xt7zkh0dwx8n https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7zkh0dwx8n/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1944 journals kaes_circulars_004_405_annual_report_1944 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 405 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 405 1944 2014 true xt7zkh0dwx8n section xt7zkh0dwx8n wml     I
    Annual Report ~ I  
ing   A { ·  
me   `    
Lcd  · . ` ' { ‘
 5 of the I i I i  
lcd  I {   Qi
for  .   I  
Til  E Director of Agricultural Extension i I
gl;  ; Kentucky, IQ44   I
»uliI     N
cx-   I
 i i f I
iliw  »   I IQ
lor     `  
c ui   l i I
lion   I  
mo,   i , I
lllillll   Circulcr 405 I g
rs oi  
  College of Agriculture and Home Economics
  Extension Division
  Thomas P. Cooper, Dean and Director

Lexington, Kentucky  
President H. L. Donovan  ·_
University of Kentucky  
_ My dear President Donovan:   1944,
I have the honor to present the annual report of the Division Y  gin?
. . • ·, 7 I
4 OfAgf1CUl[ll1`3l Extension of the College of Agriculture and Home   m`
Economics, University of Kentucky, for the year ended Decem-   Twli
ber 31, 1944. In this report will be found a statement of the  _ Tm
various activities of the past year, a list of publications, and a z,   
financial statement of receipts and expenditures.   adm
,  tiost
Respectfully,   been
.   who
Thomas Cooper {  Ji. dt
Dean and Director  . I .
 t. and
_,  { were
gg  metl
University of Kentucky   as W
Lexington, Kentucky   This
_. _ . . TQ  that
Honorable Simeon S, \t\’1ll1s   1031
(Qovernor of Kentucky   WO;}
sat;   Eg?
 to 5
ln accordance with an act of the Legislature of the State ol   SWLW
Kentucky, approved March I5, 1916, 1 herewith submit the   F]
annual report ol the Division ol Agricultural Extension of thf‘   mm.,
" College of Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Ken-   01. W
tucky, for the year ended December 31, 1944.   HOU
Respectfully,  .. Hue:
  of p
H. L. Donovan i I
President   Cmd

 “ E  
s 2 i Q? t
4 l   ;l
¤ 4 4 n
  By T. R. BRYANT, Assistant Director l _ i  
  l »   T
  KENTUCKY FARM PRODUCTION again was unusually heavy in 1   Q
A  1944, despite critical shortages of labor and equipment. Farmers relied g   i [
n  t more than ever on the suggestions and guidance of the Extension   ` E gl
le   Division, and often their work week was as long as 80 hours. More- l 4 .  
n_   over, farm women, children, and older men carried much of the extra _ ij A
le  ` burden caused by departure of young men. It is doubtful whether “ 4
kl   they are capable of carrying the heavy load year after year. Estimates l i **
  have placed the migration from rural areas at l0 percent—mostly   ’
  those in the more capable age-groups. Many local leaders who had   I .
  been active in Extension work left the rural communities. Of those   , A
J., who remained many found themselves loaded with such a multitude   ;
  of demands that they had to give up some of them. Nearly all of the  
 ` assistant county agents who had been of such great help were taken   y if
 i; into military service or were required to hll vacancies in the county   ,
  agent list.     i
  Labor-saving methods and appliances were of unusual importance » ,;
ii and interest to farmers this year. Efficiency studies of farmers at work   · ‘i ?
  Were made by the Experiment Station, including slow motion pictures   i I
  and other such devices that helped in determination of eflicient _ ·
ti  methods. Reasons for wide difference in performance by different L i
  workers at the same task were sought and found, and then were taught i é
Q?  HS widely as possible by lecture, by picture, and by demonstration. ,  
  This program of work simplihcation was undertaken at the same time  
  that recruitment of laborers for farm work was under way. Over ?
  i03,000 placements on Kentucky farms were made and nearly 2,000
 . workers were recruited for farm work in other states. While this was
  quite an accomplishment in the face of difliculties, farmers probably
_  ’ b€Ii€iiIed even more by the experience they gained in Systematiled
Ul   $W%1[>ping of labor and equipment. That kind of benefit is lasting. `
lc ji  The stress of war conditions has brought out clearly the need for
lc   m01`€ intensive use of the best land and leaving other land to pHSlL11`e
ni   OY [0 i01`eSt. This is a principle that the College of Agriculture und
  H0n1e Economics has emphasized for many years. Protecting the tilled
  ¤¤`€S by cover crops ig thus encouraged. By obtaining the same amount
  Ut, Pi`0<‘1`\‘ation contintte as major Extension projects. `
Cum   llecause tobacco is a ntajor cash crop in lientucky, and because of `
Mw   the very apparent advantages given farmers through improved varie-
'Hml   fff`H·  
'l`hirty-three counties carried a home furnishings program of one 111   gre
six lessons, One hundred and four training meetings were attended  -_Q stan
by 1,426 leaders. Through these leaders, 21.594 farm families were   lar}
reached, including 12,421 who were not members of organized clul>~·  ». 11121
Under this popular project 4,824 pieces of old furniture were made Q_  Da
useful with slip covers, 11.503 pieces were refinished, and 4,861 piece   loc
were restored. Making better use of scrap and discards was studied  ..
