xt7zs756fb6p https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7zs756fb6p/data/mets.xml Durbin, John P. (John Price), 1800-1876. 1844  books b92-202-30752248v1 English Harper, : New York : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Great Britain Description and travel. France Description and travel. Europe Description and travel. Observations in Europe  : principally in France and Great Britain (vol. 1)/ by John P. Durbin. text Observations in Europe  : principally in France and Great Britain (vol. 1)/ by John P. Durbin. 1844 2002 true xt7zs756fb6p section xt7zs756fb6p 

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              PRINCIPALLY IN



     J O I N P. D U R B I N, D.D.,


          IN TWO VOLUMES.

               VOL. I.

            N EXWY O R K:

               1 8 4 4.


Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1844, by
                 HA.RnPR  BROTHERS,
In the Clerk's Office of the Southern District of New-York.



  WITHOUT making an apology for doing what I might
have left undone. viz., writing this book, I deem it right
to give my reader a word or two of explanation as to
the circumstances under which it was prepared.
  When I left home my thoughts were full of the East,
and I confess it was my design to inflict a book of
travels in that interesting region upon the patience of
my friends in the Western world. In Egypt, Arabia,
Palestine, Asia Minor, and even in Greece, I thought
new material enough might be found to allow me to say
something without going over topics already worn out.
While in those countries, besides noticing the ordinary
objects that excite the attention of the traveller, I made
careful inquiry, so far as my opportunities allowed, into
the state of the Greek and Armenian churches, and the
condition of the Turkish Empire, now so intimately
connected with the state of Christianity in the East.
My letters suggested these topics to my friends at home,
and they had reason to expect that I would treat them,
on my return, more at length, and in a more permanent
  Reasons, both of a public and a private nature, in-
duced me to postpone, for a time at least, the publica-
tion of my Eastern journal, and to prepare for the pres
                        A 2


a brief account of some parts of my tour in Europe,
with notices of prominent topics of interest at present
attracting the attention of the world. These are offer-
ed to the reader in the present volumes. At a future
time, I may present to the reader the observations re-
ferred to on Eastern topics, in which, certainly, my own
feelings are much more deeply interested.
  I am aware that the opinions expressed in the follow-
ing pages on several important subjects differ from those
that are current among us; and I fi ankly confess that
they are at variance with those which I entertained
myself before I went abroad. I trust that none of them
will be found to be entirely unsustained.
  A number of pages in the second volume are taken
up with an account of Wesleyan Methodism in England.
In view of the importance of this religious body in that
country, and especially of its great and increasing influ-
ence in America, I deem no apology necessary for en-
tering into detail upon the subject. Methodists, of
course, will not object to it; and others, who take an
interest in the progress of religion and of human soci-
ety, will not be unwilling to learn something of so pow-
erful an agency.
  One word as to the spirit in which these pages are
written. Though I have spoken with severity of the
evils and abuses that forced themselves upon my atten-
tion abroad, I have not written with an anti-French or
anti-English, but, I trust, with a truly American feeling.
Dkckianon (College. April, 1844.






             THE FIRST VOLUME.

                      CHAPTER I.
                   NEW-YORK TO PARIS.
Departure.- Sea-sickness- Glimpse of Englard.- Approach to Havre.-
Passports.-Dinner in eight Days.-Physique of the French.-Female Men-
of-businiess.-Feats of Strength.-Police.-The Seine.-Honfleur.-Arthur
and Louise.-Lillebonne.-Caudebec.-Rouen.-French Hotels.-Boule-
vards.-Appearance of the City.-Cathedral.-Worship.-Stained-glass
Windows.-Their Uses.-Heart of Coeur tie Lion.-Memory of Napoleon.
-Palace of Justice.-Lawyers' Hall.-English Abroad.-French River
  Steamers.-Elbeuf-ilill of the two Lovers.-Washerwoinen.-Duchess
  of Guercheville-La Pecq.-Paris                       Page 13

