xt7zs756fb8v https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7zs756fb8v/data/mets.xml Perrin, William Henry, d. 1892 1884  books b92-73-27206924 English F.A. Battey, : Chicago ; Louisville : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Christian County (Ky.) History. Christian County (Ky.) Biography. Trigg County (Ky.) History. Trigg County (Ky.) Biography. Counties of Christian and Trigg, Kentucky  : historical and biographical / edited by William Henry Perrin. text Counties of Christian and Trigg, Kentucky  : historical and biographical / edited by William Henry Perrin. 1884 2002 true xt7zs756fb8v section xt7zs756fb8v 







           I LLUSTRATED.






THIS volume goes forth to our patrons the result of months of arduous,
unremitting and conscientious labor. None so well know as those who
have been associated with us the almost insurmountable difficulties to be
met with in the preparation of a work of this character. Since the inaug-
uration of the enterprise a large force has been employed in gathering
material. During this time most of the citizens of each county have been
called upon to contribute from their recollections, carefully preserved let-
ters, scraps of manuscript, printed fragments, memoranda, etc. Public
records and semi-official documents have been searched, the newspaper files
of both counties have been overhauled, and former citizens, now living out
of the counties, have been corresponded with, for the verification of the in for-
mation by a conference with many. In gathering from these numerous
sources, both for the historical and biographical departments, the conflict-
ing statements, the discrepancies and the fallible and incomplete nature of
public documents were almost appalling to our historians and biographers,
who were expected to weave therefrom with some degree of accuracy, in
panoramic review, a record of events. Members of the same families disa-
gree as to the spelling of the family name, contradict each other's statements
as to the dates of birth, of settlement in the counties, nativity, and other
matters of fact. In this entangled condition, we have given preference to
the preponderance of authority, and while we acknowledge the existence
of errors and our inability to furnish a perfect history, we claim to have
come up to the standard of our promises, and given as accurate a work as
the nature of the surroundings would permit. The facts incorporated in
the biographical sketches have in most cases been secured from the persons
whom they represent, hence the publishers disclaim any responsibility as to
their general tenor. Whatever may be the verdict of those who do not and
will not comprehend the difficulties to be met with, we feel assured that all
just and thoughtful people will appreciate our efforts, and recognize the
importance of the undertaking and the great public benefit that has been
accomplished in preserving the valuable historical matters of the counties,
and biographies of many of the citizens, that perhaps would otherwise have
passed into oblivion.  To those who have given us their support and
encouragement we acknowledge our gratitude, and can assure them that as
years go by the book will grow in value as a repository not only of pleasing
reading matter, but of treasured information of the past that will become
an enduring monument.
    OCTOBER, 1884.                             THE PUBLISHERS.





