xt7z610vqx66 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7z610vqx66/data/mets.xml Headley, John W. 1906  books b92e608h4319062009 English Neale Pub. Co. : New York ; Washington Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. United States --History --Civil War, 1861-1865 --Secret service --Confederate States United States --History --Civil War, 1861-1865 --Personal narratives --Confederate side Confederate operations in Canada and New York text Confederate operations in Canada and New York 1906 2009 true xt7z610vqx66 section xt7z610vqx66 
    
    
    
    
    
    
   confederate operations canada and new york 
    
    
    
    
    
   confederate operations

n Canada and New York

by

JOHN W. HEADLEY

Illustrated by Portraits

new york and washington

THE NEALE PUBLISHING COMPANY 1906 
    
   to the memory

of the

Defenseless non-combatant people of the South who suffered the untold horrors of

merciless warfare-desolation, destitution,

imprisonment or death ; of the persecuted people of the North whose sense of justice and humanity revolted at a crusade for the cause of John Brown, and of Horace Greeley, Gerrit Smith and Cornelius Vanderbilt, this volume is reverently dedicated by the author. 
   illustrations

Facing Page.

John W. Headley, 1900......................................................................Frontispiece

Major-General John H. Morgan, 1864........................................................ J94

Thomas H. Hines, 1864.................................................................................... 218

John B. Castleman, 1864.................................................................................. 220

Jacob Thompson, 1864...................................................................................... 222

John Yates Beall, 1864......................................................................................242

Bennett H. Young, 1864.................................................................................... 256

Clement Claiborne Clay, 1867.......................................................................... 258

Robert M. Martin, 1866.................................................................................... 274

John W. Headley, 1865...................................................................................... 276

Young Confederate widow who was a messenger for the St. Albans Raiders in getting the proper papers from the Confederate Government ............................................................................................ 376

Rev. Stephen F. Cameron................................................................................ 378

Charles C. Hemming, 1902................................................................................ 456

Capt. Thomas H. Hines, 1884.......................................................................... 458

Col. Bennett H. Young, 1906.......................................................................... 460

John B. Castleman, 1898.................................................................................... 462 
   CONTENTS

Chapter I

Election of Abraham Lincoln precipitates secession   Southern Confederacy organized. Jefferson Davis chosen President   Mr. Lincoln inaugurated   Attempt to reinforce Fort Sumter   Fall of Fort Sumter   Beginning of the war   Situation in Missouri, Maryland, and Kentucky   President Lincoln declares martial law .............................................................................................................. 19.

Chapter II

Battle of Bull Run   Armies invade Kentucky   Author enlists   Military operations in Kentucky.................................................................. 28

Chapter III

Battle and surrender of Fort Donelson   Grant absent during the battle   Forrest refuses to surrender and escapes and is followed by over half his regiment...................................................................... 35

Chapter IV

Evacuation of Tennessee by Confederates   Battle of Shiloli   Campaign in Virginia   Buell in North Alabama   Bragg at Chattanooga   Forrest and Morgan in Buell's rear   Bragg and Kirby Smith invade Kentucky.......................................................................... 44

Chapter V

Battle of Perryville   Bragg and Smith evacuate Kentucky.................... 55

Chapter VI

Breckinridge at Murfreesboro   Forrest at Franklin   Johnson and Martin in western Kentucky   John W. Foster levies on citizens to reimburse Union men........................................................................ 61

Chapter VII

Bragg's army at Murfreesboro   Secret service for General Bragg    Purchases at Lafayette, Kentucky   Surprise, flight, and narrow escape   Battle at Murfreesboro   Discontent in the army and feeling against General Bragg   Col. R. C. Tyler wounded    Death of Tyler   Bragg and his generals.......................................... 68 
   X

contents

Chapter VIII

Situation changed in "neutral zone"   Secret negotiations with the Federal commander at Clarksville   Surprised at Mrs. Batson's    Capture and escape   Another narrow escape   Escape of Bowers from prison at Clarksville...................................................... /6

Chapter IX

Captured at Louisa Furnace   Capture of officers of Lee's army    Escape from prison and captivity in Nashville   Notes on Rosecrans's army   Departure from Nashville on a pass       Escape of other prisoners...................................................................... 84

