significance of harvesting work as a means of
reducing the relief rolls and upon the problems involved in '
adjusting the Works Program to meet the needs of these people.
Information regarding the care of cases closed from Federal
rolls was secured in several communities where field surveys were
not undertaken. Data on agency policies and procewlres were
secured for Denver, Colorado, for Albuquerque, New Mexico, and for
Muskogee, Oklahoma. ’ ‘ I
l/ See Research Bulletins Series II, No. 8; Series I, No.11; and ‘
Prepared by
Edward J. Webster I I
under the supervision of
A. Boss Eckler

. —i~
The survey in Sioux Falls, South The study revealed that the oppor—
Dakota was undertaken with a view to tunities for harvest—field em~
g tracing the changes in the economic ployment in the vicinity of Sioux
status of 147 cases closed from the Falls were neither sufficiently
relief rolls in July 1985 when a numerous or remunerative to make
9 special relief suspension order was possible any important reduction of
issued in response to widespread the relief rolls. In less than a
rumors that relief clients were re— third of all the families intern
fusing employment in the harvest viewed were members able to get work
fields. This order became effective’ in the harvest fields. The median
on July 21, but in view of the dates amount earned by each worker during
of the 147 closings in and as of the eight—week period from July 21st
July, it could have directly ac— to September 15th was slightly less
counted for only a negligible part than $34. There is reason to believe
of the total number. More than half that the demand for harvest hands at
of the July closings were made fair wages was greatly overstated.
possible by reported private ems The financial condition of South _
ployment obtained prior to July 21st Dakota farmers was too precarious
a fact that forcefully indicates the and their debts too pressing to
naturally self—reliant character of enable many of them to hire extra
‘ this sample of the relief popus workers ‘even at the summer peak of
lation. ' farm work.

The group covered by this inquiry Data on family incomes were
revealed almost no special charac~ obtained for the last relief month
teristics other than its relief and for the month from September 15
status that would set it in a class to October 15 in order to find out
apart from the general pcpulation of how the cases fared after relief had
Sioux Falls. These families were been cut off. These income data ,
highly typical in racial composition, censidered by themselves, would make
household size, and age of head. the outlook for the closed cases
Practically all the families had one seem relatively hOpeful. ’Eetween
or more employable members, as might July and the month ending October 15
be expected since only those cases there was a moderate rise in the
were closed which had a member en— number of workers with gainful
gaged at priVate employment or one employment and a sharp increase ( 108
eligible for harvesting employment. percent) in their median monthly
No less than 87 separate occupations earnings from such employment. Such .

5 were represented in this group. In an increase in income is explained
addition to the wide variety of work by the fact that a majority of the
a experience, the group exhibited a July Closings were made pessible by
‘ high degree of work stability, Half private employment and the attendant
' of them had worked ten years or more resumption of earning power. This
at their usual occupation; about the improvement in earnings from private
same preportion had served a single employment was great enough to offset
employer at least five years. sharp decreases in the total amount ‘

of ERA relief and of other assistance decidedly inadequate both before and
with the result that the median of after the closings; about half the
the total monthly receipts for the cases were living in quarters which
110 cases for which current income were too small to provide preper
' data could be secured increased about housing.
” one fifth between the periods under
consideration. The size of their accumulated debts
a the lack of savings, the existence of
The employment status of these 110 genuine needs for medical treatment, _
cases during the month immediately clothing and shelter all show that
preceding the interviews indicated, these families made real sacrifices
however, that their prospects had not before they accepted relief. Their
improved so much as the average aversion to going on relief supports
increase in income would suggest.0nly the evidence that almost uniformly
one—sixth regarded their jobs as they are anxious to get jobs,pay off
"permanent".0ne—sixth was unemployed; their debts, and again become inde~
the jobs of about 30 percent were pendent. ‘
clearly seasonal, and of the others
uncertain. Their condition is This study is particularly signifi—
further reflected by the fact that cant because it reveals the critical
within 10 weeks after the closings,50 situation of a normally stable group
of the 110 households interviewed to whom a relief status is especially
had found it necessary toreaapply for repugnant. They have struggled
relief. desperately to retain their indee
pendence; they seize every oppor—
Living conditions for these fami~ tunity to regain it. Obviously, sea—
lies showed comparatively little sonal employment is a mere stop~ gap
change between these two periods. A for them. Restoration to a sound
third of them were able to improve economic status will require permar
their diets, but an equal proportion nent work at wages adequate for their
was forced to get along with cheaper support.
foods, Housing facilities were

