xt7zkh0dvx11 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7zkh0dvx11/data/mets.xml Dillon, John B. (John Brown), 1808-1879. 1854  books b92-100-27765974 English Sheets & Braden, : Indianapolis, Ia. [i.e. Ind.] : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Indiana History. Northwest, Old History.Dillon, John B. (John Brown), 1808-1879. History of Indiana. History of the early settlement of the North-western Territory  : from its earliest exploration by Europeans to the close of the terretorial [sic] government in 1816 ; with an idtroduction [sic] containing historical notes of the discovery andsettlement of the Territory of the United States North-West of the River Ohio / by John B. Dillon. text History of the early settlement of the North-western Territory  : from its earliest exploration by Europeans to the close of the terretorial [sic] government in 1816 ; with an idtroduction [sic] containing historical notes of the discovery andsettlement of the Territory of the United States North-West of the River Ohio / by John B. Dillon. 1854 2002 true xt7zkh0dvx11 section xt7zkh0dvx11 




                    FROM IT,


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f7lose elf the rTerretwrial Government in 1816:


                   OF THFE


                   OF THE


           BY PJOHN B. DILLON.

           INDIANAPOLIS, IA..

  Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1843, by-
John B. Dillon, in the Clerk's Mffice of the District Court of
the United States for the District of Indiana.]


This page in the original text is blank.



  AMONG the Historical Notes which constitute the introduc-
tion to this History of Indiana, I have inserted many official
documents relating to the early affairs, civil and military, of
the vast region which was formerly called the Territory of
the United States northwest of the river Ohio.  From  a
very great number of printed authorities, and from many
thousand pages of old manuscript records and letters, I have
selected only those statements which appear to be well au.
thenticated, and connected, either directly or remotely, with
the origin and progress of civilization in that large domain.
With a sincere desire to cast from my mind those popular
prejudices which have had their origin in ambitious conten-
tions between distinguished individuals, or in national partial-
ities and antipathies, or in improbable narratives and fanciful
conjectures, or in conflicting political systems, or in different
creeds of religion, I have labored for several years, with con-
stant and careful perseverance, to find out and to perpetuate
all the important facts which properly belong to an impartial
history of Indiana from its earliest exploration by Europeans
to the close of the Territorial Government in 1816.
  Many interesting particulars concerning the discovery and
settlement of the northwestern territory have been gleaned
from the voluminous writings of divers Catholic missionaries,
and French travellers, who visited the valley of the Mississippi
at different periods in the course of the eighteenth century:
and here it is proper to say that my thanks are especially due


to the Rev. Mr. MARTIN, of Vincennes; to J. W. RYLAND, Esq.
of Cincinnati; to J. B. DURET, Esq. of Logansport; and to Dr.
MUNSzLL, of Indianapolis; from whom, collectively, I have
received essential assistance in the examination of a large
collection of French records, and in the task of translating
sundry French ordinances, and other public documents. -
   A list of the names of persons from whom I have received
rare and valuable manuscripts, and aid and encouragement in
the midst of perplexing difficulties, shall be published in the
form of an appendix, at the close of the second volume of this
work. The following is a list of the titles of the principal au-
thorities which I have examined, carefully, in the course of a
laborious   investigation    of confused      traditions, contradictory
narratives, and questionable records: -
  American Archives: Fourth Series: Containing a Documentary History of the English
Colonies in North America, from the King's menage to Parliament, of March 7,1774, to
the Declaratlon of Independence by the United States.-Published at Washington, by M.
St. Clair Clarke and Peter Force, under authority of an act of Congress, passed on the 2d
of March, 1833.
  American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the
United States, from the first session of the first to the third session of the thirteenth Con-
gres, Inclusive: Commencing March 3, 1789. and ending March 3, 1815.-Selected and
edited, under the authority of Congress, by Walter Lowrie, Secretary of the Senate, and
Matthew St. Clair Clarke, Clerk of the House of Representatives.
  An Historical and Chronological Deduction of the Origin of Commerce, from the earliest
accounts: Containing an history of the great commercial interests of the British Empire,
c.-By Adam Anderson. 4 vols. quarto; London, 1801.
  Reports from Committees of the [British] House of Commons, from 1715 to 1801. Or-
dered by the House of Commons to be printed. 15 vols. quarto.
  Meres' Annual -Historical Register, containing an impartial relation of all transactions,
Foreign and Domestic," from 1714 to 1737. 22 vols. 12mo.; London.
  Dodsley's Annual Register, from 1758 to 1819. 61 vols. 8vo.; London.
  Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, from 1683 to 1736. 3 vois. 8vo.
  A collection of all the Laws of Virginia, from the first session of the jeghslature in 1619
to the year 1792: By William Waller Hening. 13 vols. 8vo.
  The Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution: Published under the direc-
tion of the President of the United States, from the original manuscripts in the Department
of State, conformably to the resolutions of Congress, of March 27th, 1818: Edited by Jared
Sparks. 12 vols. 8vo.
Secret Journals of the Congress of the Confederation: Published under the direction of
the President of the United States, conformably to resolution of Congress of March 27,
1818, and April 21, 1820.
  Journas of the American Congress, from 1774 to 1778. 4 vol. 8vo.
  Laws of the United States.





   Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States of America,
 from the commencement of the first to the termination of the nineteenth Congress: Printed
 by order of the Senate of the United States.
   Journals of Congress.
   Elements of General History: Translated from the French of the Abbe Millot.  Part
second-Modern History. 3 vol.. 8vo.; London, 1779.
   The Writings of George Washington; being his correspondence, addresses, messages,
and other papers, official and private, selected and published from the original manuscripts,
by Jared Sparks. 12 vol.. 8vo.
  The works of Benjamin Franklin, containing several political and historical tracts, not
included in any former edition, and many letters official and private not hitherto published,
with notes and a life of the author: By Jared Sparks. 10 vols. 8vo,; Boston, 1840.
  History of the Political Systems of Europe and its Colonies, from the discovery of Amer-
ica to the independence of the American continent: By A. H. L. Heeren, professor of
History in Gottingen, and member of the Royal French Academy of Inscriptions. [Trans.
lated froin the German, by George Bancroft.] 2 vols. 8vo.
  The History of the United States of North America, till the British Revolution in 1688:
By James Grabame, Esq. 2 vols. 8vo.
  The Annals of America, from the discovery of Columbus, in the year 1492 to the year
1826; By Abiel Holmes, D. D. 2 vol.. 8vo.
  The Diplomatic Correspundence of the United States of America, from the signing of the
definitive treaty of peace, 10th September, 1783, to the adoption of the Constitution, March
4, 1789: Published under the direction of the Secretary of State.
  Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society. 2 vole. 8vo.
  Tracts and other Papers, relating principally to the origin, settlement, and progress of
the Colonies in North America, from the discovery of the country to the year 1776: Col-
lected by Peter Force. 2 vols. 8vo.
  A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, arranged in systematic order,
forming a complete history of the origin and progress of Navigation, Discovery, and Conw-
merce, by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time; By Robert Kerr, F. R.
S. and F. A. S. 18 vols. 8vo.; Edinburgh, 1816.
  The History of the discovery and settlement of America: By William Robertson, D. D.,
Principal of the University of Edinburgh, c. c. c. 1 vol. 8vo.
  The History of Louisiana, particularly of the cession of that Colony to the United States
of America: By Barbe Marbois. I vol. 8vo.
  Memoir, Correspondence, and Miscellanies from the papers of Thomas Jeffierson: Edited
by Thomas Jefferson Randolph. 4 vols. 8vo.; 1830.
  The History of New Hampshire, comprehending the events of one complete century,
from the discovery of the river Piscataqua: By Jeremy Belknap, A, M. 3 vols. 8vo.
  The History of Pennsylvania, in North America, from the original institution and set.
tlement of that Province, under the first Proprietor and Governor William Penn, in 1681,
till the year 1742; and a brief description of the said Province, and of the general state
in wlhich it flourished, principally between the years 1760 and 1770. By Robert Proud.
2 vols. 8vo.
  History of the Colonization of the United States: By George Bancroft. 3 vol.. 8vo,
  A History of the Colonies planted by the English on the continent of North America,
from their settlement to the commencement of the war which terminated in their inde-
pendence: By John Marshall. I vol. 8vo.
  Laws of the Colonial and State Governments relating to Indians and Indian Affairs,
from 1633 to 1831, inclusive. 1 vol. 8vo.