Chapter X

Situation after return from captivity   Forrest at Palmyra   Wheeler at Fort Donelson   Plain talk of Forrest to Wheeler   Report to Forrest and Bragg of Rosecrans's army   Van Dorn over Forrest and others, on the left, and Wheeler over Morgan and others, on the right of Bragg's army   Morgan's raid to Kentucky in December, 1862   Infantry armies being exhausted in drawn battles and in camp   Spirit .of vengeance   Colonel Streight marches out from Palmyra and encamps on Yellow Creek .......................................................................................................... 96

Chapter XI

Famous raid of Col. Abel D. Streight through Alabama to Georgia    Famous pursuit and capture by Gen. N. B. Forrest   Ovation to Forrest at Rome, Georgia   Federal prisoners attest the kindness of Forrest................................................................................106

Chapter XII

Conduct of the invaders   Devastation of the country in Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi   Cruelty to non-combatant sympathizers with the South............................................................................113

Chapter XIII

Organization to raid western Kentucky and recruit a regiment   

Fight and defeat at Dixon   Return to Tennessee..........................122

Chapter' XIV

Bragg's retreat from Shelbyville to Chattanooga   Wheeler's fight and escape at Shelbyville   Morgan starts on Ohio raid   Federal commanders lose Morgan in Kentucky, except those on his trail    Morgan crosses into Indiana, passes near Cincinnati   Morgan surrenders, and with his officers is confined in Ohio Penitentiary ............................................................................................................131 
   contents xi

Chapter XV

Col. Robert M. Martin   Record in Morgan's cavalry   Morgan's men under Martin open and close battle of Chickamauga   Forrest loses his division......................................................................................139

Chapter XVI

Martin's expedition to Kentucky   Exciting adventures   Skirmish with an old friend   Surprised and routed near Greenville    Loss of horses and equipments   Rendezvous in Henry County, Tennessee   Expedition on foot to Golden Pond   Recapture of horses, and home-guards paroled..................................................146

!

Chapter XVII

Journey to Kentucky, then around Nashville and into Alabama    Narrow escapes   Luxurious homes of an Alabama valley    Johnston succeeds Bragg......................................................................161

Chapter XVIII

Mission for General Morgan to vicinity of Nashville   Miss Mary Overall secures information in Nashville   Death of Dee Jobe    Wounded Union soldier dies and is buried, by enemies, in family graveyard   Safe arrival at Rome, Georgia..........................168

Chapter XIX

Raid of Kilpatrick and Dahlgren to capture Richmond, release Federal prisoners, pillage and burn the city, and kill President Davis and his Cabinet   Vengeful views of the Confederate soldiers at this period over the devastation of their country........175

Chapter XX

Morgan at Abingdon   General Jenkins wounded and his command routed   Martin leads a charge   Morgan defeats enemy near Wytheville   His last raid to Kentucky   Captures garrison at Mt. Sterling   Martin's command surprised by Burbridge    Defense and escape with severe loss   Fight and capture of garrison at Cynthiana   Morgan defeated by Burbridge    Escape to Virginia..................................................................................J86

Chapter XXI

Morgan re-establishes headquarters at Abingdon   Reorganizing his command   Officers recuperate   Richmond authorities aroused against Morgan   Skirmish of Major Cantrill with scouts    Detached by Secretary of War............................................................201 
   xii contents

Chapter XXII

Departure for Canada   Death of General Morgan   Forrest in Mississippi   Journey from Corinth to Toronto......................................:

Chapter XXIII

Capt. Thomas H. Hines   Purposes of mission to Canada   Col. Jacob Thompson's mission   Coalition with leaders of Sons of Liberty    Concentration at Democratic National Convention in Chicago    Fruitless endeavor to release Confederate prisoners at Camp Douglas and Springfield........................................................................217

Chapter XXIV

Plan for capture of gunboat Michigan on Lake Erie and release of prisoners on Johnson's Island   Captain Cole and Acting Master Beall undertake the adventure   Lieutenant Young sent with funds to Buffalo   Cole, at the moment of success, is betrayed and arrested and imprisoned at Sandusky City   Thompson and Clay to the rescue   Cole finally recognized as prisoner of war....231