tCHAPTER I.-Geology-Why the Farmers Should Understand It-The Riches of
    Brazil-Effects of the Soil on the Animal and Human Races-The Cavernous
    Limestone of Southern Kentucky-Local Geology-Timber and Streams-Pilot
    it Ok-Climatology-The Prehistoric Period-'Mound Builders-Their Antiq-
    idty-M.ounds in Kentucky, and in Christian County-The Indians-Conjectures
    as to Their Origin-Their Attempts to Destroy the Whites-Extermination of
    the Red Man-Struggles upon the Dark and Bloody Ground-Indians in Hop-
    kinsville, etc., etc ......................................................................   19
CCHAPTER 1[.-Early Settlement-The First Pioneers-Whence They Came-Davis
    and Montgomery-Death of the Latter-Incident of Davis-Other White Set-
    tlers-James Robinson-hardships and Privations-Organization of the County
    -Act of the Legislature-Name of the County-Col. WiUliam Christian-County
    Court-Locating the Seat of Justice-The Tax Levy-A Unique Bill-Court of
    Quarter Sessions-The Circuit Court-County Officers-Abraham Stites-Court
    Houses and Jails-Census-Election Precincts-The Poor Farm, etc., etc ......... 39
CHAPTER II.-Following the Footsteps of the Pioneers-Additional Facts Con-
    cerning Them-Later Settlers-Jerald Jackson-Galbraiths and McFaddens-
    The Bradshaws-Crabtree, Morris, Cushman and Others-Joshua Cates-James
    It. NIcLaughlan-Pioneer Pastimes-The Old Mlilitia lusters-LandSpeculations
    and Troubles-Crime and Lawlessness-The Pennington Family-Alonso, and His
    Sharp Practices-The Crime that Brought Him to the Gallows-His Trial and
    Execution-The Way of the Transgressor-Regulators and Their Work-Sum-
    mary, etc., etc ...................................... ................................ 63
CIIAITER IV.-The Early Court and Bar-Ninian Edwards-Rezin Davidge-Will-
    iam B. Blackburn-Judges Wallace and Shackelford-Charles S. Morehead-
    Joseph B. Crockett-James Breathitt-Fidelio Sharp-Daniel S. Hays-Edward
    Ruasey-The Pattons-Robert Coleman-The     Henrys-NIcLarning, Grey,
    Ewing, Dozier and Others-Political History-' Wild Cat" Banks and Worthless
    Money-' Relief" and "Anti-Relief"-Exciting Times-Daniel Mayes-Young
    Ewing-Organizing Parties-Whigs and Democrats-The Republican Party-
    County Patronage-Winston J. Davie-Benjamin H. Bristow-Senators and
    Representatives-Gen. John At. Palmer-Joseph Duncan-Jefferson Davis, etc..  83
CCHAPTER V.-Internal Improvements-Trails and Paths Through the Forest-
    Legislative Enactments for Building Highways-Bridges-Some of the Rude
    Structures of the Past-Stone Bridges and Their Cost-Turnpikes-Efforts to
    Build Them in the County-The Hopkinsville and Clarksville Pike-Railroads
    -Estimated Advantages of Them-Evansville, Henderson  Nashville-Other
    Railroads-Agriculture-Its Rise and Progress-Influence of Negro Slavery-
    Grain, Mills and Stock-Tobacco the Great Staple-Facts and Figures-Agricult-
    ural Associations-List of Officers-The Fair Grounds, Buildings, etc., etc ....... 119