  The Life of Thomas Jeflbrson, third President of the United States, with parts of lis
Correspondence never before published: By George Tucker, professor of Moral Philosophi
in the University of Virginia. 2 vols. 8vo.: 1837.
  Notes on tQte State of Virginia: By Thomas Jefferson. I vol. 12mo.
  T1be Life of Joseph Brant-Thayendanegea; including the Border Wars of the Amer-
ican Revolution. and sketches of the Indian Campaigns of Generals Harmar, St. Clair, and
Wayne; and other matters connected with the Indian Relations of the United States and
Great Britain, from the Peace of 1733 to the Indian Peace of 1795; By William L. Stone.
2 vol.. 8vo.
  The History of the late Province of Netv York. from its discovery to the appointment of
Governor Colden, in 1762: By the Hon. William Smith, formerly of New York, and late
Chief Justice of Lower Canada: Published under the direction of the New York Histor-
ical Society. 2 vols. 8vo.
  The Book of the Indians; or, Biography and History of the Indians of North America.
from its first discovery to the year 1841: By SamuelG. Drake,Fellowofthe Royal Society
of Northern Antiquaries, at Copenhagen, honorary member of the New Hampshire and
New York Historical Societies. 1 vol. 8vo.
  The History of Kentucky: exhibiting an account of the modern discovery, settlement,
progressive improvement, civil and military transactions, and the present state of the
country: By H. Marshall. 2 vols. 8vo.; 1824.
  A History of the State of Ohio, Natural and Civil: By Caleb Atwater, A. M., member
of the American Antiquarian Society, c. c. c. I vol. 8vo.
  A Chronological History of New England, in the form of Annals: being a summary and
exact account of the most material transactions and occurrences relating to this country,
in the order of time wherein they happened, from the discovery of Capt. Gosnold in 1602,
to the arrival of Governor Belcher, in 1730: By Thomas Prince, M. A. I vol. 8vo.
  A Narrative of the Mission of the United Brethren among the Delaware and Mohegan
Indians, from its commencement, in the year 1740, to the close of the year 1808: By John
Heckewelder, who was many years in the service of that mission. I vol. 8vo.
  Narrative of an Expedition to the source of St. Peter's river, c., performed in the year
1823, under the command of Stephen H. Long, Major U. S. T. E. 2 vols. 8vo.
  An account of Expeditions to the sources of the Mississippi, and through the western
parts of Louisiana; performed by order of the government of the United States, during the
years 1805. 1806, and 1807: By Major Zebulon 51. Pike. I vol. 8vo.
  The History of Maryland, frotn its first settlement, in 1633, to the Restoration,in 1660;
with a  copious introduction and notes and illustrations: By John Lecds Bozman. 2 vols. 8vo.
  The Statutes at.Large of Sout)h Carolina, containing the acts from 1682 to 1786: edited
under authority df the Legislature, by Thomas Cooper, M. D. L. L. D.
  A History of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, from its earliest exploration Ind settle.
ment by the whites, to the close of the northwestern campaign, in 1813: By Mann Butler.
I vol. 8vo.
  A Political and Civil History of the United States of America: By Timothy Pitkin.
2 vols. 8vo.
  A view of the soil and climate of the United States of America, with supplementary re-
marks upon Florida, on the French Colonies on the Mississippi and Ohio, and in Canada;
and on the Aboriginal tribes of America: By C. F. Volney. Translated from the French,
by C. B. Brown. I vol. 8vo.
  Condensed History of Michigan, from its earliest colonization to the present timm. By
James U. Laninan. I vol. i8mo.; 1841.
  Sketches of H04ory. L Lfee   l Manners" in the West: n y James Hall.


                                     PREFACE.                                Vii.