Chapter XXV

Capt. John Yates Beall   His home in Virginia   Early career in the Confederacy with Bennett G. Burley   Capture of steamer Philo Parsons on Lake Erie   Capture of Island Queen       Attempt to release prisoners on Johnson's Island   Mutiny of men when signals failed to appear   Compelled to return and destroy vessels   Men disperse in Canada   Arrest of Burley    Confederate steamer Gcorgiana on Lake Erie..................................241

Chapter XXVI

Lieutenant Young's raid upon St. Albans, Vermont   Retreat and pursuit   Capture by Americans in Canada   Rescued by a British officer   Sympathy for prisoners in Canada   Extradition demanded   Preparations for defense................................................256

Chapter XXVII

Plans for revolution at Chicago and New York City   Attempts to be made to burn Cincinnati, Philadelphia, and Boston   Plans in New York City........................................................................................264

Chapter XXVIII

Confederates attempt to burn business section of New York City-Escape to Canada................................................................................274 
   contents

xiii

Chapter XXIX

Northwestern Confederacy vanishes   Plans exposed at Chicago    Arrest of leaders   General report of Thompson upon all operations   Failure conceded   Judge Buckner S. Morris and Col. Vincent Marmaduke acquitted   R. T. Semmes and Charles Walsh sentenced to penitentiary   Col. George St. Leger Grenfel sentenced to be hung..............................................................................284

Chapter XXX

Expedition to Buffalo and Dunkirk, New York, to rescue Confederate generals on train   Proclamations of General Dix   Efforts to capture the express car   Capture of Captain Beall and

George S. Anderson at Suspension Bridge......................................301

Chapter XXXI

Situation in Canada and in the Confederacy   Sherman's march

through Georgia and occupation of Savannah..................................308

Chapter XXXII

Trials of Confederates in progress   Lieut. S. B. Davis captured    Bennett G. Bufley ordered to be extradited to United States    Colonel Thompson writes to Confederate minister in England    British Government interferes and saves Burley   Ashbrook and Kennedy depart for the Confederacy   Lieutenant Davis sentenced to be hung   Colonel Thompson appeals to President Lincoln and Secretary of War Stanton on merits of the case    Successful proceedings in behalf of Davis   Capture, trial and execution of Kennedy............................................................................321

Chapter XXXIII

Operations of General Sherman in South Carolina, and General

Hunter in Virginia   General Early retaliates in Pennsylvania...-332

Chapter XXXIV

Trial of John Yates Beall by military commission'   Character as a Confederate officer established   His acts authorized and approved by the Confederate Government   Arguments of

counsel ......................................................................................................34  

Chapter XXXV

Efforts of the friends of Beall, with President Lincoln, for his pardon    Beall hung on Governor's Island   Buried in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn................................................................................357 
   XIV

contents

Chapter XXXVI

Trial of Lieutenant Young and his men at Montreal   Complete vindication ......................................................................................................370

Chapter XXXVII

Arrangements to leave Canada for Richmond   Plan for the next campaign   Last ditch in the Northern States   Colonel Thompson remains in Canada to assist in the trials of Confederates............382

Chapter XXXVIII

The trouble of reaching Richmond   Situation in Kentucky, West

Virginia, and Tennessee........................................................................39  

Chapter XXXIX

Departure from Canada   Journey to Cincinnati   Arrival and sojourn

in Louisville   Preparations for journey to Virginia......................396

Chapter XL

Plans and efforts to capture Vice-President-elect Andrew Johnson at

the Louisville Hotel................................................................................402

Chapter XLI

Capture horses of Major Julius Fosses in Louisville   Escape from

the city   Journey to Abingdon, Virginia..........................................411

Chapter XLII

Journey to Richmond   Richmond and Petersburg evacuated   Government flees to the South   Retreat of Lee and surrender al Appomattox   Detained at Lynchburg   Escape to the West and South   Terms of peace..........................................................................425

Chapter XLIII

Peace cartel repudiated by President Johnson   Surrender of JohnstOh and his army   President Davis and Cabinet retire through South Carolina   Five cavalry brigades guard the retreat   Last council of war   Proposal of General Breckinridge for conduct of President Davis to Mexico   General Duke's account of the last conference of President Davis with the generals of cavalry    Departure of President Davis from Washington, Georgia........432 
   contents