in many counties. Several thousand small articles and 2,015 hzuid  ii 1111
made rugs were made.  Q, 111

 2 1 i 1* 1
  1   g.
  /\NNU.t\I, l{1·Zl‘()R`l` ()1·` 'l`ll1·Z l2X`l`I·Zl\S1()N l)1Rl·Y(Z'l`()I{ 7    
1111   Clothing.- Clothing work was carried in 52 counties. (jare and A   lj
  conservation of both clothing and equipment used in making clothes, i  
  remodeling clothing on hand, and the techniques of making clothes g i ji
jj  at home were given the ma_jor emphasis. Seasonable leaflets provided 1 i  
im  I up-to·date information. 1 ·   V1
ml-  S · lqlty-two cgmjities reported 1.20,511 garments made, and 4() coun- j ,   `V
lub   ties reported .;,554 sewing machines cleaned, oiled, and adjusted. jln [   jj
 i all, 50,544 garments were remodeled and 111,848 repaired. The saving _    
lf;   under the whole project was estimated to be nearly $200,000. E  
gw Qi  Emergency food program.- It is impossible to know how much ‘ .Q
 » food was conserved in Kentucky as a result of the emergency food " 1
imc   program, but reports show a total of 65,245,702 containers of canned Q V z;
ml   food. This was less than in·1945, A severe drouth accounted for most   1 1
Um   of the decrease, but many families had a surplus on hand from 1945   1 y
  cannings. The lood stored in lreezer lockers surpassed 1945 by  
—t’  1 1,559,019 pounds and the number of pounds of dehydrated foods Q 1
’_ 111   increased 1,585,580 pounds. There were 5,679,454 fewer containers   1
mj  j of jellies, jams, and preserves. The number of families using pressure   :·
1m' _;1  cookers increased from 15,904 to 22,619. One of the greatest accom-   _
   L plislnnents was the improvement of cjuality of food. .-\s a result of   1 1
_ L  the conservation program, 790,225 pounds ol butter, 205,752 pounds t `
mi   of cottage cheese and 6,052 pounds of cream cheese were made by    
mi   improved methods. Dairy thermometers were used by 2,701 families. 1 j ;
· j  Emergency assistants helped people to plan a more adequate food 1 V
in-   supply and great improvement was made. These assistants made ‘ , 1
1111   12,128 home visits, held 5,401 meetings, trained   leaders, enrolled 1 1
11111   13,957 4-H club members, assisted 18,555 —l--1-1 club members with ·  
TCS1 .r  project work, and gave 2,257 food conservation (lCll10l1Sll`2iil()l1S. 1 ;
11111   Food and nutrition.- Rural women had to spend much time in `
11111 1  llelping to produce l`ood—running tractors, planting, hoeing, gather-
111115   111g pfotlttee, milking, taking charge of poultry. and so 011. H0\\'C\'Cl`.
31111   111€)' Wanted to keep up standards of good food and well-plamietl
_  §_ meals, so they used many ways of saving time in preparing food and
e 111 E  planning meals. .