                     CHAPTER II.
Getting Lodgings.-Rev. Mr. Toase.-Restaurants and Cafes.-Ladies at
Restaurants.-Social Arrangements of Parisians.- Dwellings.-Wesleyan
Chapel. - First Sunday in Paris. - Champs Elysees. - Amusements. -
Good Behaviour.-Napoleon Column.-View of Paris from the Column.
-Chamber of Deputies.-Bois de Boulogne.-Duelling.-Royal Carriage.
-Ja-din des Plantes.-Menagerie.-Cedar of Lebanon.-Museum of Nat-
ural History.-Museum of Comparative Anatomy.-Craniology.-Museum
of Mineralogy and Geology.-Fossil Skeletons.-Statue of Cuvier.-Cham-
ber of Peers .36

                     CHAPTER III.
The Pantheon.-Frescoes.-Allegorical Paintings.-Death.-Vaults.-Public
Slaughter-Houses.- Butchers' Shops. - Hotel des Invalides. - Veterans of
the Imperial Armies. - Black Officer. - Garden Plots of the Veterans.-
Busts of Napoleon.-Tomb of the Emperor.-Impressions.-Irish College.
-Conversation.-American Slavery.- Emigration of Paupers and Crimi-
nals to America.-Condition of England.-Puseyism.-Origin of the Irish
College.- The Duke of Orleans ..55


Viii                     CONTENTS.

                      CHAPTER IV.

 Churches in Paris.-Small Number of Church Edifices-Large Size of many
   of them.-Varieties of Architecture.-Notre-Dame.-Goddess of Reason.-
   The Concordat.-Coronation of Napoleon.-Church of the Magdalen.-
   Worsh'p.-Matins.-Vespers.-The Mass.-Elevation of the Host.-Im-
   pressions.-Service at Notre-Dame de Lorette  .  .  .  . Page 67

                       CHAPTER V.

 Walk from the Louvre to the Triumphal Arch.-The Louvre.-Place du
 Carrousel.-Palais Royal.-Tuileries.-Gardens of the Tuileries.-Place
 de la Concorde.-Champs Elysges.-Arch of Triumph.- Versailles-His-
 tory of the Palace.-Grounds.-Expense.-Magnitude of the Buildings.-
 Place d'Armes.-Grand Court.-East Front.-Garden Front-Wings.-
 Gardens.-Fountains.--" A toutes les glares de la France" .  .  79

                      CHAPTER VI.

Arts in Paris.-The Louvre.-Museum of Marine.-Galleries of Paintings
  and Sculpture.-Picture Gazers.-Enthusiastic Artists.-Spanish Gallery.
  -Modern French Gallery.-All open to the Public.-Influence upon the
  Taste and Feelings of the common People.-Royal Library.-Autographs.
  -A Billet-doux of Franklin's.88

                      CHAPTER VII.

Catacombs.-Difficulty of obtaining Admission.-Kindness of General Cass.
  -Quarries under the City converted into Catacombs.-Entrance.-In-
  scriptions.-Arrangement of the Remains-Impressions.-Life among the
  Dead.-Alarm.-Above Ground again.-Pere la Chaise.-History.--Ar-
  rangement of the Ceinetery.-Flowers.-Tombs of Abelard and Heloise.-
  Of Laplace.-Of the Marshals of France.-Grave of Ney.-Tomb of W. W.
  M., of New-Jersey .94

                    CHAPTER VIII.

