xt7zpc2t547p https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7zpc2t547p/data/mets.xml Maysville and Big Sandy Railroad Company. 1852  books b92-153-29699235 English Maysville Eagle Office Print, : Maysville, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Maysville and Big Sandy Railroad Company. Railroads United States.Childe, C. B. Maysville and Big Sandy Railroad  : report of preliminary surveys / by C.B. Childe, civil engineer ; address of commissioners, and Charter of the Maysville and Big Sandy Railroad Company. text Maysville and Big Sandy Railroad  : report of preliminary surveys / by C.B. Childe, civil engineer ; address of commissioners, and Charter of the Maysville and Big Sandy Railroad Company. 1852 2002 true xt7zpc2t547p section xt7zpc2t547p 




  0. B. OHILDE, Civil Engineer;




of the MAYSVILE and DIG bANd1


 This page in the original text is blank.


             xnM  iriV           pgjg91
                         MAYsV1LL, December 29, 1851.
 To the Commmiuners of the Mayvle and Big Sandy
               In pursuance of the resolution of the Com-
 piissioners, passed the 6th day of October last, a Prelimina-
 ry Survey has been made, from the City of Maysville to the
 Virginia State Line near the mouth of the Big Sandy River.
 Herewith, I have the honor to report the results, accompa-
 nied with Maps, Profiles, c. Previous to commencing the
 Instrumental Surveys, a reconnoissance was made of the
 ground between the termini, which exhibited two general
 routes: These are thus designated:
   1st. The "Inland Route," passing through the interior,
ppposite the great bends of the Ohio River.
  2nd. The "River Route" pawing immediately through the
Ohio Valley; commencing and terminating at a common
point and likewise occupying the same ground, for a part of
the distance; both of which have been Surveyed, Estimated
and Described as follows, viz:
  l1t. The "Inland Route"-Starting at the Lower Land-
ing on the Ohio River and opposite the foot of Wall Street,
in Maysville, the line follows the face of the River bank
(crossing the Upper Grade) to the corner of Front and Lime-
stone Streets; thence deflecting slightly Northward and pass-
ing in a general direction S. 75Q E. across Limestone Creek,
through East Maysville, it follows the Ohio Valley 5.49
miles to Springdale, near the mouth of Cabin Creek; thence
curving abruptly to the South, the line crosses Cabin Creek
and follows up the valley of the Creek in a course S. 568.
EB for 2 miles. At this point fire line encounters a sharp
spur, projecting from the highland, known as "Hew's Bluff,"
requiring a curve of at. to the North for 1400 feet, wnith a


eut of 36 feet, mostly in Solid Rock. From the Bluff the
line passes in a general direction N. 80'. E. 1k miles up the
Valley of Cabin Creek to the Forks. Thence up the East
Fork, in a general direction due East, 7 miles, to its Head,
crossing the divide at a depression in the ridge, known as
"Everett's Gap," which it passes with a cut of 43 feet (con-
taining about 25,000 cubic yards of Solid Rock Excavation)
to the North Fork of Salt Lick. Thence the line passes
down upon the North side of the valley of this Fork S. 559
E. 44 miles, to its junction with the Esculapia Fork. Thence
in N E, E. and N E courses it follows for 8 miles the
valley of Salt Lick, passing immediately in the rear of
Clarksburg (County Seat of Lewis), to Vanceburg on the
Ohio River. This part of the Route, from its divergence
from the Ohio valley at Springdale via "Everett's Gap" to
Vanceburg, presents an expensive line, averaging a cost
of 19,408 per mile, for Graduation, Masonry and Bridging,
interspersed with Curves of short radii and heavy Grades,
requiring a maximum of 60 and 70 feet per mile, for 6 miles,
at the "Gap" which it crosses at an elevation of 395 feet
above tnd distant 154 miles from MaysvlUe.
  From Vanceburg the line follows the Ohio valley through
Rockport in N. E. and E. courses, 8 miles, to Kinniconick
Creek, crossing the Creek 400 feet South of the State Road
Ford, and, skirting the high ground, it enters the valley of
Montgomery Creek, which it follows upon the South side,
with sharp Curves and an ascending Grade of 70 feet per
mile, for 5 miles to its source at the County Line Ridge;
crossing the Ridge with a- Tunnel 2260 feet long, 220 feet
below the top, at an elevation 455 feet above, and 43P
miles distant from Maysville, the line enters into the valley
of "Big White Oak" Creek; thence with a descending grade
of 70 feet per mile for 2 miles and in a general direction
East 9 miles to the valley of Tygert's Creek. Thence crop-
sing the creek and down the valley of Tygert's 1 miles.
Thence the line diverges to the South and passes into the
valley of a small tributary known as "Rock Lick Fork,"
which it follows ]I miles to its source. Thence crossing
the Ridge near the State Road with a Tunnel 960 feet long,
w Mw waters of "Cole's Run; thence in a general direction


