xt7zpc2t652t https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7zpc2t652t/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1930 journals kaes_circulars_229 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 229 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 229 1930 2014 true xt7zpc2t652t section xt7zpc2t652t   }
} Extension Division
K . THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
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  Lexington, Ky.
Q January, 1930.
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Q Published in connertion with the zigriculturnl extension work carried
I ml by C0Oper21tion of the College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky,
: With UIC U. S. Department of Agriculture, and distributed in fUI‘th9I`·
i ance of the work provided for in the Act of Congress of May 8, 1914.

 V >

 { By A. .1. 0r.NEv.
 J. The lawn is the most important feature of the landscape
 l about the home. Probably no other detail enhances the attrac-
 ¤ ( riveness of a residence so much as a beautiful lawn. Many diff]
 · culties arc encountered in making and maintaining them. Fail-
  ure to secure a good stand of grass, the dying out of parts of the
 { lawn. and the eradication of weeds are among the more serious
 T problems. No easy remedy for these troubles is known, but
; careful attention to the causes and their removal will result in
  better lawns.
  i The chief factors on which good lawns depend are climate
 5 and soil. Most of the grasses suitable for lawns originated in
  Europe where lawns are more easily maintained than they are
  in the United States. The hot, dry summers and snowless
 L winters in states like Kentucky make the maintenance of lawns
 ` somewhat more ditlicult. Inasmuch as our climate cannot be
  changed to suit the grasses, the only practical thing to do is to
  make the soil conditions as nearly ideal as possible.
  Soil and Fc·2·fiiI.’ize1·: Most grasses do well on soils which are
 [ deep, fertile. moisture-holding. and well drained. The subsoil
  should be permeable to the roots and if too compact for good
  natural drainage. tiling should be used. VVet soil conditions may V
  also be due to surface wate1· from the surrounding areas. \Vhen
  this is the ease grading must be done to correct it.
3} J]a!.·z`11y (1 ozeze [aura: After the lawn is graded and the
F soil is in a suitable state of fertility it should be plowed deep
l_ and well pulverized. Then it should be rolled and raked alter-
  nately until a firm, even seed—bed is established.

 i 2 
i 4 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 22.9  
It is a serious error to seed or sod a new lawn until a satis-   ·
factory soil has been established, as this can never be made satis—  
factory later by any system of top—dressing. If the soil is lack-   ]
ing in fertility, humus-forming materials should be added in  ii ‘
large quantity. VVell—rotted barnyard manure, free of weed  `_ 3
seeds, is one of the best fertilizers. Cottonseed-meal, bone-meal   1
and tankage may be used to supplement the manure if the sup-  
ply is limited. Thin soils usually are improved by the use of  
a complete fertilizer such as is commonly used for tobacco, at   l
the rate of five pounds per square rod. Lime should be used e
rarely, except on very acid soils. White‘clover and turf grasses,  
such as bluegrass and Bermuda grass, growing on acid soils, are  i
stimulated by applications of lime, while most others are in-  ·
different to it. However, the advantages from the use of lime  
are offset by the increased growth of weeds.  Y
After the lawn is established fertilizers should be added  
early every spring: bone—meal at the rate of three pounds per  
square rod, or sulfate of ammonia at the rate of one pound per  
square rod. Sulfate of ammonia may be mixed with dry soil  g§;·
and sown at a time when the grass is perfectly dry to avoid the  
possibility of injury, or it may be dissolved in water and applied  
with a sprinkling can, followed by a thoro watering. If the  `Z 1  
grass fails to make rapid growth another application of the  
nitrogen fertilizer may be made in May or June.  if
Seeding: Seeding is done in September and October, in  
the fall, and from February to May, in the spring. The point  
in spring seeding is to get it done as early as possible after the _1 
ground can be worked. Lawns may be seeded at almost any  
time during the summer if watering can be done when needed.  
If inconvenient to sow the lawn in the fall it is a good practice  
to have the soil prepared then, and sow at any time during the  2
The seed should be sown as evenly as possible. Sowing half  
of the seed in one direction across the lawn and half at right  ,
angles to it helps to make the distribution even. If available,  
a small hand-operated seeder is recommended. Since the seed  ` J
is very light, a time must be selected when there is no wind.  