                 GENERAL VIEW OF PARIS.
Three fine Localities.-Bridges over the Seine.-Quays.-Boulevards.-Nar-
row Streets.-Pavements.-Houses.-Chimney pipes.-French and Amer-
ican Feelings contrastcd.-Octroi.-Evidences of Prosperity--New Build-
in-s.-Increase in Numbner of private Carriages .102



                       CHAPTER IX.
                   MORALS       OF   PARIS.
 Desecration of the Sabbath.-Foundling Hospital.-Infanticide.-Prostitu-
   tion.-English Exaggerations.-Paris not France in Morals.-Indulgence
   of Vice in the Metropolis.-Revolution.-Position of Woman.-Marriages
   of Convenience.-Legalized Vice.-Influence of Roman Catholic Usages.-
   Modern French Drama and Novels.-Their Introduction into the United
   States deprecated .Page 107

                        CHAPTER X.
                     RELIGION IN FRANCE.
 Three Religious Bodies recognised by Government. - Comparative Number
 of Protestant and Catholic Clergy.-Decrease of the latter since 1789.-In-
 crease of Religious Feeling in France.-Churches better attended.-New
 Churches.-Romanism favoured by Louis Philippe.-Policy of M. Guizot.
 -Possibility of Reformation in the Catholic Church. - Protestantism in
 France.-Religious Press. - Foreign Evangelical Society. - Rev. Robert
 Ba.rd.-Wesleyan Methodism.-Indifference of modern French Infidelity.
 -Time to strike.-Franc3 a field for American Methodist Missions . 122

                       CHAPTER XI.
Position of Louis Philippe.-Historical Sketch.-Lafayette and Louis
  Philippe.-Declarations of the Citizen King.-Grounds of the Confidence
  reposed in him by the Lteral Party.-His early Foreign Policy.-Altera-
  tion of his Policy. - Disgust of Lafayette. - Louis Philippe False to the
  Men that placed him on the Throne. -Why the Throne was established
  in 1830.-Policy of Louis Philippe.-The Army.-The Police.-The For-
  tificatiMLs of Paris. -What France has gained by her Revolutions.-Recu-
  perative Power of France.-Comparative Liberty of France and England.
  -A strong Government. - Legislature.-Budget.-Personal Character of
  the King .141

                      CHAPTER XII.
                  DEPARTURE FROM PARIS.
Departure from Paris.-Courier.-Diligence.-Beggar-boy.-Chatillon-
sur-Seine.-Sunday at Dijon.-Cathedral.-Worship.-Appearance of the
People. -Chalons.-S teamer.-Rush for Breakfast.-The Saone.-Lyons
                     CHAPTER XIII.
Lyons. -Appearance of the City.- Streets.-Trade and Manufactures.-
Ancient Lugdunum.-Sight of Mont Blanc.-Roman Remains.-Relic





   Shops. - Notre Dame de Fourvieres. - Subterranean Chapels of St. fre-
   nmus.-Public Buildings.-Hotel .Page 175

                     CHAPTER XIV.

                  AGRICULTURE IN FRANCE.
 Agriculture in France.-No large Fields.-Cultivation of Trees.-Implements
 of Husbandry.-Plough.-Burden Wagons.-Draught-horses.-Race in a
 Diligence. - Women Labourers.-Indian Corn. - Valley of Dijon.-Shep-
 herds and Dogs.-Vineyards.-Ordinary Use of Wine.-Relation to the
 Temperance of the People.                               11

                     CHAPTER XV.

                 DEPARTURE FROM LYONS.
Departure from Lyons.-Market-women.-Breakfast.-Peasant women.
  - The Lovers. - Pont de Beauvoisin. - Frontier of Savoy. - First Din-
  ner in Piedmont.-Mountain Road.-Tunnel.-Chambery.-Dun-colour-
  ed Cattle.-Rumilly.-Crucifix.-Arrival at Geneva .  .  .   . 187

                    CHAPTER XVI.
Geneva.-Sunday.-Market.-Church Service.- Amusements.-Appearance
  of the City.-Environs.-Manufacture of Watches.-Reformation in Ge-
  neva.-Calvin.-General Defection.-Second Reformation.-Evangelical
  Society. - Montauban. - Colporteurs. -- Voltaire. - Rousseau.-Observa-
  tions.-French Revolution.-Visit to Ferney, Chateau of Voltaire  . 192

                    CHAPTER XVii.