E. following thne valley of Cole's Run 41 miles to the Ohio
River a short distance West of Greenup Court House.
Thence in S. E. East and S. E. courses, passing up the Ohio
Valley, through Greenupsburg, near Amanda Furnace, to
the Big Sandy River at Catletsburg.
  This Route is 77.97 miles long, with Maximum Grades
of 70 feet per mile at each of the Summits, and Curves of
819 feet minimum radii. A cursory examination was made
of several minor lines in connection with this route; but it
being considered that they would be essentially the same in
their general characteristics, and as the time at our disposal
did not permit a survey of these lines, it was deferred for
the present.
  2nd. The "River Raute"-Beginning at the same point
in Maysville with the "Inland Route" and identical tiere-
with to Springdale, the line passes up the Ohio valley; cross-
ing Cabin Creek at its mouth, it follows the Bottoms in a
N. E. course for 54 miles to the East end of "Wilson's Bot-
tom;" thence deflecting South, the line skirts the high ground
opposite Manchester, apd passes in a general direction N.
809 E. 74 miles to Concord, running between the Town and
the high ground. Thence crossing Sycamore Creek the line
follows the River Bluffs 1I miles to the bottoms; thence up
the valley in a general direction S. 65h E. II miles, to a
point near Vancebhrg, intersecting the "Inland Route;"
thence occupying the same ground with it to Kinniconick
Creek; thence the line diverges and runs up the Ohio valley,
passing near Quincy in a general direction N. 42q E. 124
miles to Springville, opposite the City of Portsmouth, and
514 miles from Maysville. Thence in a general direction
due East 5 miles, (crossing Tygert's Creek 4 of a mile from
its mouth upon a Viaduct 196 feet Iong) to a point opposite
the Little Scioto River; thence deflecting to the South and
skirting the high ground the line runs S. 141 N. 12 miles,
nearly straight to a point near the mouth of Cole's Run ani
connecting with the "Inland Route;" thence -with it and oc-
cupying the same ground 18.94 miles to the Bia Sandy river.
  This Route is 88.06 miles long, with a IMaximum Grade
of 15 feet per mile, (and wherever near the Ohio River the
grade line is drawn at least 128 fet above the highest floods


ever known) and with curves of 2865 feet minimum radii.
It is 10.09 miles longer than the "Inland Route" but with a
Maximum Grade 439 per cent. less and Minimum Radii 350
per cent. greater than any other route that can be found be-
tween Maysville and Big Sandy. These advantages, with
that of a cost one third less, and the connection which it af-
fords with the Scioto and Hocking Valley Railroad (now
nearly completed) at Portsmouth, more than neutralize the
objection to its increased length over the "Inland Route."
These facts and the certainty that the route which will pro-
duce the largest amount of receipts in Freight and Travel
in proportion to its cost, and at the same time admit of
greater safety and dispatch in its operations, prove it to be
the most valuable.
  The following Tables of comparison, exhibiting in detail
the characteristics of eaeh Route, will assist you more fully
so decide the Route you should adopt.