CHAPTER VI.-Religious History of the County-Early State of Society-The Bap-
    tists, the Pioneers of Religion in Kentucky, and in Christian County-First
    Churches and Preachers-Education-The     Present School System-State
    Patronage-Origin of Our School Fund-Early Schools and Schoolhouses-
    Statistics-Illiteraey-Compulsory  Education-The  Newspaper Press-Its
    Advantages to a Community-The First Paper in the County-Editors and
    Printers-Improvements and Newspapers-The Present Christian County Press,
    etc., etc ..........................................................................  148
CIIAPTER VII.-War History-Revolutionary Soldiers in the County-Pensions
    Allowed Them by the Government-Tories and Their Settlement Here-The
    War of 1812-Hull's Surrender-Perry's Victory, and Christian County Men in
    It-The Battle of New Orleans-Incident of the Dutch Captain-A Black Hawk
    Soldier and His Death-Our ' Discussion " with Mexico-The War Between
    the States-Christian County Assisted Both Sides-Col. Woodward -Other
    Heroes, Federal and Confederate-Col. Sypert-The Third Kentucky Cavalry-
    Col. Starling-His Assassination-Gen. Jackson, the Hero.Martyr of Perry-
    yille, etc., etc ..........................................................................   167
CHAPTER VIII.-Hopkinsville City and Precinct-The Town Site-Bartholomew
    Wood-Other Early Settlers-James Pursley, Dr. Steele, Major Long, Peter
    Cartwright, Capt. Wood, etc.-Topography of Hlopkinsville Precinct-Its Bound-
    aries and Extent-Western Lunatic Asylum-Laying Out the Town of Elizabeth
    -Name Changed to Hlopkinsville-Gen. Hopkins-Early Merchants and
    Mechanics-Gant, the latter-Twyman, the Bricklayer-Taverns-Growth and
    Development-The Post Office-City Press-Communication of Judge Lindsay-
    Manufacturing Industries-Banking-The Butter Company-General Business
    -Fine Blocks and Residences-Loan Association-Fires, etc., etc .................. WI
CHAPTER IX.-Hopkinsville-The Churches-Methodism and Ito Introduction Into
    the County-First Methodist Organization in Hopkinsville-The Baptists-
    Formation of a Baptist Church-Its Present Strength and Glory-The Presbyte-
    rians-Northern and Southern Divisions-Their Church Societies and Build-
    ings-Christian Church-Its Organization, Growth and Prosperity-Cumberland
    Plresbyterians-Episcopalians-Their New Church Building-Catholic Church-
    Colored Churches-Their Organization-Cemeteries, and Their Silent Inhabit-
    ants, etc., etc .........................................................................   217
CHAPTER X.-Ilopkinsville-Educational-Some of the Early Schools and Teachers
    -James Rumsey's Academy-Prof. Ferrell's Select School-The Hopkinsville
    Public Schools-Prof. Dietrich's Sketch of Them-The Colored Schools-South
    Kentucky College-Maj. S. R. Crumbaugh-Bethel Female College-Benevo-
    lent Institutions-Freemasonry, Odd Fellowship, etc.-The Horticultural Gar-
    dens-Drs. Montgomery and Glass, etc., etc ................................................ 243
CHAPTER XI.-Casky, Pembroke and Longview Precincts-General Description-
    Early Settlement-Some North Carolina Tories-Block-houses in the Old Davis
    Settlement-Going to Russellville to Mill-Rumsey's and Coleman's Mills-
    Other Settlers-Moralizing on the Negro's Future-Educational-Early Schools
    and Teachers-Religious-Old Bethel Church-Other Congregations-Villages
    -The Business of Pembroke-Summary-Casky Orange, etc., etc ................... 261
CHAPTER XII.-Union Schoolhouse Precinct-Description, Topography, Bounda-
    ries, etc.-Early Settlement-The Meanses, Cravenees, and Other White People
    -Incidents and Anecdotes of Pioneer Times-Mills and Early Improvements-
    Schools and Teachers-The Churches-When and by Whom Organized-Old
    Shiloh-Sketches of the Diffierent Congregations-Villages-The Colored Peo-
    ple, etc., et. .................................................... ...................... 277




CHAPTER XIII.-Lafayette and Garrettsburg Precincts-Topography and Descrip-
    tion-Settlenent by White People-Hon. James A. McKenzie's Sketch of La-
    fayette-Churches-McKenzie's Chapel or 'Kirk "-Other Church Organiza-
    tions -The Villages of G-rrettshurg and Lafayette -Anecdotes, Accidents,
    Incidents, etc., etc ......................................................................   289
CHAPTER XIV.-Mount Vernon, Wilson, Fruit Hill and Stewart Precincts-Early
   Settlers in Mount Vernon-Topography of Northeast Christian-Settlements in
   Fruit Hill-The Robinsons-Wilson Precinct Pioneers-The Settling of Stewart
   -Early Trials and Tribulations-Churches-Their Good Works in this Part of
   Christian County-The Hardshells and Universalists-Educational Facilities-
   Coal, etc.,  etc       ......................................................................  299
CHAPTER XV.-Bainbridge, Hamby and Scates' Mill Precincts-Description and
    Topography-Coal-Early Settlement-The Pioneers of Bainbridge-Some
    Incidents-First Comers to Hamby and Scates' Mill-The "1 Butt-cut " of Demoo-
    racy-How Clark Killed the Bear-Churches and Schools-Pioneer Life and
    Froatier Weddings-The Village of Crofton-Its Growth, etc., etc ................... 309