Departure for Charnouni.-The Arve-The Alps.-Chars  banc.-Houses
  of Swiss Peasants.-Valley of Chamouni.-History.- Funeral Procession.
  -Excursion to the aMer de Glare.-Mules.-A rough Road.-View from
  the Caille.-Chateau de Blair.-Ascent continued on Foot.-Doubtful
  Footing.-Field of Ice-blocks-The Mer de Glace.-Dangers of the Gla-
  ciers.-The Garden.-Return. -Formation of the Glaciers.-Movement
  of Glaciers .202

                   CHAPTER XVIII.
.Martigny.-Goitre.-Liddes.-Quarrel with Guides.-Mules.-St. Pierre.-
Ascent of St. Bernard.-The Hospice.-Napoleon's Passage of St. Ber-
nard,-History of the Hospice.-Monks.-Noble Charity.-St. Bernard




   Dogs.-The Morgue.-Chapel Service.-Catholic Piety.-Chapel of the
   Convent.-Return.-The Harvest.-Martigny.-Tricks upon Travellers.-
   Lake Leman.-Gerneva..                         .   . Page 214

                     CHAPTER XIX.
Departure from Geneva.--Environs.-Coppet.-Madame De Stail.-Nyon,
  Birthplace of John Fletcher.-Lausanne.-Gibbon.-Excellence of Roads.
  -Cattle.-Payerne.-Queen Bertha's Saddle.-Freyburg.-Cathedral.-
  Organ.-German-Swiss.-Costuimes.-Difference between Catholic and
  Protestant Cantons.-Berne.-Sundav.-Worship at the Minster.-Ap-
  pearance of the Town.-Bears of Berne.-View from the Minster Tower

                    CHAPTER XX.
Langnau.-Houses.-Swiss Peasant Girl.-The Emmenthal.-Forest Can-
  tons.-Lucerne.-Arsenal.-Arnold de Winkelried.-Battle of Sempach.
  -Battle of Cappel.-Zwingle.-English Travellers.-Bridges of Lucerne.
  --Monument of Swiss Guards.-Lake of Lucerne.-Gndtli.-Tell's Chapel.
  -Pass of Kussnacht.--Tell and Gessler.-Valley of Goldau.-Fall of the
  Rossberg.-Zug.-Field of Cappel.-Zwingle.-Zurich  .  .   . 235

                    CHAPTER XXI.
Zurich.-The Reformation-Zwingle's Pulpit.-His Banner.-Autograph of
Lady Jane Grey.-Lavater's Death.-Bruck.-Castle of Hapsburg.-Ab.
bey of Kcenigsfeld.-The Rhine.-Field of St. Jacob.-,Bile Cathedral.-
Tomb of Erasmus. - His Character. - Institutions of Bile. -Holbein's
Paintings.-Company at Table d'H6te  .        .244

                   CHAPTER XXII.
                 DEPARTURE FROM BALE.
Departure from Bale.-Steamer.-Strasburg.-Examination of Luggage.-
Dinner.-AMayence.-Sunday.-Military Parades.-Cathedral Service.-
Invention of Printing.-Statue of Gutenberg.-Frankfort.-Appearance of
the People.-The Rheirngau.-Rhenish Wines.-The Castellated Rhine.-
Coblentz.-Cologne.-Cathedral.-Three Kings of Cologne.-Rubens's
Crucifixion of Peter,-Churmb of St. Ursula.-Bones of the Virgins , 251


XiI                       CONTENTS.

                     CHAPTER XXIII.

Holland.-Dikes.-Land at Gorcum.-Parting with Friends.-A new Friend.
  -Road to Utrecht.-Willows.-Country.-Caials.-Utrecht.-Fair.-
  Eden in Holland. - Amsterdam.- Dutch Dishes. - Streets. - People.-
  Shops. - Warehouses. - Ornaments. - State House, now the Palace. -
  Statuary.-The Bankrupts' Hall.-No Death in the Ball-room.-A true
  Republican.                                            Page 21

                    CHAPTER XXIV.