 ~ -1- 7961
Survey of Cases Closed from Relief Rolls
in Sioux Falls, South Dakota
in July, 1935
The study of relief cases closed as the dates of at least 103
in Sioux Falls, South Dakota in July closings were such that they could
1935 covers 147 households in which not have been among those directly
not one head, insofar as physical or affected by the special relief sus—
g mental disabilities are concerned.is pension order which became effective
unemployablel . The problem of on July 81, the willingness of these
* transfer of unemployable cases from workers to seek and to accept
4 Federal to state care does not,there— private employment is hardly open to
fore, exist in this study. question. ‘
Of the 147 cases, 112 were closed After the necessary preliminary
_ in July and 35 were closed as of information had been obtained from
July because they received neither relief office records a staff of
relief n97 service during the month interviewers made home visits. Of
of Auguste . In 84 instances, or 60 the total of 147 cases, interviews
percent of the total, closings Were were completed for 110. Definite
reported to have been made possible but limited data were secured con—
by private employment.It is probable cerning 37 who were absent from the
1 that most of the 16 additional cages city or who could not be found.
which were closed because they did Valuable supplementary information
not renew work cards in July also was secured from conferences with
secured private employment. As citizens in the community, public
stated above, 35 cases were closed officials and heads of local welfare
' as of July because they received organizations.
neither relief nor service during
'August. 0f the remaining 12, six Compositign of Qase aousehglds,
left the city,two enjoyed sufficient With respect to such fundanental
increase in private income to become characteristics as racial and
self—supporting, one received a cultural stock, age, and size of
pension, one, a case of temporary household, it would be difficult to
"depression" separation was reunited Select a group more representative
with her husband, one returned to of the immediate Sioux Falls region.
the Veterans Conservation Corps, and All persons in the study are white.
one ~~ out of the total of 147 —~ Although native, American greatly '
refused a work relief job. Inasmuch predominate, ‘xhere arev some natu»
. m, ‘ralized citizens, and a considerable
1} Previous administrative closings .number of first—generation de—
by the Minnehaha County ERA had been scendents of Dutch, German,1rish and
effected for the purpose of removing Seandinavian stocks. Among the 147
from the rolls all persons who could cases, practically all families are
5 not be certified for employmenton ,intact, there being only four female
the Works Program. heads of households——two deserted,v
g/ The advisability of treating .and two divorced. The median age of
a these 35 cases as a distinct unit of all heads of households is 37 years.
the study was considered. However, One—fourth of them are less than 30
preliminary tabulations revealed years of age. The median size of
‘ that they differed in no significant households, all cases included, is
respects from the 112 caSes. 2.6 persons; if the 17 one—person

 ~2— 7961 ,
cases are excluded, the median size workers are found representatives of
becomes 2.9 (Table I). not less than 37 occupations and one