XV

Chapter XLIV

President Davis made prisoner   Parole of Confederates at Washington, Georgia   President Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation    Martin and Headley in excepted class   Arrest of Headley, his escape, and subsequent pardon by the President   Troubles in Middle Tennessee   Arrest of Martin   He is put in irons and in prison at Fort Lafayette.......................................................................438

Robert M. Martin pardoned   Many sentences remitted   Parole of C. C. Clay, Jr.   Jefferson Davis delivered to United States Court at Richmond   Released on bail-bond   Ovation to Mr. Davis in the South   Nolle prosequi entered   Finally settles in Mississippi to spend his last years   Visit to birthplace in Kentucky   Subsequent lives of Confederate officers who served in Canada....................................................................................................451

The truth   The premises   Summary of conduct of the war   Impartial testimony and views of Federal commanders   Confederate success in battle   Troops engaged   Cause and result of the

Chapter XLV

Chapter XLVI

war.

464

Chapter XLVII

Conduct of Southern authorities and soldiers.

473 
    
   INTRODUCTION

There is little consolation in relating the particulars of the hostile operations along the northern borders of the United States, by Confederate soldiers from Canada, who were assigned to this service by the authorities of the Confederate States in 1864.

And yet the authentic narrative of this desperate warfare which recalls and includes the cruel phases of the deplorable conflict may be due to the survivors and the dead of the North and the South who were military foes, and may serve as a lesson and a guide to the present and future generations of our reunited country in determining the price of peace and the pretexts for war.

All references that pertain to the conduct of the Federal Government and soldiers toward non-combatants are derived entirely from verified authority and the official records of the War Department of the United States. But little account of the engagements between the great armies is attempted. And it is deemed sufficient to submit the summaries of Generals Buell and Grant, the commanders of the two Federal armies at the battle of Shiloh, concerning the results of battles, the forces engaged, the morale of soldiers, and the cause of the war.

The military operations in the Department of Tennessee are noted partially from personal knowledge, but those west of the Mississippi River, being of like character under like conditions, are omitted. And besides, the commanders in both these Departments of the Confederacy appear to have missed opportunities alike at the critical period   1862-3, whilst Gen. Robert E. Lee was never driven, by generalship or numbers, from Virginia, but upon her bosom ended his struggle and breathed his last sigh as a soldier of the Southern Confederacy.

John W. Headley.

Louisville, Kentucky, 1906. 
    
   CONFEDERATE OPERATIONS IN CANADA AND NEW YORK

CHAPTER I

Election of Abraham Lincoln precipitates secession   Southern Confederacy organized, Jefferson Davis chosen President    Mr. Lincoln inaugurated   Attempt to reinforce Fort Sumter   Fall of Fort Sumter   Beginning of the war    Situation in Missouri, Maryland and Kentucky   President Lincoln declares martial law.

The sectional animosities engendered by the agitation in the Northern States for the abolition of African slavery reached a climax upon the election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency of the United States in November, i860. The Southern people construed this event to mean the freedom of their negroes. Indeed, the passions of the triumphant party in the Northern States and their purposes were no longer concealed.

The period of reason appeared to have passed and the question was at once agitated in the South of withdrawing from the Union and of organizing a new government on the same basis as that of the United States, and accordingly South Carolina initiated the movement by an Act of Secession from the Union, December 14, i860. Other States followed, and a provisional new government was formed by delegates from South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, who assembled in convention at Montgomery, Alabama. Jefferson Davis was chosen President, and Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia, Vice-President, on the 9th of February, 1861. 
   20

confederate operations

In his inaugural address, February 18, 1861, Mr. Davis set forth the objects and purposes of the new General Government, which was called "The Confederate States of America."  In part he said:

*******

Our present condition, achieved in a manner unprecedented in the history of nations, illustrates the American idea that governments rest upon the consent of the governed, and that it is the right of the people to alter or abolish governments whenever they become destructive of the ends for which they were established.

Through many years of controversy with our late associates, the Northern States, we have vainly endeavored to secure tranquillity, and to obtain respect for the rights to which we were entitled. As a necessity, not a choice, we have resorted to the remedy of separation; and henceforth our energies must be directed to the conduct of our own affairs, and the perpetuity of the Confederacy which we have formed.

If a just perception of mutual interest shall permit us peaceably to pursue our separate career, my most earnest desire will have been fulfilled; but if this is denied us, and the integrity of our territory and jurisdiction be assailed, it will but remain for us, with firm resolve, to appeal to arms, and invoke the blessings of Providence on a just cause.