  Lawns 5
i-   The seed should be sown at the rate of not less than four bushels
a-   to the acre. For smaller areas allow one quart of seed to two
;,   lyuedred square feet, or a square 14.2 feet on a side. It is bet-
H  fi my to sow thickly since weeds have less chance if the seil is
l J  fully occupied by the grass. lmmediately after the seed is
,1  Y sown the lawn should be raked or harrowed lightly and then
,_   rolled, The grass should be cut as soon as it has reached a
,f if lyeiglit of about four inches. A scythe is good for the first
Lt   cutting. Leave the grass clipping on the lawn to act as a mulch.
d Y  Frem this time the grass may be cut at about ten-day intervals.
S,   The lawnmower should be set to cut the grass at least two
.8  l inches high the first season.
y-  » Sacldiinga Altho much more expensive than seeding, sod-
le   ding may sometimes be desirable in making a lawn, For
 li example, it is better to depend on sodding in the summer. Sod-
,d   ding is better than seeding on terraces and banks because the
BY   sods can be held in position by means of pegs eight or ten inches
31-   long, driven into the ground. lf watered freely the grass will
,11  Lg, grow rapidly, but even when this is done it is difficult to keep
ac  `_ the steep a1·eas f1·om drying out and young seedlings from dying.
Bd  .j_ One disadvantage of laid sod is the impossibility of securing
,16  is as uniform a surface as by seeding. Furthermore, good sod is
he   often dillicult to secure. The same preparation of the soil should
 l be made as for seeding, before laying the sods. The sods should _
in   be cut tln·ee feet long, one foot wide and two inches thick.
Ht   They may then be rolled to facilitate handling while transport-
he   ing them to the lawn. It is best to lay the sods as soon as pos-
uy  L, sible after cutting.
ad.   After the turf is laid as evenly as possible and the unions
lee   are filled with fresh soil, the sods should be beaten down to in-
;he   sure intimate contact with the soil below. If this is not done the
  roots may fail to take hold and the grasses may die after a few l
alf ,‘·  i l days of dry, hot weather. The newly laid sod should be watered
cbt  Ei frequently until established.
>le,   Grasses for the Lawn: The lawn grass seed on the market
ged  ` J is usually a mixture of several kinds of grasses. While it is
ad.   often desirable to sow a mixture of grasses, it is difficult to de-

- 6 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 229 »
V termine the kinds and amounts of the various grasses that have i I
been used to make up the mixture. For this reason it is better  { {
to buy the kinds of seed desired and do the mixing oneself. The ·
following is a good mixture for most lawns: Y 1
Kentucky bluegrass 4 parts by weight, B t
Redtop 1 part by weight. E
If white clover   desired, one part by weight of seed may i Q
be added to the mixture. For shady places, add one part by ` ]
weight of wood bluegrass seed. Q I
The use of perennial rye grass, oats and other quick-grow .
ing grasses as nurse crops for the lawn grasses has few if any  
advantages and is not recommended. y  
A brief description of some of the most important kinds of  ' (
lawn grasses, follows: ·
Ifenluely Bluegrass (Pea praten-s1`s) : The most important Y S
lawn grass is Kentucky bluegrass. It makes a green sward, 1
stands much tramping and tends to crowd out many other · ` ‘
grasses, when grown in favorable soils. However, it grows  ` {
_ slowly and requires three years to become fully established. ln
the meantime weeds may gain a foothold. For this reason it B 1
is desirable to use a fast-growing grass with it to occupy the 3 L
ground and give a quicker effect.  v"v T
Redlop (Agroslis palnstris) : Redtop is used because it is   <
surer to make a good stand. It is adapted to a wide range of i t
soil conditions, grows well in wet land, and will resist drought  
better than most other grasses. For poor soils redtop has lone  
been recognized as one of the best grasses. The seed appears   `
almost identical with creeping and Rhode lsland bent-grass `_
seed, and has often been used as an adulterant for the two beats.  3 l
Creeping Bent (Agroslis s1oZanz`fera); This is considered 1 t
the finest grass for putting-greens. lt makes a dense, velvety j ‘
turf. 1
Rhode Island Bent: Altho this grass differs somewhat V *
from creeping bent it is similar in habit and is common in north- L
eastern United States.    
W'00cl Bluegrass, TV00cl Meadow Grass (Pon. nemoralislz l
This is one of the best grasses for shady places. It will th1‘i\'P   ‘

 Ft?  ?l
1 Lawns 7
rave J T under trees where other grasses fail. It is best to add this to
tter   the seed-mixture in places of varying degrees of shade.
The S, T/10 Feseues: These grasses are common ingredients of
` lawn seed mixtures and are used to give the quick eEect of a
  turf in the first year. They are s11ited to a wide variety of soils
. and are well adapted to g1·owing in the shade. They make
 it beautiful lawns in northern climates, but unfortunately they
    mud to become brown during hot, dry weather in Kentucky,
’ , For this reason their use in lawn seed mixtures 1S not recom-
 ` mended for this region.
  ('yested D0gSll(l;’l.Z is another grass commonly found in lawn
“ j seed mixtures. This grass is poorly adapted to Kentucky con-
ps Of   ditions.
Bermuda Grass: This is the important lawn grass of the
mm  Q South. ln Kentucky it often grows well during the summer,
md` 2 but becomes rusty brown with the Hrst frost and so cannot
_th(,f . - compete with bluegrass, redtop. and white clover, which remain
mw j green most of the winter.
_ In ` Wlrite Glover: Vilhite clover, altho not a grass, is often
yu it * used with a mixture of grasses. It is adapted to poor soils, pro-
thc ,2 duces a dense turf, and tends to choke out weeds. Some object
-t‘2 to white clover because of the spotted effect it gives to the green
it is  tf color of the lawn. lt also appears crushed after considerable
;·g of   l1`2U`1]pl1]g.
10**9   CARE or T1-11; LAWN
)€{ll‘S Q `
,.1.aSS   Iioltingz Nothing contributes more to the maintenance of
gnu   Perfect conditions in the lawn than frequent rolling. Rolling
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