Education. Only one illiterate
was found among the 147 cases, and It is not surprising that, under
although the general level of edur the pressure of such conditions as
cation is not high, it is probably have prevailed during the past five
a at least as high as that found among years, there should have been numer—
relief clients in other cities. Two— ous cases of enforced occupational
thirds of the heads of houSeholds~- readjustment. Of the 110 heads of
9 and other workers in the households households interviewed, 42 have
do not differ markedly from the within the past four years accepted
heads in this respect -e had com~ what they regard as a lower occu-
' pleted eight or more grades of pational status in order to secure
schooling. Of the 40 who had work. Only two reported improvement
attended high school at all, only 13 in occupational status; a common
had completed four years. Five laborer beCame a grocery store
persons had attended college for salesman, and a skilled worker
from one to two years, and one had became a commission salesman. Six
completed the four years‘ work for a were affected by technological dis~
B.A. degree. After meeting many of placement, four- because of the
these clients face to face, h0wever, passing of the steam tractor and
one is forced to conclude that a steam stationary engine, one because
' large preportion of them are ill— of the diSplacement of street cars'
equipped for efficient participation by buses, and one because of local
in modern economic and industrial discontinuance of steam railway
. life. Operation. However, with respect to
their usual occupations all but .22
Occupational History. Nearly one— regard themselves as only tempo—
fifth. or 27, of the 147 have been rarily unenployed. All except lO,
- attached to the land: four as owners_ who believe they must accept some
one as manager, five as renters, and permanent occupational readjustment,
17 as laborers (Table II). Until consider themselves employable at
recently four were truck Operators, their usual occupations. . .
the individuals owning from one to
as many as five trucks. Of the 31 The records show they have been,
skilled workers, 15 belong in “the on the whole, a stable group of
building construction trades, and 16 workers, one~half of them having
in other miscellaneous occupations. spent from one to nine and one~half
The semi~skilled, of whom there are years at their usual occupations and
18,represent seven other occupations the other half from 10 to more than
while fifty unskilled. are dis~ 25 years. In like manner, one—half
‘ tributed over eight ocCupations. of them Spent from one to four and
5 In addition to these, 18 are usually threeuquarters years with the same
engaged in non~manual work. Rather, employer, while the others spent.
therefore, than representing the from five to more than 20 years with
5 victims of 'a slump in a few major one enployer. With the excaption of
industries, it is a striking fact nine who reported that they had
that in this small group of 147 experienced irregular and insuf—

 ' ,3- 7961
ficient employment over a period of concerning private earnings and
years, and nine who stated that they income was secured directly from
- had constantly suffered from low heads of households themselves, who
wages and insufficient earnings, gave willing and, it is believed,
, these persons considered both em— scrupulous assistance. This dispo—
ployment and, income adequate prior sition to cooperate was undoubtedly
to 1931. due to the fact that the local
‘ relief administration some months
Relief History.0nly 59 of the 14? ago adopted a policy under which
households had ever received relief such budgetary adjustments as were
from either the local or the county made did not penalize those who se—
welfare agency, and for a number of cured private employment. This
these. the local relief of this policy, the Minnehaha County Relief
character occurred only during their Administration is convinced, has not
‘ period on Federal relief, which has only been accompanied by very little
from the first taken the form of abuse but has also done much to
work relief in Sioux Falls, except sustain morale.
for emergency needs occasioned by
the suspension of Federal Emergency The median amount of work relief
Relief Administration works projects receivedbyllO households in July was
prior to the opening of Works Pro— $15.00; of non~ERA relief (made up
gress Administration projects. The almost entirely of Federal Surplus
duration of Federal emergency relief Relief Corporation distributions)
received by these 147 cases varies received by 93 households,$2-55; and
from less than one month to 19. of private earnings and other
One—half of the 147 received relief receipts reported by 83 households,
for less than 11 months, and one— $24.46 (Table III). The‘ median
fourth were on the rolls for less income of the 110 households from
than six months. these three sources combined ,was
$38.89 for the last month of relief.
Income of 110 Households for Lagp Somewhat less than one—fourth of
Month on Relief Compared with Cash them received $60.00 or more, while
Income and other Recei ts from Sent. more than one—fourth received less
15 to Oct. 15, 1955fil. In order to than $25.00 from all sources during
determine the total income of these the month. Although many of these
households for the month of July households had gardens which con—
three sources were taken into con— tributed to the food supply during
sideration: work relief, non—ERA this month, these items are not in—
relief, and private earnings and eluded since dollar values could not
other receipts. It is worthy ' of feasibly be assigned to the garden -
t special note that the information produce.
g/ No income data concerning 37 Median incomes of the same 110
’ cases already accounted for on page households for the month from Sept.
1 were obtainable for the latter 15 to Oct. 15 were much influenced
period. Consequently those cases by the fact that 35 cases had been
were omitted from the calculations. readmitted to the rolls and received