Haarlem.-The Organ.-Leyden.-Siege by the Spaniards.-The University.
  -High Charges.-Rotterdam.-Dordrecht.-S;nod of Dort.-Antwerp.-
  Decline of her Commerce.-Causes of Decline.-Spanish Wars-Revolu-
  tion of 1830.-Flemish School of Painting-Rubens's Descent from the
  Cross.-Vandyk's Crucifixion.-Statue of the Virgin.-Calvary and Put-
  gatory.-Railway to Brussels.-William Tindal.-Brussels  .  . 270

                    CHAPTER XXV.

Waterloo.-Brief Account of the Campaign before the Battle of the 18th of
June-Number and Positions of the Forces on hoth Sides.-Defeat of the
Prussians at Ligny.-Battle of Quatre-Bras.-Description of the Field of
  Waterloo.-Numbers engaged in the Action.-Account of the Battle.-
  Almost lost by the English.-Retrieved by the Arrival of the Prussians.-
  Systematic Falsehoods of British Tory Wr iters.-Reflections on the lRe-
  sults of the Battle of Waterloo and Downfall of Napoleon.-Alison's Mis-
  tory of Europe.-Rise of Free Opinions in E urope.-The Reformation-
  It induced Discussion of Political Abuses.-ATrerican Revolution.-French
  Revolution--Causes of its Failure.-Naroleon-His Overthrow.-Con-
  gress of Vienna.-Promises to the German Nations.-How kept.-Return
  of Napoleon.-Establishes a Constitutional Government in France.-Ri-
  sing of Europe.-Battle of Waterloo-False Issue- Results of the Bat-
  tLe.-To Great Britain-France-Russia-Gerinany-Protestantism . 230

  ir7 We regret to say, by an accident not within our control, that the en-
graving of the "sheer de Glace" cannot appear in the work without postpo-
ning its publication, though it is referred to in the text,



                    CHAPTER I.

                  NEW-YORK TO PARIS.

Departure. - Sea-sickness.- Glimpse of England. -Approach to Havre.-
  Passports.-Dinner in eight Days.-Physiqioe of the French.-Female len-
  of-business.-Feats of Strength.-Police.-The Seine.-Honfleur.-Arthur
  and Louise.-Lillebonne.-Caudebec.-Rouen.-French Hotels.-Boule-
  vards.-Appearance of the City.-Cathedral.--Worship.-Stained-glass
   rindows.-Their Uses.-Heart of Ccur de Lion.-Memory of Napoleon.
  -Palace of Justice.- Lawyers' Hall.- English Abroad.- French River
  Steamers.-Elbeuf.-HilL of the two Lovers.-Washerwomen.-Duchess
  of Guercheville.-La Pecq.-Paris.

  AT two o'clock on the afternoon of April 27, 1842,
we cast off the cables of our steam-tug in the Narrows,
alnd spread all our canvass to a stiff breeze. In a few
hours our noble ship, the Ville de Lyon, was plunging
her bows into the waves, looking directly towards Beau-
tiful France. The city of New-York had vanished in
the distance; the Highlands of Neversink disappeared
wvith the setting sun; and at this last glimpse of my
country I awoke to the assurance that I was about L,
accomplish my ardent and long-cherished desire of vis-
itin, the Old World, whose history had inspired my
young heart with a restless longing to behold the scenes
of so many great achievements.
  We sat down to our first dinner at sea full of life and
gayety. I need not tell the reader what a change came
  VOL. I.-B