CHAPTER I.-Introductory-Topography and Geology-Iron Ore-The Iron Indus-
    try-Furnaces Erected in Trigg County-Richness of the Mineral Deposits-
    Streams and their Value as Water Highways-Soils and Productions-Tobacco
    and Other Crops-Farming Highly Reputable-Mounds-The Prehistoric Peo-
    ple-Settlement of the Whites-Who They Were and Where They Came From-
    The Settlement at Cerulean Springs-Between the Rivers Settled-On Dyer's
    Creek-Other Settlements in the County-How the People Lived in the Pioneer
    Days-Their Family Supplies-Mills, Meal and Flour--Game and Hunting-
    Fishing,  etc.,  etc ......................................................................   5
CHAPTER II.-Organization of the County-Act of the Legislature for its Formation
   -Justices of the Peace for the New County-The First Officers-Name of the
   County-Col. Stephen Trigg-Location of the Seat of Justice-Report of the
   Commissioners-Cadiz-County Court-The First Civil Divisions-Tavern Rates
   -Orders for Mills and Roads-The First Circuit Court-Early Judiciary and
   Bar-The Grand Jury-Extracts from the Quaint Old Records-Laying Out the
   County Seat-First Trustees-Court Proceedings-Hon. Linn Boyd-Vote on
   Re-location of County Seat-Changes of Boundary-Marriage Licenses-The
   Census-Statistics-County Officers, etc., etc .............. ................................. 17
CHAPTER III.-Material Prosperity of the County-Erection of Public'Buildings-
   The First Court House-Other Temples of Justice-Jails-Attorneys, Past and
   Present-Matthew Mayes-Judge Bradley-Political History-How the County
   Has Voted From Its Organization to the Present Time-Aspirants Who Were
   Elected and Defeated-Roads and Highways-Turnpikes-Some that Have Been
   Built and Some That Will Not Be-Railroad History, Which is Short and Sweet
   -Sum m ary, etc.,  etc ......................................................................   35
CHAPTER IV.-Religious-Synopsis of the Church History of Trigg County-Some
    of the Pioneer Preachers of Southern Kentucky-Their Peculiar Characteristics
    -Dudley Williams-Reuben Ross and Others-Number of Churches in the
    County-Schools-Past and Present Institutions of Learning-Teachers-Statis-
    tics-The Press-Canton Observer-Yeoman-Cadix Organ-The Telephone and
    Old Guard-Standing Upon a Solid Foundation-Crime and Lawlessness-Con-
    victions and Executions-Obey the Laws-Trigg County Medical Society, etc.. 53




CHAPTER V.-War History-The Revolutionary Patriots-ome Who Settled in
    Trigg County-Our Second Misunderstanding With England-Battle of New
    Orleans-War With Mexico-Trigg County's Part in It-The Late Civil War-
    Company G, of the Fourth Infantry-A Sketch of Their Service-The Handful
    Who Survived the War-Companies B and D, of the Eighth-Their Exploits and
    Achievements-Company B, of the Second Cavalry-Company D, of the Satue
    Regiment--The Federal Side-It is Rather Brief-The Forty-eighth-Other Vol-
    unteers-Burning the Cadiz Court House-Murder of a Negro Soldier-A Few
    Incidents-Peace, etc., etc ....................................................................... oil
CHAPTER VI.-Cadiz Precinet-Descriptive and Topographical-The First Settlers
    -Wadlington and the ludians-Isaac McCullom-Other Early Settlers-A Fam-
    ily Drowned-Mhills-Distilleries-Organization of Churches-, Old Wolf len'"
    -Mount Pleasant Church-Building of Church Edifices-Tlown of Cadiz-
    Laid Out as the Seat of Justice-Report of the Commissioners-Sonie of the First
    Inhabitant, and Business Men of Cadil--Early Boards of Trustees-Pioneer
    Merchants-liotels-Professional Men-Tobacco Interest--Business HIouses-
    Religious History-Methodists, Disciples, Baptists, etc.-Colored Churches--
    Schools-Free Masonry-K. of H., Chosen Friend,, etc. etc ........................... 86
CHAPTER VII.-Canton and Linton Precincts-Topography of Canton-Its Agri-
    cultural Resources-Early Settlement-Abraham  Boyd-Settleuent on Donald-
    son Creek-The Wilson Family-Other Pioneers-Mills and Distilleries-Births,
    Deaths and Marriages-Religious, etc.-Town of Canton-Its Birth as a Town
    -Growth and Development-The Methodists and Baptists-Secret Societies-
    Physical Features of Linton Precinct-Its Early Occcupatiou by White People-
    Sketch of its Settlers-Masonic-Church History, etc., etc ............................ls 1
CHAPTER VIII.-Cerulean Springs and Wallonia Precincts-Description and Topog-
    raphy of Cerulean Springs-Timber-Agriculture, etc.-The First Settlers--
    Incidents of the Pioneer Days-Church History-The Village of Cerulean
    Springs-Its Growth, etc-Medicinal Water of the Springs-Topography of
    Wallonia-Its Settlement by White People-Maj. Wall-Other Pioneers-NMills
    and Distilleries-Village of Wallonia-Its Churches, Schools, Lodtges. etc .......... 121
CHAPTER IX.-Caledonia and Montgomery Precincts-P'hysical Fe.titres-Bouti-
    daries, etc.-Early Settlers-M ills-Edutcatioual and Religious-('aledonia Vil-
    lage-Description and Topography of Montgomery Precinct-Its Agricultural
    Resources-The First Pioneers-Early Industries and Improvements-Mont
    gomery Village-Churches, Societies, etc .........................III.................... ..... 1:'
CIIAPTER X.-Roaring Springs I'recinct-Topograpbical and Physical Featitres-
    Caves and Caverns-Coming of the lioneers-Their Settlements-Early Itduts-
    tries and Improvements-Educational Facilities-Churches-Sketches of the
    Different Organizations-Village of Roaring Springs-Growth, Development,
    etc., etc ..................................................................... ......................... 141
CHAPTER Xl.-Rock Castle and Bethesda Precincts-General Description, Bound-
    aries and Topography-Settletlent-A Prolific Family-Other Pioneers-Fron-
    tier Hardships-Rock Castle Village-Hurricane Baptist Church-Bethesda
    Methodist Church, etc., etc ..................................................................... 149
CHAPTER XII.-Between the Rivers-A District that Comprises Laura Furnace,
    Golden Pond and Ferguson Springs Precincts-Description of the Land-Its
    Occupation by White People-Some of the Peculiarities of the Pioneers-Where
    They Located-A Band of Freebooters-Religious History-Sketches of the
    Numerous Churches-Village if Golden P'ond, etc., etc ............................. ... 155
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES .......................................................................  177