   Radii infeet.   Route.
      5730         16.04
      3820          7.02
      2865          2.87

Distance miles.    88.06
peflectionsl Right,  673j '
    Do.   Left,    638o '

Total Curvature,  13094Q
In favor of River Route,

52.62 Straight Line.
0.70 iMinimum Ra
3.10 eRiverRoute2
2.08 IMinimum Ra
0.61 Inland Route


ll64,IG  Going East.

l1901 2  

865 ft.

819 ft.



111MM i       (01D iil)

biclination per River Route.
Mile infect.    Miles.
    Levl.       57.56
 Oto S ft.permile 4.70
 5 to 10 " "  "   8.92
 lto 15 " "  "   16.88
 15 to 30 (t CC
 30to40" c    c
 40 to 60  pound;
 6O to 70     C

 Distance Miles 88.06
    Rise,         183
    Fall,         138

Total Rise and Fall, 321
      In favor of River Roul

Inland Roi


.e, 1470 Ae

Height of Principal Sumnmit River Rl
Do.  it    Cs      c    Inland
  In favor of River Route 455 feet.
Number of Summits River Route
   I C      "     Inland Route
   In favor of River Route 3.


( Maximum Grade
River Route 15 feet
(per mile.

)MaximumGrade In-
  land Route 70 feet
 per hiule.

Going East.

Duto    000 feet.
"4      455 C'





                              River Route. Inland Route.
                                  AMiles.    Miles.
            (For Curvature,        0.99      '2.46
Going East   " Ascending Grades, 9.15       45.90
            Add actual Length,   88.06     77.97

                    Total miles, 98.20     126.33
  In favor of the River Route,       28.13 miles.
            (For Curvature,       0.99      2.46
Going West,   " Ascending Grades, 6.00     44.55
            (Add actual Length,  88.06     77.97

                  Total miles,   95.05     124.98
    In favor of River Route,        29.93 miles.
  The cost of Traction with maximum loads will be as 1 is
to 2.95 in favor of the River Route.
  Time occupied in making trips, at 30 miles per hour, as 1
is to 1.32 in favor of River Route.
  Maximum load, with a 24 ton Engine at 10 miles per hour:
                       River Route.  Inland Route.
                       Gross. Net.   Gross. Net.
                       Tons. Tons.   To-is. Tons.
                       5804  353     20(4   1  
  In favor of River Route, 374 tons gross; 234 tons net.



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                         [ 101
rthe Total Cost, completed in the most durable and siub;
           stantial manner, is as follows, viz:

               WaS3SE1TI ((9Wi     1D391Wo
                             River Route. Inland Route.
Graduation, Masonry and
  Bridging,                  695,930 58 1,290,641 69
Track and Superstructure (in-  92 miles.  82 miles.
  cluding sidings),           603,520 00    537,920 00
Cars and Engines,             146,800 00    146,800 00
Sation Buildings and Fixtures,  82,000 00  82,000 00
                             1010 acres.  1070 acres.
Do. Ground  Land Damages,    50,000 00   32,000 00
Engineering and Superintendence, 50,000 00  50,000 00

    Total Cost,            ,)628,250 0012,139,361 69
  Total Cost in favor of River Route, 511,111 11
  Average per mile,          18,490 24    27,438 27
  Average per mile in favor of River Route, 8,948 03
  In computing the Cost of your Road, the Estimate is giv-
en for a Single Track, and prices sufficient it is believed
with honest competition to construct it upon the most last-
ing and workmanlike plan. Upon the "Inland Route" the
estimate for masonry in crossing the large streams in most
cases from necessity were made for Abutments and Piers
with Wooden Trusses, while upon the "River Route" they
have been made for permanent Stone Viaducts throughout
The width of Road Way at Grade upon the different parts
of the line is, in Rock Cuts, 1G feet, with Slope 1 in 4; Earth
Cuts 20 feet, and upon Embankments 15 feet, Slopes 11 to
1; in Tunnels 16 feet; Sides vertical for 12 feet, then curv-
ing to a point at the top 1Sz feet above the Track. The
plan of the Superstructure and Track estimated, is, an Iron
Rail of the inverted T form, 60 lbs. to the lineal yard resting
upon Cross Ties of Locust and White Oak, each 72 feet long,
6O by 10 inches, and placed 2 feet 8 inches from centre to
centre; under the Joints of the Rails and between the Cross
Ties and Ballisting will be Sills 1O feet long, 3 by 1O inches,
of the same kind of timber as the Ties. For the fastenings of
the Rails Cast Iron Chairs and hook-headed Wrought Iron
Spikes will be used. The whole estimated to cost 6,560 00
per mile, as follows, viz:



Estimated Cost of one mile of Traek and Superstructure.
94,3 gross tons of Rails delivered at 45,00  4,243 50
9,60o lbs. of Cast Iron Chairs at 3Sc.      336 00
4,700 do. Wrought Iron Spikes (hook-heads) at 4!c. 223 25
2,059 Cross Ties each 74 feet long 64 by 10 inches
      flatted two sides 64 inches, at 30c.  017 70
12,306 feet board measure Sawed Sills 3 by 10 in-
      ches (joint blocks) at 12 00            147 67
Frogs, Switches and Slide Blocks per mile    60 00
Disltributing Rails, Chairs, Spikes, Timber, c.,
      and laying track                         931 88

    Total Estimate for one mile             6,500 00
The estimate for Motive Power and Cars is 146,800, viz:
4 Passengers Locomotives (18 tons empty) at 8,500 34,000
3 Freight       do.    (20 "     " ) at 9,500 28,500
8 first Class Passenger (60 seats each) Cars at 2,200 17,600
6 second "c  "   Baggage and Mail " at 1,200  7,200
45 eight wheeled Freight (House)  " at  700 31,500
20             "    (Platform)     " at    550 11,000
30 eight"       "   (House)        " at    '350 10,500
25     "    Platform, Coal, Iron and Lutn-
              ber Cars at                 228    5,700
 flanld Cars (Repairing Traclk) at     100    800

  Total Cost of Motive Powcer and Cars,   140,800


  The Estimate for Station Buildings is as follows, viz:
            Estimate of Station Buildings:
Engine House and Turntable at Maysville 11,000
Car, Freight and Passenger Houses at do.  14,000
Wood Sheds, Water Tanks and Fixtures do. 2,500
Repair Shops  Stationary Machinery do. 12,000
Pass'r.  Freight House and Wood Shed at Springdale, 2,500
  Do       C           opposite Manchester,     2,000
  Do       "        and Wood  Water at Concord, 4,500
  Do       "         at Vanceburg,              2,000
  Do       Us     a at Rockport,                2,000
  Do       "        and Wood  Water atKinni'k. 4,500
  Do              " at Quincy,                  2,000
  Do              " at Springville,             2,0O0
  Do              " and Wood  Water at Green-
                          upsburg,               4,500
  Do              "  at Amanda Furnace,         2,00
  Do                W Wood and Water at Cattlets-
                         burg,           6,500
Engine House and Turntable at Catletsburg, 8,000 14,500

    Total Cost of Station Buildings, c.    82,000
  The prices of quantities upon which the Estimate is based,
include all Centering, Scaffolding, Cement, Coffer Dams, c.,
necessary in building the Viaduct, Arch and Bridge Mason-
ry. The Earth price is for Excavation only, with an allow-
ance of t of 1 cent. per yard, for each and every 100 feet it
may be necessarily hauled from the Excavations to the Em-
bankments. The same allowance is also made for hauling
Rock. The allowance for Foundations is probably suffici-
ent to equal the cost of that item. The estimate for Bal-
lasting does not include the entire line: only upon such por-
tions of it as seemed to be destitute of suitable material for
a first rate Roud Bed, was any allowance made. The price
of Bridge Trusses, includes the Plate Iron Roofing, Side
Boarding, c., necessary to preserve them as much as pos-
sible from the depreciation to which they are liable. The
prices of Fencing, (which is not estimated continuous as
there will be partial omissions) altering roads, Farm and