over the spirit of our company when our gallant vessel
began to mount the waves, and descend from their
crests into depths from which the inexperienced pas-
senger felt an involuntary apprehension she could ncv-
er rise again. Laughing eyes became mournful enough,
and jolly faces were lengthened into dolorous v'is-
ages. as one by one my companions sought the sides of
the ship, and looked wistfully into the sea. Inexorable
Neptune demanded his accustomed tribute. One of my
young friends obeyed at one gangway, while Professor
L     answered at the other. My time came late; but,
alas! when once arrived, it never departed. I shall
never make a sailor. There was a little coterie of
French men and women aboard, whose mercurial tem-
perament was proof against sea-sickness, and expended
itself in laughing, dancing, and every form of merry-
making. I envied them most heartily.
  Trifling, incidents are important to the passengers in
a ship, amid the irksomeness anid monotony of life at
sea; but such as happened to us can afford little amuse-
ment and no information to my reader. Besides, I trust
he is bound, with us, for Europe, and I doubt not he is
anxious to catch the first glimpse of the Old World.
Well, then, while we were at tea on the evening of the
14th of May, the mate came into the cabin, and report-
ed to the captain, "A light, sir."
  "Where away "
  "Off the leeward bow, sir."
  "Very well."
  Quickly we were all on the upper deck, straining our
eyes to see the light which the sailors could easily dis-
cern. The darkness increased, and in a few minutes
we could distinctly see the double-headed Lizard lights
on the coast of England. They sent a thrill of pleas-





ure through our hearts which we could not repress.
My young friend S-       waxed eloquent. "There,"
said he, " sleeps quietly in his sea-girt island, the Lion
of England, that has guarded so long his ocean-home
from the foot of the invader; and under whose protec-
tion the arts of Peace and the institutions of Religion
have so long and so wonderfully flourished." Next to
his own country, it seems to me, an American must
look upon the home of his forefathers with the most in-
tense delight. Such was our feeling, though we had
only seen the gleam of a lantern from the barren coast
of the Land's End.
  We were becalmed five days in the English Chan-
nel. It was not until about ten o'clock on the mornmng
of May 19 that we first really saw Europe, as the city
of Havre appeared in the distance, when the fog rolled
away from the surface of the beautiful bay at the mouth
of the Seine. We were about five miles distant from
the city. On our right, and somewhat astern of us, was
a fleet of some thirty vessels slowly drifting out to sea
with the tide, while as many more were lying at anchor
ahead, within half a mile of the wall-locked harbour.
They were waiting for the flood to carry them within
the gates of the noble canal, which leads up into a mag-
nificent basin in the very heart of the city. At four
o'clock the steamer Hercule ran down to us, and in for-
ty minutes we passed between the massive granite piers
running far out into the bay, which form a wide and
deep canal, through which we entered the inner basin.
Crowds of porters, hotel-agents, c., rushed on board,
and for a while all was confusion. We went ashore,
as soon as possible, in a small boat, and had hardly clam-
bered up the iron ladder to the stone pier, when an
officer in uniform demanded our passports. Having



delivered them, we walked into the custom-house, pass-
ed through a cursory and civil inspection, and left our
luggage to be opened and examined in our presence
the next morning. We then hastened to the Hotel
de l'Europe and engaged our rooms.
  My first conversation here, with the female director
of the hotel, was -rather amusing. Informing her that
we desired dinner, she inquired, " a quelle heure voulez
vous diner, monsieur " I replied, "a huit heure, ma-
dame," pronouncing the word heure so openly as to be
mistaken for jour; and she asked again, " a quelle heure,
monsieur" looking intently into my face, as if she
would read my meaning. Not noticing the peculiarly
close sound which she gave to the word heure, I replied
as before. Utterly surprised, she gazed at me as if shc
were absolutely feeling for my meaning; until at last it
flashed upon her, when she burst into a hearty, pleasant
laugh, not at my mistake, but at the ludicrous idea of
dining on the eighth day, and then repeated several
times, "'a huit heure, monsieur, huit heure, huit heure,"
uttering the word so as to draw my attention to it and
correct my mistake. I felt that I was instructed-not
ridiculed. By-the-way, I may remark that the French
rarely laugh at errors of pronunciation, which are gen-
erally irresistible to Englishmen. They either do not
notice them at all, or correct them with a kind polite-
ness. As to the French language itself, I am satisfied
that no man who learns it after twenty can pronounce
with Parisian accent, whatever else he may do.
  In a few minutes we sallied forth to see the town.
First impressions are not to be trusted, I am aware; but
as the appearance of the population struck me most fa-
vourably in many respects, I shall do no harm, in this
instance, by recording them. Coming immediately