        PART I.


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                          CHAPTER I.

TO the trained eye of the geologist, the soil and its underlying rocks
     forecast unerringly the character of the people who will in coming
time occupy it. This law is so plain and fixed, it has become a maxim
in geology that a new country may have its outlines of history written
when looked upon for the first time. The geological structure of a coun-
try fixes the pursuits of its inhabitants, and shapes the genius of its civ-
ilization. It induces phases of life and modes of thought, which give to
different communities and States characters as various as the diverse
rocks that rest beneath them. In like manner may it be shown that our
moral and intellectual qualities depend on material conditions. Where
the soil and subjacent rocks are profuse in the bestowal of wealth, man is
indolent and effeminate; where effort is required to live, he becomes en-
lightened and virtuous. A continuously mild climate throughout the
year, and an abundance of food springing spontaneously from the earth,
has always in the world's history held back civilization, and produced a
listless and inferior people. An able writer upon this subject says: " The
tropics and the arctics-the one oppressed with the profusion of nature's
bounties that appal mankind and produce enervation, is the antipodes
and yoke-fellow of the bleak north and its long winter nights and storms
and desolation. The richest country in the world in soil, perhaps, is
Brazil, both in vegetable and animal life. So profusely are nature's
bounties here spread, so immense the forests, so dense the undergrowth,