Road Crossings and Qattle Guards, will, without doubt, be
enough for those purposes. The estimate for Land and
Land Damages may be considered low, but it is believed
that the land owners upon the line of your road will, (view-
ing the importance of the Railroad) release the right of way
upon a great portion of it, or for a small remuneration in
Stock, allow you a clear track through their lands. The es-
timate for Station Buildings is made for structures of a size
and durability suited to the wants of your road. The esti-
mate for Motive Power and Oars is sufficient for commenc-
ing business in the most economical manner; as that increa-
mes, a greater number of them will be needed. In view of
the important position of your route, I have given you a full
and ample estimate for a first Class Road; a Road in ev-
ery respect equal to the wants of the country and in char-
acter with those with which it connects. I know of no one
in the Union that can be operated and kept in repair for so
little expense. Thus you will have a road averaging less
than 19,000 per mile (including every thing needed to put it
in complete working trim) of the very highest order, essenti-
ally, straight and level and certain in its operations, (which
peculiarly adapts it for successful competition with the Riv-
er Steamers) the cost per mile of which is far below Eastern
Roads, and will compare favorably with Western Lines now
in progress. For more special information, your attention
is invited to the accompanying Map, Profiles, Estimate
Books, c., that are particularly marked.
  Having now put you in possession of the principal facts,
relating to the Construction of your Road, I will (though it
does not strictly come within the duties of an Engineer)
briefly state some of its advantages and connections with
other lines.
  1 st. Its connections with Eastern Cities and the Seabord.
From the Cities of Richmond, Norfolk, Lynchburg, and
Washington, various lines are in progress, all tending to a
common point (the Eastern Terminus of your road). The
Virginia Central Railroad Company has at this time up-
wards of 100 miles of its road in operation from Rich-
mond, besides an additional portion soon to be opened.
The Company have, it is stated, now funds sufficient to


  Construct it to a point 200 miles from Richmond and over
  the most difficult part of their line. From Southern Virgin-
  ia it is contemplated by an efficient and energetic company
  to construct a road to Guyandotte and Point Pleasant via
  New River and the Great Kanawha. The James River and
  Kanawha Canal is now completed 196 miles from Rich-
  mond in the same direction. From Washington City a
  Road is proposed, tapping the Virginia Central. Also, the
  extension of the Winchester and Potomac Railroad from the
  Baltimore and Ohio road is in progress.
  Thus you will have the advantages of competing Routes
  to the Eastern markets, which will always ensure you a
  quick and cheap communication; andVirginia by completing
  them has before her the whole WVest and South West, and
  her Cities may be the great markets for its vast products.
  The great interests at stake in these various improvements
  and which have impelled them forward will drive them to
  completion, leaving no alternative but for them to connect
  with your road and that speedily. Besides these outlets,
  there are others crossing the Ohio River at Portsmouth via
she Sciota and Hocking Valley and the Cincinnati and Ma-
rietta Roads (both under way with every prospect of an
early completion) to Baltimore and Washington and other
Cities East, over the Parkersburg and Baltimore and Ohio
lines, or to Wheeling, thence via the Ilempfield and Pennsyl-
vania Central, to Philadelphia. A communication to the
Lakes can be had from Portsmouth direct via the Lake Erie
and Cleveland and Columbus, or the Mansfield and Sandus-
ky Roads. The sum necessary to prepare your line for the
Rails to this point, 514 Aniles from Maysville, will not exceed
  2nd. Its South Western connections. The Geographi-
cal position of your Route (as a glance at the accompaning
Map will show) is such, that all lines from Memphis, Nash-
ville and Louisville, seeking the most direct route to Virgin-
ia, Baltimore and Philadelphia, must of necessity pass over
your line. These routes, of which there is is now about 1NO
miles in operation, and upwards of 400 miles in progress 4
construction and about being commenced, besides 100 miles
more proposed, with every prospect of being soon built; oc-