11%*   Many women reported that planning menus in advance helped
1*111   greatly. .-\mong the 14,985 members of homemakers` clubs. 0,520
(11`11   $1i1lt‘
this year, the type of food served was even better than previously.   UIC]
according to reports from 14.985 homemakers. Of these, 7,831 reported ; PWS
that they were dehnitely working to improve food habits.   A
Live-at-home was stressed this year, aml the families did an excel-  V lam
_ lent job in providing their own food. A typical report says: "\tVe have   Pliog
. 263 neighborhood leaders who have reached l,350 farm families and f him
300 nonfarm families. It is estimated that at least 90 percent of our  ' ‘l“_‘°l
rural people raise 75 percent of their food."   l”`“’
I Recreation.- Homemakers’ camps were canceled for the dura-  ` limg
tion. \lVith restrictions on travel, emphasis was placed on recreation   (mil
in the club, the home, and the neighborhood. A planned recreation —._  (imt
period at meetings, the inclusion of music in the program, and com-    
munity and neighborhood get-togethers for recreation were promoted.   _wé(
The reading—in—the-home project of the homemakers’ organization and    
the “rocking-chair tour of the Pacific" furnished quiet and profitable 5 _
study.  , wht
Civic activities of h0memakers’ clubs.- Hometnakers sponsored   all 1
many civic endeavors, both as individuals and as groups, in such war   thm
activities as sewing, knitting, making bandages, blood donations. ’  Thi
sponsoring home musing and first-aid classes, salvage campaigns, and ii 
bond drives. Many clubs undertook community improvement projects.   _E
-‘ contributed to worthwhile charities, and helped with school improve   (ll `
ment programs and community recreational programs. The wartime   lem
interests of homemakers have not pushed into the background such   [ITN
civic endeavors as health and dental clinics, providing community  E dm
. centers, sponsoring 4-H clubs, and aiding needy families. The watch- ji  ‘
word of the ll()1llCIll2ll§CI`S` club is "better homes make better commu-   Cllll
nities and better communities make a better nation."   All
(Iounty agent work for lfl·l·l consisted mainly in promoting food  
production and war drives. though the county agents were cbargctl V  ml
also with conducting tbe educational work for all U. S. D. A. agen<‘it"·   mm
Fewer assistant county agents than tbe year before were available tn   age
help, and the supervisory functions were complicated by constant hte  { nm
of men to government agencies and private business. ln general, tht  T ml]
Extension staff was uuderntanned during the entire year. Howev<"1`·   f‘_(Y‘
the county agents planned and carried out a large program with bolil   Ill
adults and juniors. exciting themselves to the limit of their energt   **11
New practices in fertilizers and labor-saving devices were introducetli   **3*
farm labor WHS 1`CCl`llit<2tlZ WHY ])l`iSOllC1`S were used in a numl)Cl` (ll  2 llw
counties; and exchange of labor between farms was planned zuitl `  lm

o l l  °— '
    [ g i
  Axxust R1·;i·ou‘r or 'l`lll·Z Exsrizxsiox Dnuxrroa 9 1 L
lis   encouraged. County agents and leaders were encouraged to analyze t ‘· l
[Y   the particular problem i`n the local community and to build a specihc ‘ .  
gd E program to meet the situation. , y  
»,  Much extra responsibility was placed upon county agents by the   V  
EL   labor and food production programs, but special assistants for these l . Q i
W  ’ programs took much detailed work off the county agent and enabled U » }
M  ` him to give more time to planning work for all. Emergency food pro- l l `ll
ln.  ~ duction assistants were given one week of training at the University l   il
  prior to active duty in the county. They helped with the live-at-homt·   _ r  
M- ¤  program, especially in encouraging fall gardening in the drouth l 4 Q
On  _ counties. Emergency larm labor assistants were called together twice. l , f'
ml   once in small group conferences throughout the state and once in a l L
m. i;  state-wide conference in Lexington. They were employed in 51 coun- l y "
fdr   ties either lull time or part t11ne. No crops of any moment were da1n— y ,
nd   aged seriously because of lack of labor. Four prisoner—of-war camps ~
HC   were set up in central and northern Kentucky to help farmers in har-  
 _ vesting tobacco and other crops.   i
cd   ln counties having home demonstration agents, it is a policy for   yy
rm   all Extension workers to meet once a week and plan the work so l
ml   that each worker can contribute most to the entire county program.  
my   This works well, especially in the 4-I-I program.   ;
M fg  Each year county agents are making greater and more efhcient use Q  
\,C_ s  of volunteer leaders in carrying on Extension work. District con-   A  
up   ferences of specialists, county agents, and supervisors were held l ` t
Ch   throughout the state early in the year. All these dealt with projects ·
it,   directly related to war production work. y »
irli-  2 County Extension programs were built with rural leaders using l  
ni-   either the community or the commodity program method, or both. V ;
  r\ll program planning work was done in cooperation with, and with {
,j  the assistance of, local leaders or volunteer committeemen. lnsofar
if  as possible, the leaders who help plan the program also help carry
if  it out.
iotl  i_ A new method for bringing about better cooperation and coordi-
gctl {  tration was tried in launching a feeds-and-livestock program, District V
irs.   (`()lliCI`CllC€S were held, to which the same number of specialists as Ol.
rn   HQCINS were invited. These conferences were held in the liorenoon. ,
oss   and innnediately afterward the workers were grouped in pairs of one y
hc   Ullliity agent and one specialist, Each pair of workers tllen attended
cr.   il (`innmunity meeting in the county represented by the county agent.