  A Condensed Geography and History of the Western States, or the Mississippi Valley:
By Timothy Flint. 2 vols. Cvo.
  A collection of some of the most interesting Narratives of Indian Warfare in the West.
By Samuel L. Metcalf. I vol. l2mo.
  Sketches of Western Adventure: Bly John A. M 'Clung. 1 vol. 12mo.
  Indian Biography, or an Historical Account of those individuals who have been distin-
guished among the North American nations as Orators, Warriors, Statesmen, and other
remarkable characters: By B. B. Thatcher, Esq. 2 vols. 18mo.
  Three Years Travels through the interior parts of North America, for more than five
thousand miles: By Captain Jonathan Carver, of the Provincial tloops In America. I
vol. 12mo.
  Laws adopted and made by the Governor and Judges of the Territory of the United
States northwest of the river Ohio.
  Acts of the First General Assembly of the Northwestern Territory.
  Laws made and adopted by the Governor and Judges of the Indiana Territory.
  Acts of the General Assembly of the Indiana Territory.
  An Oration delivered at Marietta, July 4, 1788, by the lion. James M. Varnum, Esq.
one of the Judges of the Western Territory: the speech of his Excellency Arthur St. Clair,
Esquire. upon the proclamation of the commission appointing him Governor of said Terri-
tory; and the proceedings of the inhabitants of the city of Marietta: Printed by Peter
Edes, Newport, Rhode Island, 1738.
                                                                  J. B D.
  Indianapolis, -25th November, 1813.

This page in the original text is blank.


                   TABLE OF CONTENTS.

                                 CHAPTER I.
  Northwestern Territory.-The Spaniards, the English, and the French, plant colonies
in North America-Catholic missionaries-British Colonies in America, in 1670.-Pro-
ceedings of the French-Allouez and Dablon-opinions concerning the Mississippi river-
Marquette and Joliette visit the Mississippi-Ambitious projects of Robert Cavelier de La
Salle; his adventures and death-Missionaries among the Illinois Indians-Cahokia and
Kaskaskia founded.-p. 1.
                                 CHAPTER II.
  Spain claims a large territory In North America-Louis XIV. determines to establish
colonies in Louisiana-Freclch settlement founded at Biloxi-Jealousy of the English states-
men: permanent settlement founded at Detroit-conditions on which the first French
settlers at Detroit received grants of land-Fur Trade-The Sieur Juchereau and the
missionary Mermet attempt to found a settlement-the missionary Marest-Detroit be-
sieged-Commerce of Louisiana granted to Crozat-Crozat relinquishes the grant-The
Province of Louisiana ceded to the Western Company: a new government formed for the
Province-Settlers transported to the valley of the Mississippi-New Orleans founded-
The Indies Company acquire the Province of Louisiana-Ordinance enacted for tile benefit
of the inhabitants of Louisiana, on the 2d of September, 1721-trade and commerce-form
of granting lands to settlers-Ordinance published by Louis XV. in the month of March.
1724-the French settlements at Natchez destroyed by the Indians-the Natchez nation
of Indians exterminated by the French-p. 28.

                                 CHAPTER III.
  The crown of France resumes the government of Louisiana: war with the Chickasaw
Indians-defeat of the French, and- death of Francis Morgan de Vincennes-peace con.
eluded with the Chickasaws-treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle--conflicting claims of France and
England: treaty between the English and the Twightwees, at Lancaster-the Ohio Com-
pany receive a grant of half a million of acres of land lying about the river Ohio-English
and French systems of colonial government-white population in 1749-proceedings of
the Ohio Company-controversy between France and Great Britain concerning the regions
on the western side of the Allegheny mountains-George Washington sent to the com-
mander of the French forces in the west-French posts in the Mississippi valley-Fort
Du Quesne built by the French-the Twightwees attacked by their enemies-plan proposed
by Dr. Franklin for establishing English colonies in the west-death of the Sieur de Jum-
onville-defeat of the provincial troops under Washington: defeat of General Braddock-
defeat of Major Grant-the French evacuate Fort Du Quesne on the approach of General
Forbes-Quebec taken by the English-Montreal, Detroit, c. surrendered to the English:
treaty of peace between France and England: Canada and part of Louisiana ceded to
England-p. 60.
                                 CHAPTER IV.
  Pontiac's war-proclamation concerning the French inhabitants of the Illinois country:
evacuation of Fort Chartres: description of Fort Chartres.-p. 79.