cupying 100,000 square miles of country, with a pophlatiori
of 2,000,000 persons, and one of the most wealthy and fertile
portions of'the Union; all have a common interest at stake
in the early construction of your road; looking upon your
line as the only connecting link, South of the Ohio River,
with the Great Eastern Roads before mentioned.
  3rd. Its own Local Business. The country traversed by
your road is one of the most beautiful and productive, being
one continuous line of River Bottoms, whose capacity for the
agriculturist is not exceeded, and high ground, rich in Iron
Ore, Coal, Slate Stone for roofing, White Limestone which
produces fine white lime containing (50 or 70 per cent. of
Magnesia; Fire Clay; Free White or Sand Stone; Alum,
Copperas, and Limestone for Lime and flux for Furnaces,
enough for ages; with an abundance ot the finest of Chest-
nut, Pine, White Oak, Locust, Poplar and other valuable
Timbers, which will be needed for Building purposes in the
Central Counties of the State, that are nearly destitute of
timber and stone.
  Upon the Eastern end of your line and within 20 miles of
it, in the counties of Lewis, Greenup and Carter, are now in
operation no less than 13 Blast Furnaces, which make an-
nually 20,000 tons of Pig Iron. Further inland the mineral
is more abundant and of a superior quality; but few are in
operation, for the want of facilities of transportation to car-
ry their products to market. T-e building of your road will
develop these Mineral resources, and we can hardly over-
estimate the value of them, when their rich deposits are
placed in an available position. When the importance of
saving time and money is considered, you will no doubt
have (in view of the delays and imperfections of navi-
,ating the Ohio River) an immense traffic. The produce
of Central Kentucky will have over your road a speedy con-
nection with Eastern Markets at all times and the business
interests of the South West and East will be eager for its
completion and will sooner or later force its construction.
The limited time in which we have been obliged to Survey
and Estimate the route of your proposed road, has prevent-
ed the collection of reliable facts upon which to base an
Estimate of its probable revenue. I would, therefore, rcfr


                          [ 16]
you to the reports of those lines from Maysville to Louis-
ville. You can properly claim their estimated income (and
what is now actually paying upon some of them) as the
profits for this Road. In the field and office work, I have
been ably assisted by Messrs. KIDDER, CHATFIELD and Louai-
XEt:; it affords me pleasure to acknowledge the faithfulness
and alacrity with which they have discharged their respec-
tive duties.
                   Respectfully Submitted,
                        CHARLES B. CHrILDE,
                                      Civil Engineer.


                    TO THE PUBLIC.
 General Considerations in favor of the Maysville and
                      Big Sandy Railroad.
   The advocates of this enterprise submit its claims to the consideration
 of capitalists and the public, on the intrinsic merits of the project.
   Without elaboration, some of these will be here presented, to which
the earnest attention of the reader is respectfully invited.
   The accompanying report, by Charles B. Childe, Civil Engineer, under
whose able and efficient personal direction the surveys and estimates
were made, presents a professional exhibit of all the important charac-
teristics of the proposed railway, from which and the subjoined state-
ments, the intelligent reader will be euabled to form a correct judgment
of its character, capacity, utility and prospects as an artificial facility of
transport and travel.
   It will be seen, from this report, that, in all the essential elements of
a first-class railroad-in its easy grades, its slight curves, its low cost of
construction and operation, its permanent durability, its exemption trom
danger of successful rivalry, and its prospects of lucrative business-the
claims of the proposed railroad to professional and practical approbation,
are peculiarly impressive. In all the world, there are few railroads of
equal length, combining so many important and favorable elements as
one of the lines indicated in the accompanying report of surveys. Its
grades and curves are so easy and slight as to offhr scarcely any appreci-
able obstruction; the track will be nearly all level and nearly all straight;
the materials for construction, sand, gravel, stone and timber, are the
best possible, and attainable at the least possible expense; so that it pro-
poses an important public work, constructed and operated at slight com-
parative cost, and a work, at the same time, as permanent and indestruc-
tible as wit of man can make it. It will be seen that the estimates con-
template viaducts of stone over all the streams, throughout, instead of
wooden bridges, and that, owing to the accessibility, abundance and
cheapness of a first-rate description of this material, (a beautiful sand
stone, easily cut, and proof against any pressure or any vicissitudes of
climate or weather, of the same kind used in the "Burnet House," Cin-
cinnati,) as well as of other necessarry materials, the average cost or
construction, per mile, will be considerably less than the cost of inferior
roads in the West, the stream crossings of which are constructed of per-
ishable timber. It will be obvious to every one, how comparatively
slight will be the expense of operating a road of such durable construc-
tion and such easy grades and curves. These are considerations, in ref-
erence to the character of the project, of the highest importance.
  The inquiry next presents, whether the business on this line will jus-
tify the construction of the proposed railway! To determine this, let
the facts and considerations subjoined, be candidly weighed by practical
business men.
  The only doubts on this point rest on the suggestion that the road will
run near to, or parallel with the great highway, the Ohio river, and that
the population and productions of the country between Maysville and
the Big Sendy river, are inadequate in numbers, strength and importance,