We have changed the constituent parts, but not the system of our Government. The Constitution formed by our fathers is that of these Confederate States, in their exposition of it; and, in the judicial construction it has received, we have a light which reveals its true meaning.

President Lincoln, in his inaugural address on March 4, 1861, said:

Apprehension seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that, by the accession of a Republican Administration, their property and their peace and personal security are to be endangered. There has never been any cause for such apprehensions.

Indeed, the most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspection.  It is found in 
   in canada and new york

21

nearly all the public speeches of him who addresses you. I do but quote from one of those speeches when I declare that I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. Those who nominated and elected me did so with full knowledge that I had made this and many similar declarations, and had never recanted them. And more than this, they placed in the platform for my acceptance, and as a law to themselves and to me, the clear and emphatic resolution which I now read:

"Resolved, That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States, and especially the right of each State to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depend, and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest crimes."

*f* sfc 3|c 3|c

However, President Lincoln at once began the preparations for reinforcing Fort Sumter. Eleven vessels were fitted up and loaded with several thousand troops, arms, and supplies. They were instructed to reinforce Major Anderson at Fort Sumter, peaceably if they could, but by force if they must. Just before they arrived, General Beauregard, in command at Charleston, reduced the Fort, and the garrison surrendered, upon honorable terms, April 13, 1861, without the loss of life on either side.

On the 15th of April, 1861, two days after the fall of Fort Sumter, President Lincoln issued a proclamation, calling for seventy-five thousand troops, in which he said:

I appeal to all loyal citizens to favor, facilitate and aid this effort to maintain the honor, the integrity, and the existence of our National Union, and the perpetuity of popular government, and to redress wrongs already long endured.

*******

And I hereby command the persons composing the combinations aforesaid to disperse and retire peaceably to their respective abodes within twenty days from this date. 
   22

confederate operations

The States of Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas and North Carolina at once proceeded to enter the Confederacy.

The Provisional Government organized at Montgomery was merged into a permanent Government, with no special changes except the removal of the capital to Richmond, Virginia.

It was with rivalry that the volunteers in the Southern States were organized and rushed into the conflict. And likewise in the Northern States. Indeed, active preparations were being made from the day of the inauguration of the new Presidents.

Gen. John C. Fremont was one of the first generals appointed by President Lincoln, and was assigned to the command of the Department of the West, in which Ohio and Kentucky were included. His headquarters was established at St. Louis.

The State Administration, including the militia, was openly arrayed against the Union in Missouri. General Fremont was confronted from the start by a condition of revolt against his authority, and his military jurisdiction in the State was practically limited to St. Louis for some time.

General Fremont says when he parted from the President in Washington to assume his command in the West that Mr. Lincoln said:

I have given you carte blanche. You must use your own judgment and do the best you can. I doubt if the States will ever come back.

General Fremont, therefore, within a few months deemed it advisable to issue a proclamation declaring martial law, from which the following extracts are quoted:

St. Louis, August 30, 1861.

*******

All persons who shall be taken with arms in their hands within these lines shall be tried by court-martial, and if found guilty will be shot. 
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23

The property, real and personal, of all persons, in the State of Missouri, who shall take up arms against the United States, or who shall be directly proven to have taken an active part with their enemies in the field, is declared confiscated to the public use, and their slaves, if they have any, are hereby declared free men.

All persons who shall be proven to have destroyed, after the publication of this order, railroad tracks, bridges, or telegraphs, shall suffer the extreme penalty of the law. '

All persons engaged in treasonable correspondence, in giving or procuring aid to the enemies of the United States, in foment-.ing tumults, in disturbing the public tranquillity by creating and circulating false reports or incendiary documents, are in their own interest warned that they are exposing themselves to sudden and severe punishment.

All persons who have been led away from their allegiance, are required to return to their homes forthwith; any such absence, without sufficient cause, will be held to be presumptive evidence against them.

The object of this declaration is to place in the hands of the military authorities the power to give instantaneous effect to existing laws, and to supply such deficiencies as the conditions of war demand.

******* Gen. Jeff. Thompson, then in command of the Missouri militia forces about St. Louis, at once issued the following proclamation of retaliation:

Headquarters First Military District Mo.