relief before the latter date. to source, only 35 received ERA work
Fifteen others had reapplied and had relief in the latter period, the
been formally re~0pened so recently median amount being $20.50 ( which
that the first relief checks were was one~half more than the average
‘ not yet on record. It is significant amount received by llOcases in July)
" to note that during the season most 18 households received non—ERA re—
favorable to self—support nearly one— lief, the median amount being $11.67
_ half of the 110 households had re— and 96 had either private income or
applied within 10 weeks. Whereas, earnings or both, the median amount
two of the 50 reOpened cases had 'being $50.83. Since a large number
managed to get along for 11 weeks or ofxthese cases were closed because
longer without relief, 15 or nearly they had secured employment, it is
one—third of them had survived less to be expected that private earnings
than eight weeks. The median period in the month September 15 to October
for the entire group was only a 15 would greatly exceed those for
little more than eight weeks. July. Included in incume and
receipts for the latter mOnth were
Comparison of the median income the borrowings of five persons which
of the 110 households for July with totalled $45.00; receipts of payment
that from September 15 to October 15 for back wages by one person, $5.00;
reveals the substantial increase and payment for board and room rent
from $38.89 to $47.50, or 22 received by 12 households, the total
percentff. COnsidered with reference of which was $208.00, making a grand
“1..-..___1__._.__,__-__ total of $256.00. Duringvthe month
£7fl—This increase may well be com~ at least 53 households had some food
pared with the income figures in a from their own gardens and six from
study of closed cases in Baltimore their own poultry.
County prepared by Miss Mary L.
Trippe and Mr. W. 0. Brown, Research The employment status of these
Bulletin Series II, No. 10. In the workers from September 15 to October
Baltimore County study of 1022 cases 15 is highly suggestive of the
the increase in median income from conditions which they face. In only
March 1935 (last month an relief) to five cases did identical jobs hold
April was 44 percent ($9.10) as com» over from the time of July closings.
pared with the 22 percent ($8.61) Fourteen other workers had varying
’ increase for the Sioux Falls group amounts of the same kind of work
between their last month On relief that had made case closings possible.
and the September 15 —~ October 15 The accompanying tabulation summer
period. The increase over March for rizes the employment status of these
the months of May and June was even workers?/ and is the more signifi—
c greater for the Baltimore County cant when it is recalled that the
group, being 78 percent and 96 per— period under consideration falls
cent reSpectively. within a season of peak employment.
The high percentage of increase g/Employment status of the Baltimore
does not mean adequate living County group of 1022 closed cases,
standards, however, for in June 70 although not exactly comparable,
out of the 1022 Baltimore County showed that 78 percent were em—
cases had no income at all, and ployed during April — June period
almost 50 percent of.the households following closings and 22 percent
were living on less than $10 a week. had no work at all.

Employment Status of Heads of 110 The wage range was from as high as
Closed Case Relief Households $4.00 a day in one instance to as
from Sept. 15 to Oct. 15, low as $1.00 a day. It was reported
. 1935 by the National Reemployment Service
that the prevailing wage tended to
_, ___: drOp from about $2.50 a day to $2.00 .
' "—M_’-H ~ a day when the suspension of relief
Unemployed 19 was announced. However, because of
Odd jobsi/ 8 . spotty CrOp conditions, not all
On call (part time)E/ 8 workers who left Sioux Falls in
Temporarily employed 22 search of harvest field work fared
Seasonal work 35 as well as those mentioned above,
Permanent jobs _l§ since jobs were not always forthcom~
Total.......110 ing, and some of them had to thumb
their way back home with no earnings
whatever. The published rumors of
-—"-—*—-~"-j::—-—«~———~—*~::::::::: unwillingness on the part of relief
a/ A total of 36 days, or an - clients to accept harvest field jobs
average of 4% days each. appear to have had their rise
b] A.total of 72 days' work, or an largely from the type of farmer who,
average of 9 days each. after he had scoured the country
looking for men to work for a dollar
Harvest Field Labog. The reported a day and support themselves and had
demand for harvest field labor was failed to find them, announced that
V much exaggerated. Many farmers in “the peOple on relief are all bums
South Dakota are Operating on credit and loafers."
and the claims on their crOp dollars
are so numerous and insistent~—from Current Spgndards of Living. In
the thresher, the elevator, the may these households the food problem
Chinery agent, and the Government —— was not acute during the period
' that, in many cases,there would have studied. Comparing diet from Sept.
been nothing left with which to pay 15 to Oct. 15 with that of July, 36
workers. "Had I hired even one man" reported either a general iua
said such a farmer, "it would have provement or improvement in specific
put me in the red." Hence it was items; 19 reported unchanged diet;
that wives and children went into 35 reported specific adjustments
the fields, farmers clubbed together which somewhat reduced the quality
to help each other, and some grain of diet; and 18 reported that they
was not shocked at all before were unable to supply fruit and milk
. ' threshing. Consequently, the Sioux for young children. Downward
Falls supply of labor which was adjustments represented, in most
willing to go into the harvest cases, reduced consumption of milk,
' fields constantly exceeded the de— eggs, butter and meat.
mand. From the 110 households threas food standards were, in
visited, 34 workers succeeded in the main, at least tolerable, the
getting more or less of this work housing of many of the 93 families
prior to Sept. 15, the median amount visited (17 boarders and lodgers
being 17 days, the median daily wage excluded) was clearly inadequate,
being $2.21, and the median earnings With respect to physical condition,
per person being $33.75 (Table IV).