all decked with the rarest flowers of sweetest perfume, they so teem with
animal life, from the swarming parasite up to the striped tiger, the yel-
low lion, and snakes spotted with deadly beauty, and the woods vocal
with the myriad notes of feathered songsters, with the bird of paradise
perched like a crowning jewel upon the very tops of the majestic trees,
and yet this wonderful country, capable of supporting, if only it could be
subjugated to the domination of man, ten times all people that now inhabit
the globe, is an unexplored waste, defying the puny arm of man to subju-
gate or even penetrate to the heart of its forbidden secrets. For hun-
dreds of years civilized man has sailed in his ships along its shores, and
in rapture beheld its natural wealth and profuse beauties, and colonies and
nations and peoples have determined to reap its treasures and unlock its
inexhaustible stores. How futile are these efforts of man, how feeble the
few scattering habitations has he been enabled to hold upon the outer
confines of all this great country! Brazil will, in all probability, remain
as it is forever, and it is well that it is so. For, if by some powerful
wand all that country could be conquered, and 50,000,000 of the same
kind of people placed upon its surface that now constitutes this nation,
with all our present advantages of civilization, it is highly probable that
in less than 200 years they would lapse into the meanest type of ignorant
barbarians, and degenerate to that extent that in time they would become
extinct. Thus an over-abundance of nature's bounties, in food, dress and
climate, brings its calamities upon man more swiftly than do the rigid
severities of the arctics of Northern Greenland or Siberia."
   From the above weighty extract, the two subjects of supreme import-
ance in all countries are those of soil and climate. The corner-stone upon
which all of life rests is the farmer. Who, then, should be so versed
as he in the knowledge of the soil  What other information can be so
valuable to him as the mastery of the science of geology, or at least that
much of it as applies to the part of the earth where he casts his fortunes
and cultivates the soil  He grows to be an old man, and he will tell you
that he has learned to be a good farmer only by a long life of laborious
experiments.  Should he be told that these experiments had made him a
scientific farmer, he would look with unbounded contempt upon the sup-
posed effort to poke ridicule at him  He has taught himself to regard the
word " science " as the property only of book-worms.  He does not real-
ize that every step in farming is a purely scientific operation, because
science is made by experiments and investigations.
   An old farmer may examine a soil, and tell you it is adapted to wheat
or corn or tobacco, that it is warm or cold and heavy, or a few other facts
that his long experiments have taught him, and to that extent he is a
scientific farmer.  He will tell you that his knowledge has cost him much




labor, and many sore disappointments. But how much more of money
value would it have proved to him if in his youth he had studied the geo-
logical history, which would have told him all about the land he was to
cultivate. We talk of educating the farmer, and ordinarily this means to
send the boys to college, to acquire what is termed a classical education,
and they come back, perhaps, as graduates, as incapable of telling the geo-
logical story of their father's farms as is the veriest boor who can neither
read nor write.  It would have been of far more practical value to them
had they never looked into the classics, and instead had taken a few prac-
tical lessons in the local geology, that would have told them the simple
story of the soil around them, and enabled them to comprehend how it
was formed, its different qualities, and from whence it came, and its con-
stituent elements.  Parents often spend much money in the education of
their children, and from this they build great hopes upon their future-
hopes that are often blasted, not through the fault always of the child,
but through the error of the parents in not being able to know in what
real, practical education consists. Any ordinarily bright child between
the years of twelve and twenty could be taught the invaluable lessons of
practical wisdom in a few weeks' rambling over the country and examin-
ing the banks of streams and the exposures of the earth's surface along
the highways. A few weeks of such education would be more valuable
than years now worse than wasted in the getting of an education from the
wretched text-books and the ding-dong repetition of the schoolroom. How
eagerly the young mind seizes upon such real education! How easy to show
children (and such education they will never forget) that the civilization
of States or nations is but the reflection of physical conditions, and that
it is of importance that these subjects should be understood by all people,
and that they should also understand the geological history of their
   Effects of the Soil, etc.-The permanent effects of the soil on the peo-
ple and on animals are as strong and certain as upon the vegetation that
springs from its depths. As we have already stated, where the soil and
subjacent rocks are profuse in the bestowal of wealth, and the air is
deprived of that invigorating tonic that comes of the winters of the tem-
perate climates, man is indolent and effeminate; that where effort is required
to live, he becomes enlightened and virtuous; but, when on the sands of
the desert, or in the jungles of Africa, or Brazil, or Greenland's icy
mountains, where he is unable to procure the necessities or comforts of
life, he lives a savage. It is told that at one time Prof. Agassiz was
appealed to by some horse-breeders of New England, in reference to
developing a certain strain of horses.  lie told them it was not a question
of equestrianism, but one of rocks. To the most of men this reply would have