St. Louis, August 31, 1861.

To All Whom It May Concern:

Whereas, Maj.-Gen. John C. Fremont, commanding the minions of Abraham Lincoln in the State of Missouri, has seen fit to declare martial law throughout the whole State, and has threatened to shoot any citizen-soldier found in arms within certain limits; also, to confiscate the property and free the negroes belonging to the members of the Missouri State Guard:

Therefore, know ye, that I, M. Jeff. Thompson, Brigadier-General of the First Military District of Missouri, having not only the military authority of brigadier-general, but certain police powers granted by Acting-Governor Thomas C. Reynolds, and confirmed afterward by Governor Jackson, do most solemnly promise that for every member of the Missouri State 
   24

confederate operations

Guard, or soldier of our allies, the armies of the Confederate States, who shall be put to death in pursuance of the said order of General Fremont, I will hang, draw, and quarter a minion of said Abraham Lincoln.

While I am anxious that this unfortunate war shall be conducted, if possible, upon the most liberal principles of civilized warfare, and every order that I have issued has been with that object   yet, if this rule is to be adopted (and it must first be done by our enemies), I intend to exceed General Fremont in his excesses, and will make all tories that come within my reach rue the day that a different policy was adopted by their leaders.

Already mills, barns, warehouses, and other private property have been wastefully and wantonly destroyed by the enemy in this district, while we have taken nothing except articles contraband or absolutely necessary. Should these things be repeated, I will retaliate ten-fold, so help me God.

M. Jeff. Thompson, Brigadier-General Commanding.

President Lincoln wrote:

(private). Washington, D. C, September 2, 1861.

My Dear Sir : Two points in your proclamation of August 30th give me some anxiety:

First. Should you shoot a man according to the proclamation, the Confederates would very certainly shoot our best man in their hands, in retaliation; and so, man for man, indefinitely. It is, therefore, my order that you allow no man to be shot under the proclamation without first having my approbation or consent.

Second. I think there is great danger that the closing paragraph, in relation to the confiscation of property, and the liberating of slaves of traitorous owners, will alarm our Southern Union friends, and turn them against us; perhaps ruin our rather fair prospect for Kentucky.

Allow me, therefore, to ask that you will, as of your own motion, modify that paragraph so as to conform to the first and fourth sections of the Act of Congress entitled, "An Act to Confiscate Property Used for Insurrectionary Purposes," approved August 6, 1861, a copy of which Act I herewith send you. 
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25

This letter is written in a spirit of caution, and not of censure. I send it by a special messenger, so that it may certainly and speedily reach you.

Yours very truly,

A. Lincoln.

Major-General Fremont.

General Fremont replied to President Lincoln's suggestions, in a long letter, from which I make extracts :

Headquarters Western Department.

St. Louis, September 8, 1861. My Dear Sir : Your letter of the second, by special messenger, I know to have been written before you had received my letter, and before my telegraphic dispatches and rapid developments of critical conditions here had informed you of affairs in this quarter.

3|C 3JC s|c 5fC *f   2JC 3fC

This is as much a movement in the war, as a battle, and, in going into these, I shall have to act according to my judgment of the ground before me, as I did on this occasion.

-f*   fc        *fc   }c

If I were to retract of my own accord, it would imply that I myself thought it wrong, and that I had acted without the reflection which the gravity of the point demanded. But I did not. I acted with full deliberation, and upon the certain conviction that it was a measure right and necessary, and I think so still.

In regard to the other point of the proclamation to which you refer, I desire to say that I do not think the enemy can either misconstrue or urge anything against it, or undertake to make unusual retaliation. The shooting of men who shall rise in arms against an army in the military occupation of a country, is merely a necessary measure of defense, and entirely according to the usages of civilized warfare. The article does not at all refer to prisoners of war and certainly our enemies have no grounds for requiring that we should waive in their benefit any of the ordinary advantages which the usages of war allow us.

As promptitude is itself an advantage in war, I have also to ask that you will permit me to carry out upon the spot the provisions of the proclamation in this respect.

I am, with respect and regard,

Very truly yours,

j. C. Fremont.

The President. 
   26

confederate operations

President Lincoln rejoined, as follows:

Washington, September n, 1861.

Sir : Yours of the 8th, in answer to