 . —6— 7961
23 dwelling units were reported- in such that, in terms of the occupancy
need of minor repairs, 1% in need of rating scale employed by the Bureau
major repairs, and 13 as unfit for of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
occupaflCY-Q - when taking the MPMLEEB"
tory of 19342 , 48 percent of the 93
That 25 houses were reported as are either ”crowded", "overcrowded",
"owned" does not denote any degree or "greatly crowded", this frequency
. of prOSperity. Two of them are being more than seven and one-half
”trailers" on wheels, and others are times as high as the 6.4 percent re-
mere shacks, the makeshift charac- corded for all rental units in the
. ter of which is amply attested by city§ (Table V). But in order to
the fact that seven of them are tell the whole story, further
valued at from $25.00 to, $100.00 analysis is needed. In six cases
each. In many units, the ordinary the rate of occupancy is two persons
conveniences are lacking. Thirteen per room; in two cases it is three;
do not have running water, gas, or and in five cases it is four. That
electricity; seven others have such over—crowding creates con ~
neither gas nor electricity; ll ditions injurious to both health and
others have no gas; and eight others morals need not be argued. There
have no running water. The median are two prevailing reasons why
rent paid by the 93 households is people endure these blighting cone
$13.49 per month. However, somewhat ditions: "I cannot find a decent
more than one~fourth of them pay house that I can afford”, said one
less than $10.00 a month. "and I would rather stay here and
keep my rent paid";”we ought to move
The median number of rooms per out of this place," said anotherflbut
family unit is three. However, the the landlords know we are on relief '
differences in size of family are and won’t trust us."
g} The standards followed in —“for each person. Residential units
assigning these ratings were those are characterized as having adeouate
used in the Real Property Inygntggy, spacing when they are listed with
1934 (Civil Works Administration from three—quarter to one person per
Project, Sioux Falls, South Dakota) room, or when they contain one room
Department of Commerce, Bureau of or more for each occupant, though
Foreign and Domestic “Commerce , less than one and one—half rooms.The
Washington, D.C., 1934 p.12. term crowded is used for units where
1/........”very Soggigus refers to there are two or less persons, Yet
dwelling units having one~half more than one person per room. A
person or less per room, which means unit is designated as overcrowded
that two or more rooms are availa~ when there are three or less persons
ble for each person living in the but more than two persons per room. '
unit. The term spacious is applied The term greatly overcrowded refers
r to cases where there is from to units having more than three
one~half to three~quarter person per persons per room”. Real Property
room, that is, dwelling units which Inventory, 1934 Op. cit., p.9.
' have the equivalent of less than two E7‘ The 55—Fewned” units are in—
rooms per person, yet where one and cluded in the total of 93.
one—half rooms or more are available '