                                 CHAPTER V.
  Number of French families in the northwestern territory: attempts to check the growth
of settlements in the west-George Washington and others vit the valley of the Ohio, in



1770-proclamation concerning the settlers on the Wabash river; letter from the French
inhabitants of Vincennes to General Gage-memorial of divers inhabitants of the province
of Quebec-the province of Quebec enlarged so as to include the settlers on the Wabash,
c.-excitement among the colonists of Great Britain--English troops withdrawn from
Fort Pitt-Governor Dunmore encourages English colonists to take warrants for lands in
the west. Alarm of settlers: massacre of Indians at Baker's Bottom: Dunmore's expedi-
tion against the Indians-battle at the mouth of the Great Kanawba: preliminary articles
of peace concluded with the Sbawanees and their confederates at Camp Charlotte-speech
of Logan-resolutions passed at Fort Gower-the North American colonies renounce their
allegiance to Great Britain-speeches circulated among the Indian tribes.-p. 97.

                                 CIIAPTER VI.
  Traders in tile Illinois country receive grants of lands--Illinois Land Company-procla-
mnation, by Dunmore, concerning vacant lands-Wabash Land Company--lands, and lots
granted to settlers about Vincennes--eflorts to engage the Indians in the war between the
American colonies amid Great Britain-inhabitants of Vincennes take the oath of allegiance
to King George-form of the oath-death of the Shawanee chief, cornstalk-Indians as-
sail the frontier settlements of the United States-frontier forts-Indian mode of making
war-Colonel George Rogers Clark prepares to lead an expedition against the French set-
tlements about Kaskaskia and Vincennes-Clark's memoir of the expedition- p. 116.

                                 CIIAPTER VII.
  Clark's memoir continued; Kaskaskia and Cahokia taken-the inhabitants, generally,
take the oath of allegiance to Virginia. the inhabitants of Vincennes take the oath of
allegiance to Virginia, garrison the fort, amid hoist the Americasa fag-Captain Leonard
lhelm sent to command the fort-Tobacco's son, a Piankeshaw chle.Clark holds a coun-
cil with Indians at Cabokia-tllinois county erected-the British Lieutenant-Governor of
Detroit takes possession of the fort at Vincennes--perilous situation of Clark.-p. 135.

                                CIIAPTER     VIII.
  Clark moves from Kaskaskia, with a small force, to attack Hamilton-difficulties of the
march-Clark's notification to the inhabitants of Vincennes-the fort attacked-corres-
pondence between Clark and Hamilton-the fort surrendered.-p. 154.

                                 CIIAPTER     IX.
  Boats captured on the Wabash-goods divided among Clark's soldiers-proposed expe-
dition against Detroit-some prisoners sewt to Virginia, others disnmisecd-Piankeshanv and
Pottawattamie Indians express their friendship for the United States-Clark's address to
them-Clark appoints officers at Vincennes, and returns to Kaskaskia-hostilities of the
Delawares-Clark orders war to be made on the Delawares-peace eommclpded with the
Delawares-Clark returns to Vincennes, abandons his designs against Detroit, and pro-
ceeds to take up his quarters at the falls of time river Ohio-p. 174.

                                  ChAPTER X.
  Settlements increase in Kentucky-General McIntosh ordered to protect the western
frontiers--treaty with the Delaware Indians-Colonel John Todd visits Vincennes and
Kaskaskia; issues a proclamation; institutes a Court at V'incenmes- proceedingsof the
Court-Col. John Bowman's expedition-Capt Byrd's expedition-Clark's expedition-La
Balme's expedition-Capt. Don Eugenio Pierre's expedition-Col. Broadhlead's expedition:
Col. David Williamson's expedition-Indians attack Estell's station-death of Capt. Estell:
Col. Crawford's expedition-Indians attack Bryants station; attack Laughery's party-
'llark's expedition: treaty of peace between thoUnited States and Great Britain; boundaries
of the United States-proclamation by Congress_ General Clark dismissed from the service


of Virginia-Indian grant of land-Clarksville laid off-Virginia cedes to the United States
her title to the country northwest of the Ohio river-treaty at Fort McIntosh-Ordinance
of 1785, concerning western lands-proclamation concerning settlers on the northwest
site of the Ohio-proposed treaty with Indians-excitement among settlers, c.-Indian
council at Ouiatenon-skirmish at the mouth of Embarrass-Clark's Wabash expedition-
Logan's expedition.-p. 185.