fo sustain so great a work. The doubts thus suggested will be fairly
  With an experience that reaches back to the earliest navigation of the
Ohio river, and most especially in view of the impressive experience of
the last year, during more than half of which its navigation has been
either partially or wholly interrupted, alternately by low water and by
lee, all conducing to prove that it is not a safe, permanent and reliable
channel of conveyance, it would be trifling with intelligent and practical
men, especially in the present age of mighty improvement and progress,
to allege that this rivet affords, or is capable of affording, even to the in-
habitants immediately on its banks, adequate facilities for transport and
travel. It may be granted that water transportation is most economical
for some descriptions of heavy freights, such as iron, salt, lumber, coal,
stone, c., which do not require to be moved with great rapidity at par-
ticular seasons or moments; but taking all these out of the calculation,
there will be ample business for the proposed railway. The Hudson riv-
er and Lake Shore Railroads, not to specify others, which are construct-
ed on the margin of permanently navigable waters, and at far greater
cost than will attend this, conclusively demonstrate the necessity of such
facilities, even along the line of water courses. They are demanded by
economical considerations, looking to the saving of time, of money, of
interest, of insurance, and of life; and are therefore necessary in view
of the public welfare. If the Ohio were a permanently navigable stream,
as it never was and never can be-if the sarcasm of John Randolph,
that it is dried up half the year and frozen up the other half, were less
an exaggeration than it is-still, public interests would imperiously re-
quire this road. But it would be doing injustice to its merits to consider
it in such restricted view. It is not a mere scheme of rivalry with the
river. It runs near the river, for a part of its route, only because the
river, for a part of its course, lies in the general route of the railroad
chain of which it is but a link, and because the river valley, for that part
of its course. offers the easiest and most eligible ground to run upon. It
is a section of a great national thoroughfare, a portion of which, owing
to geographical, topographical, and other important considerations, (di-
rection, distance, grades, curves, cost, c., all taken into view) lies most
eligibly near the Ohio river; and it so happqns that this portion lies only
between Maysville and Big Sandy river. This is but a small part, a mere
link of the grand chain,-less than a hundred miles of the thousands of
miles of the great system of which it may be justly considered an indis-
pensable element. So that, taking all considerations into view, it is for'
tunate rather than otherwise, that this road, contemplated even as a dis-
tinct enterprise, will run on a route so favorable as that offered in the ra-
vine of the Ohio. It is in view of its connexions, then, besides its local
characteristics, that the merits of this road should be canvassed.
  To the second ground of doubt, therefore, it is answered, that the
present population and productions of the country along the line, though
they have not been fairly appreciated hitherto, are not the fit, measure,
by any means, of the importance and necessity of the proposed road.
There are few railways in all the world, the whole business of which is
derived along their lines. Nearly all of them draw a valuable, and many
of them much the most valuable, portion of their resources, and certain-
ly every one which, like this, is a link in a lengthened chain, from dis-
tances far beyond either terminus, and far aside the intermediate line.
But the elements of production, of great production and great wealth,
and of course of the means of sustaining a great augmentation of popu-
lation, lie immediately along the line of th