 ~7— 7961 4
Exhausted Resources. It would be The assumption that these_ citi—
a serious error t5_think of this zens turned willingly to relief
group as composed only of wage lacks foundation. On the contrary
earners whose means had always been it is evident that for many of them
limited to current earnings.Specific relief was a last resort.
reverses, crises, or other contribu~
tory factors stand out in many cases. Accumulated Debts. Before the
. Drought and repeated crop failures cloglhég’ 80 households had already
5 resulted in 11 instances in loss of accumulated debts for rwhich the
farms, farm equipment or specialized median amount was $73.33 exclusive
. farm occupation. A destructive of lon§:?erm mortgages amounting to
cyclone accounted for one more, and $12,74 9 .
a fire which destroyed all farm
buildings as well as dwelling and The nature of the debts, the
crops accounted for another. One number of people reporting each type
business man was a victim of a bank and median indebtedness are as
failure; the- partner of another follows.lg/. ‘
absconded; and five were forced out
of business because of frozen ac— Type of Debt Number Median
counts. Death in their families led Reporting Debt for
to enforced liquidation of business each
for three heads of households. De~ Tyne .
sertion forced two housewives to
* become breadwinners. Reverses in All debts 80 $73.33
other individual cases are attribu~
table to loss of a political job, OhattellMortgage e 60.00
habitual drunkenness and mental Interest ' 5 65.00
deficiency. Five were the victims Taxes 11 15.00
of accidents, all of which resulted Rent 26 26.67
in protracted disability and four of Gas 6 7.50
which disqualified the workers for Electricity 18 6.92
their usual occupations. In 15 Groceries 30 15.00
households, illness, either of heads Medical 53 58.75
or of members of the family, for Farm Equipment 2 40.00
prolonged periods ranging from' one Dental 9 18-33
and one~half to eight years,not only Miscellaneous 37 38.33
necessitated drastic household read—
justments but even led to complete
economic exhaustion in some cases. __# __
E750f the 25 dwellings reported as
Four years ago, 35 insurance ”owned”, the total value of which is
policies totalling $69,000 were held said to be $31,831 (assessed values
by members of these 110 households. in all assessible cases), 13 (total
' By October 15, 1935 twenty~three of valuation $22,350) are encumbered to
theacpdicies totalling $51,500 had the extent of $12,745 or 57 percent
been surrendered. of valuation.
‘ 10/ See Table VI for complete
. tabulation.

 —8— 7961
* Accumulated dental, surgical and frequently expressed in the inter—
medical debts totaled $4,575. Eight views. ‘
persons owe dental bills ranging
- from as low as $2.00 to as high as Present Needs: >SuCh an inventory
. $55,00. Unpaid hospital bills, of Of needs as is made possible by this
. which' there are nine, range from study is obviously neither precise
$11.00 to $200.00. Nine unpaid nor complete. However, interviewers
surgical bills range from $60.00 to were instructed to distinguish
. $311.00. Of all unpaid medical debts . carefully between'Wants" and ”needs”
the smallest is $3.00 and the and to make no entries which were
largest $400.00 Thirteen bills for. not supported by evidence of urgent
obstetrical services, the range of need. Under such practice, the
which is from $20.00 to $75.00' following needs were reported: in
' remain unpaid. four households, stoves; in two
' households, beds; in 14 households,
Special inquiry disclosed that 25 bedding. Clothing for children is
households had appreciably increased needed in seven households, and
their debts, and five had incurred shoes for children in five house—
their first debts since the closing holds. Seven families need clothing
of their cases in July, the median for adults. The need for such spe-
amount of these increases and new cific articles of food as fruit,meat .
debts being $17.00. Indebtedness and milk was reported for 17 house~
incurred after the closings was h01d5-
reported as follows according to the . -
' nature of the dethl/. .An attempt was made to discover
urgent dental, medical and surgical
V Type of Number Median needs. From fifty~two households
Debt Reporting Amount information was given on the followe
__-_____________.___ of Debt. ing fifty—four cases of need:
All Debts 50 $17.00 Dental work 24
Glasses 5
Rent _7;a_‘—flfi——7fi§:fi§' Medical treatment 9 .
Gas 4 3.55 Obstetrical treatment 1
Electricity 10 3_57 ‘Surgical treatment 14
Groceries 4 8.33 Orthopedic treatment 1
Medical 5 I