                                 CHAPTER XI.
  Clark's proceedings at Vincennes; navigation of the Mississippi: views and proceedings
of western settlers; seizure of Spanish property at Vincennes; act of the council of Vir-
ginia; resolution of Congress; Ordinance of 1787; resolutions of Congress; hostile feelings
exist between the western settlers and the Spaniards of Louisiana; proceedings of General
Harmar; Major John F. Ilamtramck stationed at Vincennes.-p. 204.

                                CHAPTER XII.
  Claims of New York, Massachusetts, and Connecticut; Western Reserveof Connecticut;
Board of Treasury authorized to dispose of western lands; contract with the Ohio Com-
pany of Associates; settlement at Marietta; Symmes' Purchase; St. Clair appointed Gov-
ernor of the northwestern territory; his instructions; laws adopted and published at Mari-
etta, in 1788; treaties at Fort Ilarmar; report of General Knox, relative to Indians; Col.
John Hardin's expedition; letter from St. Clair to Washington; Washington's instructions
to St. Clair; St. Clair proceeds to the Illinois country; scarcity of corn at Vincennes: St.
Clair's report concerning settlers in Illinois and on the Wabash; memorial from P. Gibault
and others.- p. 223.

                                CHAPTER     XIII.
  Journal of Antolne Gamelin; St. Clair returns to Fort Washington; Winthrop Sargent
proceeds to Vincennes; proceedings of Sargent, letter from magistrates of the Court of
incenines; laws adopted and published at Vincennes, in 1790; the principal inhabitants
of Vincennes address Sargent; his reply; Indian depredations; Harmar's expedition
against Indians on the Scioto; Harmar's expedition against the Miami village.-p. 245.

                                CHAPTER XIV.
  Letter from Rufus Putnam to President Washington; alarm of the western settlers;
St. Clair invested with the command of three thousand troops; instructions to St. Clair
instructions to General Scott; Scott's expedition against the Wea or Ouiatenon towns on
the Wabash; General Wilkinson's expedition against the Wabash Indians; confederacy
of Indians; B13itish posts in the northwestern territory.-p. 276.

                                 CHAPTER XV.
  St. Clair's expedition against the Miami village; defeat of St. Clair's army; field of ac-
tion visited by General Wilkinson; St. Clair resigns the office of Major General; Anthony
Wayne appointed to till the vacancy; proceedings of Wayne; prepositions to employ
friendly Indians; messengers and spies sent among the hostile Indians; Hardin and True-
man killed; William May's deposition; Putnam's treaty at Vincennes; Indian council at
the Rapids of the Maumee; Indian depredations; Major Adair attacked near Fort St. Clair
destitute condition of American soldiers; laws adopted and published, at Cincinnati. in
the course of the years 1790, 1791, and 1792.-p. 298.

                                CHAPTER XVI.
  Washington appoints commissioners to negotiate a peace with the northwestern Indians;
instructions to the commissioners; pro-eedings of the commissioners; speeches and letters,
which passed between the Indians and the commissioners; failure of the attempt to make
a treaty of peace.-p. 3-26.





                                  CHAPTER XVII.
  Proceedings of Wayne; Indians attack convoys; influenza among the troops, Wayne
estabishes his head-quarters at Fort Greenville; Fort Recovery built; critical state of the
relations between the United States and the governments of Great Britain, France, and
Spain; conduct of the French minister Genet; proposed expeditions against Florida and
Louisiana; complaints of the British minister and the Spanish commissioners; letter fromn
Mr. Jefferson to the American minister at Paris; letter from Mr. Genet to Mr. Jefferson;
Washington takes measures for the prevention of a hostile invasion of Louisiana; opinions
of Governor Shelby; prospect of war between the United States and Great Britain; Mr.
Genet recalled; Washington issues a proclamation; secret and confidential instructions to
General Wayne; failure of the attempt to invade Louisiana; attack on Fort Recovery;
Kentucky volunteers; Wayne moves from Greenville towards the mouth of the Auglaize:
erects Fort Defiance; marches towards the Rapids of the Maumiee; defeat of the Indian
forces; correspondence between General Wayne and Major Campbell, the British corn.
mandant at Fort Miami.-p. 356.