1|ll   The Specialist assisted only at this first community meeting. Wliile
HV   all the other meetings in the county series were held by the county
trtl:   ?*§¤nli This type ol` district conference had considerable merit in
ol   that each subject-matter specialist had a good chance to see how his ,
ntl   work could lit into the whole county program. .

 10 Exriaxsiox Ctutztuhut No. 105  
Negro work.- The negro population is small and scattered in _-*  and
most Kentucky counties. The Extension program of the three col-   serva
ored assistant county agents was continued and improved, following fi  tinuc
the same plan as last year.  g strati
The volume of hogs, beef cattlc, eggs, and dairy products produced  ; 1mPY
by negro farmers, in excess of home needs, was the highest on record.   F
_ Negro men agents reported 113,713 quarts of fruits, meats, an(l vege-   0[ S(
tables put up, and 88,500 pounds of dried, stored, and cured foods, by   lcct
the families with whom they worked.   mgm
‘ Negro farmers planted 1,600 acres of hybrid corn for the Hrst ij  The
time, this year. Of this total, 900 acres were demonstrations: that is,   varic
the farmer planted the hybrid corn beside open-pollinated corn, or  V 1604
planted a strip in his open-pollinated corn, using the same kind of   Q
fertilizer and the same method of cultivation for the whole crop. At ,_  *-
harvest these demonstrations were checked for results. In every case   mlm
the hybrid corn produced 9 to 17 bushels per acre more than the open-   (noun
pollinated corn.  A wed;]
There were 2,229 negro #1-H clttb members in 11 counties served   llllw
by the negro men agents. These club members raised 16,174 head   J.- Com,
of poultry; canned 8,698 quarts of fruits, vegetables, and meats; and   Lead
dried, cured, or stored 4,550 pounds of such products. They worked   t
265,886 hours on farms other than their own in relieving the labor .  Mc"`
_, shortage. This does not include the work done by the negro womett  T Wi
agents or that (l()11C by the negro clubs in 17 counties under the guid·   A ml
ance of white county agents.   A
Cooperation with other agencies.- Every effort was made te   O‘l‘“
cooperate with government and special agencies. Considerable [1111C  I  lglm
was spent with the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Soil (3011*   yum
servation Service, Farm Security Administration, Farm Credit Admin-   (tall:
. istration, Rural Electrilication Administration, Production Credit  iff
Corporation, Tennessee Valley Authority, the U.   l)epartment wl  gi Un)
Agriculture \Var Boards, and Selective Service Boards. An averag<‘ ·V  Dal.,
of 50% (12lyS ])€l‘ Zlgcllt was Spent on progranis in (iooperation Wllll   Anil
federal agencies.  
lnsofar as possible, farmers were made familiar with the Agri(?l1l·  
_ tural Adjustment program, and were given special assistance on sail  
building and soil conservation projects. They were given up-to-d2lt*`  
information on how the practices Ht into their farm operations, illlll   Fm
the best meth(>(lS of carryittg them out. For all who were intefCSi€(l·  if
steps were taken to explain the Soil Conservation Service pr(>gt‘H1“  
and the l)l`()(`(I(lll1`C to be l·()ll()\VC(l in organizing soil eonser\’21l10ll  ¥ {gm
In seven counties in the Tennessee river valley cooperation Wllll   V0]
{11C T€¤I1€SS€€ V21llC)’ .·\llll1(>l`ll.y was continuerl in soil eonservtttttlll  

 l   *11
5; i ? -;% v
ifi   l * `
  Axxu.-xt. Ricvoirr or ’rrn·; Exriaxsiox l)nu·;c·rou ll i ;
in ij  and in readjustment and relocation. Six assistant agents in soil con» 1 ‘
tol-   servation and one assistant in relocation and readjustment were con- l  
nsf   tinued as in 1943. The program in these counties included demon- i _ Q
  stration farms and a full educational program in all phases of soil l .  
Hi   improvement. l . { ? i
l`ll·  Y2 Following the issuance of Memorandum No. 31, revised, a number 1   ,
KU  i of Selective Service Boards requested that the Extension Service col- y V if
lll   lect and transmit through County ¥Var Boards, factual information l . 5 li
  re ardin · the deferment of farm onerators and a ricultural workers. ' EE
. .1  g . . . . .
irst  Q. The number of requests for information from County lVar Boards l · _;
is.   varied greatly, from practically none in S()lTl€ counties to as many as ·
or  . 160 cases in one week lll one county.   _,
ol  é   1
rl _f  Statistics.- The following figures were compiled from statistical  
asc   reports of county agents:   ·
.en-  i (Iounties having county agricultural agents ............................ 119  
 `  Neighborhood community leaders actively assisting ...................... 18.567 ] ~
,_   \'oluntar* local leaders or committeemen activelv en ra red in l
wl a l . . . I l= l= ,- 1 .