from New-York, I could not but remark the contrast,
in point of physical health and vigour, between the
crowds you meet in the streets in that city and the
swarms that we now encountered in the streets of
IHavre. Their elastic movements, fine, fresh complex-
ions, and well-developed persons, betokened high health
and great enjoyment of life. Doubtless this superiority
of physique is to be attributed to their cheerful way of
living,, in which business is not the sole object, as with
us, and to their constant exercise in the open air-men,
women, and children. In this, our first walk, the bulk
of the population seemed to be in the streets, enjoying
their cheerful promenade not only on the sidewalks, but
in the middle of the most crowded thoroughfares. Ev-
eryvhere we saw boys and girls, from five to fifteen
years of age, running, romping, jumping the rope, or
trundling the hoop. The women were generally with-
out bonnets, to which habit, keeping the head cool and
well aired, their abundant and beautiful hair may per-
haps be attributed.
  We were struck also with the richness and variety
of the articles exhibited in the numerous shops. The
shops themselves are much smaller than is common
with us. In every case except one (a watchmaker's),.
thev were attended by females; and, indeed, almost all
the minor kinds of business seemed to be in the hands of
the beau sexe. I stepped into a barber's shop; a man
shaved me, but a woman, sitting at a little counter in
the hall, received the ten sous; and when my friend
called at the watchmaker's for his watch, which he had
left for repairs, a female took the money. So, on en-
tering the reception-room of our hotel, we were receiv-

 This remark is applicable only to the middle and active classes.
                   13 2





ed by two very well-dressed females, of easy manners,
one of them quite pretty and interesting. They seemed
to have the chief direction of affairs throughout the
house, except in the salle d manger, where male serv-
ants were in attendance. It is worth while to remark
that these female traders, hotel directors, etc., are gen-
erally women of mature years, and not inexperienced
girls, as is commonly the case with females in similar
employments among us.
  I pass over the matter of custom-house business and
passports, with a few remarks to the reader who may
design to travel. Your luggage is taken from the ship
to the custom-house, where you appear at the time ap-
pointed for its inspection, and unlock your trunks. The
officers then examine them, more or less particularly
according to your appearance and conduct (as I judge),
and then pass them over to a porter to be conveyed to
your hotel. Your passport is delivered, on landing, to
an officer, who takes it to the police-office, where you
obtain a new one, to Paris, for which you pay two
francs. You take this new passport, in which your
person is minutely described, to the proper office on
your arrival in Paris, where it is retained, and the
original one with which you entered Havre restored to
you, vised, as it is called, by the authorities of the capi-
tal. It is well to have it signed also by our minister at
Paris.  With this you can pass throughout the king-
dom, exhibiting it when called for; and you should al-
ways keep it about your person, as it must be vised at
every frontier, and perhaps oftener.
  It is well known that the French labourers eat but
little animal food, and yet they are remarkable for phys-
ical strength, of which I had a striking instance this
afternoon. I saw one of these men carry an ordinary