                                 CHAPTER XVIII.
  Fort Wayne erected and garrisoned; Wayne establishes his head-quarters at Greenville,
suspension of hostilities; treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, concluded between
the United States and Great Britain; British troops and garrisons to be withdrawn front
the northwestern territory ; Indians visit Greenville and sign preliminary articlesof peace;
proceedings of the treaty of Greenville; treaty concluded; emigration; laws adopted and
uade at Cincinnati, in the year 1795.--p. 384.

                                  CIIAPTERI XIX.
  Treaty between the United States and Spain; boundaries; navigation of the Mississippi;
British garrisons, c. withdrawn front the northwestern territory; American troops take
possession of the fort at Detroit; hostile temper of the government of France; treaty or
alliance between France and Spain; emissaries of Spain and France attempt to induce the
people of the western country to separate themselves from the American Union; mission
of Thomas Power; mission of Lorronjie; the government of the United States adopts de-
fensive and retaliatory measures; act to raise a provisional army; act to suspend the
commercial intercourse between France and the United States; act concerning aliens;
act concerning sedition; Washington appointed commander-in-chief of the Am erican for
cer; letter from Washington to Adams; instructions to General Wilkinson; Spaniards
retire from posts within the boundaries of the United States; Fort Adams erected; treaty of
peace and commerce between the United States and the Republic of France; Louisiana retro-
ceded to France; sold and ceded to the United States; laws adopted and published, at
Cincinnati, in the year 1798; Mississippi territory established; first General Assembly of
the northwestern territory; delegate to Congress elected; acts passed at the first session
of the General Assembly, and approved by Governor St. Clair; northwestern territory
divided; Indiana territory established.-p. 408.

Treaty of Fort Stanwix,                                                           432
Treaty of Fort M'Intosh -431
Ordinance of 1785, concerning public lands, -434
Treaty at the mouth of ttje Great Miami, -49
Ordinance of 13th July, 1787,                                                     441
Treaty of Fort Harmar, with the Six Nations, -445
Treaty of Fort Ilarmar, with the Wyandots,                                        447
Treaty of Greenville,.                                                            451




                    CHAPTER I.

  THE fertile and populous states of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, and
Michigan, contain within their limits, collectively, the fairest
portion of that large region which, from 1787 to 1800, was
known and governed as a TIlE TERRITORY OF THE UNITED
in its greatest extent, was bounded on the south by the river
Ohio, on the east by Pennsylvania, and on the north and west
by the lines which divided the United States from the domin-
ions of Great Britain and Spain. Almost a century and a half
passed away after the discovery of America, before any por-
tion of this region was explored by Europeans.
  During the course of the sixteenth century, the Spaniards,
the English, and the French, struggling separately against
many formidable obstacles, and suffering many disasters and
defeats, persevered steadily in their efforts to establish colonies
in North America. In 1568, the Spaniards made their first
effectual settlement, in Florida. The English made their first
permanent settlement, in 1607, at Jamestown, in Virginia.
The French planted a small colony at Port Royal, in Nova
Scotia, in 1605; and three years afterwards, in 1608, a num-
ber of adventurers from France founded the city of Quebec.
From this time until 1763, a period of one hundred and fifty-
five years, France and Great Britain were the great rivals in
the contests concerning the commerce, the territory, and the
government, of North America. The rivalry of these nations



contributed to subdue the wilderness, and to lay the founda-
tions of freedom and civilization in the new world.
  At an early period it was an avowed object of the directors
of the ecclesiastical power at Quebec to spread the doctrines
of the Catholic Church as far as the remotest bounds of the
western territory, and thus to civilize the Aborigines and estab-
lish the dominion of France over those distant regions. First
among those who toiled and suffered to achieve these great
objects were missionaries of the Jesuit order. This religious