_ 1 _,  lorwarding the lextension program ............................. 17.894 ;
Ldl  ffl (l0lllllllllllli€S that built Extension programs ........................... 1.116  
lllll   Leader training meetings .............................................. 2,516 Q
kctl `.1  Attendance of local leaders .............. __ ...........,.............. 33.-136 ‘ ~
bm- T5  Method demonstration meetings ..............,........................ 3.150 Q yl
[wu  ·. Attendance ..........,.......,...,..,,,....,...................... 15.405   · j
lm.   Meetings held by local leaders, not participated in by l i 1
  county agricultural agents .......,...................,......... 3.355
J; Attendance ....................................................... tH,901 .
In   Other Extension meetings _,.,,..,,,...,.....,......................... 16,4*18 . · '
imc Zi  Attendance .....,,,,.,,____,,,,,,...,............................. 531.157 3  
_   liitfln visits made by county agricultural agents ..............,......... . 101.467   l
ATU,  gi llillllls visited by county agricultural agents ..,.........,............   55.951*1 `
llll‘  Q;} Calls relative to work .
atlii   omte ............................................................ s2i,2s0
Ul  lr; Telephone ..,.,...,,.,_,..,,,.,,,,_,,,,_,,....................... 198,271
;_W(_   lltlpilitl leaders assisting __,,,,_,,,,,...,,,..,,_..,..................... 16,330
(PI  l_ l)ll)'$ ltllpilitl leaders assisted ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,..................... . ..... 31.473
~ll l  l _-.» slmmal projects in -i-H Clnh work completed
  Poultry .......................................................... 509.333
wl.   Dairy ..........._..,,,___,__,,,__,.___,_....,.................... 2.556
·  EY lleel ............, . __,_ _ ,,._,,,,.,,,,.,...,.................... 3,321
soll  it ‘ " , , _
 g, Sheep .........,.,________,_,___.,,._.,,_......................... :>.2¤·1
lull   Swine .......,._____,_______,_,_,_,,_,_____....................... 15,63l »
Llllll   FO0(l projgcts
ted.   l‘l0¤¤e gardens, acres __________,_____,_,,,..,........,......... . . . . 9.073
ram   il`0l1HCC0, acres ,,,__,___,_____,_,__,__.,,.,.,.................. . . . . 3.103
Lion  Z; CON]. acres .....,,,..,_,___,,_.,.,.,._,.,,........................ 6.925
  lnstnnated number of days devoted to food supplies and
_   Y critical war materials ......................................... 11.819
vllll   ll>l¤Htary local leaders or eommitteemen of other Federal `
tioll   ilgifntiies assisted during the year ,.,..,......................   1.800 .

 12 Exrmvsrou Cmc:ur..u< No. 405
t V Tri-S
  . trict E
        ` in Le
  F.:} ,     -.
 *.4 Ly .+» tj   y€ElI`.
. , ,§j I I ...¤   V   _ I     and S
I I j      »   -*~*}2·f     ' F _ 20¢ F
  9   ·¤ s _ t __ V, , All y
‘   5 _ ;· _       · , , Heal
' tI|‘I¥*"*y    S
  ~  -**1 _ lar €
*.' '-" , rh»”¤`*t      · g
`   .-Q"  »   VI  "     E I II    I       `v`> i ` · CHU]
rV,'¢l(V»i,:5 I  ¤ J _v__: ;v_i_,_;t `   U   ,Q{  gga           ( ,
 ,   l ; . .,]l   V . r »   T   ,v »;.,;   .
  ..    .   i;»  ~  T   . ·4_l   _   ‘ 1 D
    ‘»A· ` “ ·     `‘“' www"   , . I - ‘ ` ~—
  ‘ R ~·-··*’” “ 5   —;$· >   ¢._».:l_. . r       , · lm
I  _   ·~> ~   __ _V t · ‘··‘¢ *"‘ . _ V   mem
The work of a county agent in helping formers to build labor saving equipment l
is made easier and more effective when he has models. These 4-H Club boys,  
with the cooperation of the lumber dealer, make models of all sorts of equipment. I
The 4-H wartime program was continued in 1944, and while the  
club members made a large contribution in the production and con-  
servation of [ood, they also had the satisfaction of feeling that they ·
had a definite part in helping to win the war. There were enrollctl I`
92,758 boys an