bale of cotton, resting on the back of his head and on
his shoulders. several yards to a wagon, ascend a lid-
der, and throw it on the top of two tiers of bales which
he had already carried up. I supposed it to weigh
four hundred pounds; a by-stander said five hundred.
  After dining at the table d'hote at six o'clock, we
walked down upon the quay, along the magnificent
stone pier which projects far out into the bay. It was
a mild, pleasant evening, and everybody was in the
street. Police-men might be seen, everywhere min-
gling with the crowds, in long, gray frockcoats, red pan-
taloons, and leather caps, distinguished by a yellow tas-
sel. Before the entrances to public buildings, and at
the barriers of the city, they are armed with sword and
musket. In this way perfect peace is preserved. But
what a contrast between the tranquillity thus obtained
vi et armis, and the quiet of one of our own smaller
towns, secured only by the moderation of our citizens
and their respect for the laws!
  Havre contains about thirty-five thousand inhabitants,
and is increasing rapidly in wealth and population. It
is the Liverpool of France. Most of the trade between
France and the United States is carried on here. Cap-
tain Stoddard observed to me that he had counted
twenty-seven American ships in the harbour at one time.
To a strangper. arriving for the first time from the New
World, its air of solidity and antiquity, and the dense-
ness of the population, contrast strongly with the Amer-
ican towns of yesterday.  The principal part of the
city is within the fortifications, which, are composed of
a double wall, with a deep fosse between; but by far
the most beautiful part is on the steep declivity of a
ridge which overlooks the town, and is adorned with
neat mansions, embowered in shrubbery, and surround-




ed with gardens, which rise in terraces one above the
other. It is called the Cote d'Ingouville.
   My passport gave as my profession Rentier, which,
done into English, may mean " a man who lives on his
money." When my hotel-bill was presented to me on
the night of the 21st of May, I was inclined to interpret it
"one on whose money others live." However, as we
had been well kept, we paid our score cheerfully. Hav-
ing made the preparations requisite for our departure
next morning, we slept three or four hours, and at five
o'clock A.M. of the 22d were gliding out of the harbour
in a steamer, on our way up the Seine to Rouen.
  Historical associations crowd upon one in this voyage
to the ancient capital of Normandy. Every height has
its legends and stories. The Romans left here the tra-
ces of their powerful dominion. It became the prey of
the piratical hosts of Scandinavia, who ravaged the
coasts of England, Holland, and France in the ninth
century. In the indolent reign of Charles the Bald, they
penetrated into the very heart of the country.  At
length, in A.D. 912, the Norwegian Rollo ascended
the Seine, and obtained from Charles the Simple a ces-
sion of part of Neustria, which he called Normandy.
Rollo married a daughter of Charles, received Christian
baptism in the Cathedral of Rouen, and became the first
Duke of Normandy. It was annexed to England when
William Duke of Normandy obtained the English throne
in 1066. This fair region was long the battle-ground
of France and England. No wonder, then, that we
were eager to behold every storied spot on the beauti-
ful Seine.
  We glided directly across the river to Honfleur, an
ancient town, formerly of great importance as a sea-
port. Its old and now ruined walls withstood the sieges




of the English in the fifteenth century; and large fleets
formerly issued from its port, now choked and deserted.
The rise of Havre completed its ruin as a seaport, and
its population of 17,000 is now reduced one half.
  Leaving Honfleur, we fairly commenced the ascent
of the river, here several miles wide. Nothing strikes
the traveller more than the sudden projections of the
banks of the river, jutting out into the stream, and leav-
ing in the recesses beautiful coves, frequently retreat-
ing into lovely valleys, that penetrate the country on both
sides. In these the grass is rich and green down to the
water's edge. You see pretty villages in many of these
valleys, and larger towns upon the water side. The de-
clivities, where susceptible of it, are generally in a high
state of cultivation, while the summits are crowned with
forest trees. The river narrows rapidly as you ascend,
and twenty-five or thirty miles from its mouth is not
more than three hundred yards wide. A pilot is neces-
sary for this distance, owing to the difficulty of the nav-
  The first well-preserved monument of the Middle
Ages which we saw was the castle of Tancarville, on
our left, at the edge of a beautiful bay extending up into
the mouth of a valley in which lies the village of the
same name. It is celebrated in feudal history for the
quarrels between its chamberlains and the neighbour-
ing lords of Harcourt. There is a tradition, too, of
the unfortunate love of Arthur and Louise, ward of Al-
froy, lord of the Ea