been almost meaningless, yet it was full of wisdom. It signified that certain
rock formations that underlie the soil would insure a certain growth of
grasses and water, and the secret of the perfect horse lay here. Mr. Ben
Bruce, the editor of The Live Stock Record at Lexington, Ky., and one of
the ablest writers of the age upon blooded horses, says: " The influence
of climate on the animal and vegetable kingdom has not escaped the notice
of philosophers, and many learned treatises have been written to show the
operations of this cause. Another cause not less powerful in its effects on
men, animals and plants, has been co-operating with climate to modify all
living things, which certainly has not attracted proper attention-the
geological formations of the different portions of the earth. The attention
of geologists and natural philosophers has been confined to the dead and
buried, to the age of the earth, to mining, the formation of coal beds, and
the nature of soils in their relations to production. We know of no one
who has written in regard to the effects that are produced by geological
formations on living things.          There is a remarkable differ-
ence observable in horses raised from different breeds and on different soils.
The horses bred, for instance, in Pennsylvania, differ as much from the
Kentucky thoroughbred horse, as the oak or hickory of the same species in
those States. If you take horses or cattle from Kentucky to Pennsylvania
and the Eastern States, their posterity begins to undergo a change in the
first generation; and in the second it is still greater; and in the tenth or
twelfth remove, they are not the same breed of animals. This change is
produced by difference in climate and food. The latitude is nearly the
same, and the great change must be caused by difference in soil, and
consequently in the vegetation. Animal formation is modified by the
vegetable formations of which it is the result, and the vegetable formations
are modified by the elements of the soil from which they derive their
nourishment. Not only the forms of animals, but their physical systems,
their secretions and excretions, are affected by the difference of geological
formations from which they derive, through its vegetation, the elements of
their organization."
   The importance of this subject, and our desire to impress its value
upon the rising generation, must be our excuse for the space we devote to
it in this work. A painful realization of the defects in the education of
our young farmers and of their great losses, disappointments and even dis-
asters in their pursuit of tilling the soil, that come of this neglect in their
early education and training, prompts this forcing of a subject upon our
readers, which at first glance they may consider dry or uninteresting.
The most important subject to all mankind at this time is how to get for
the young people the best education; how to fit our youths for the life
struggle that is before them. For 2,000 years, the schools have believed




that Latin and Greek were the highest type of information and knowledge,
and next to these dead languages were metaphysical mathematics and
theories of so-called philosophy.  It is time these long drawn out mistakes
were rectified, and the truths that are revealed in the investigation-the
experimental facts of the natural laws that govern us-be made known
and taught to those who will soon bear along the world's highway its
splendid civilization.  Here and there are to be found an intelligent
machinist, or a farmer, who understand the simple scientific principles
that govern their work or occupation. Their knowledge is power. In
every turn of life they stand upon the vantage ground, and their lives are
successful in the broad sense of the term. They understand the soil they
till, or the implements of industry they are called upon to make or use.
They know where ignorance guesses, doubts and fears, and by not know-
ing, so often fails and falls by the wayside. The farmer will take his
place among the earth's noblest and best, only when he forces his way
there, by the superior intelligence, culture and elegance with which his
mode of life is capable of surrounding itself. Understand your soil, your
climate, and master the art of care and cultivation of those things for which
it is best adapted, and at once your business will take rank with the most
exalted of the professions.
    The Cavernous Limestone.-Christian County lies in what is termed,
geologically, the "Fifth Formation," and is underlaid mostly by the
cavernous limestone. Prof. Peter, Chemist to the State Geological Survey,
says: This formation is made up of alternating layers of white, gray,
reddish, buff, and sometimes dark-gray colored rocks, varying in quality
from the most argillaceous claystone to the purest limestone. Limestone
predominates, however, which, in the southern part of the State, contains
numerous caves, of which the celebrated Mammoth Cave, of Edmonson
County, is one, and causing many "sinks," in which the drainage water
of the county sinks to form underground streams. Clear and copious
springs mark the junction of this limestone with the underlying knobstone;
and its lower strata contain in many places the dark, flinty pebbles which
furnished the material for the arrow heads, etc., of the aborigines.