xt7zs756g62n https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7zs756g62n/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1900 journals kaes_bulletins_087 English Lexington, Ky. : The Station, 1885- Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin n.87. text Bulletin n.87. 1900 2014 true xt7zs756g62n section xt7zs756g62n   ’ E  E
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T State Callcgc at Kentucky.
BULLETIN Na. 87. ‘
l. Kentucky Forage Plants—Tl·)e Grasses.  
2. Analyses 0fS0me Kentucky Grasses.  
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  Agricultural Expmment Station. l
esi A
  HART BOSXVELL, Chairman, Lexington, Ky.
it J. T. GATHRIGHT, Louisville, Ky.
i THOS. TODD, Shelbyville, Ky.
  ]. K. PATTERSON, President of the College.
, T M. A. SCOVELL, Director, Secretary. `
A M. A. SCOVELL, Director.
· A. M. PETER, l _
; Y Chemists.
g H. E. ct mrs, I
  H. GARMAN, Entomologist and Botanist.
Q   ·C. \V. MATHEWS, Horticulturist.
i..gi.··i ]. N. HARPER, Agriculturist, ·
V il ED\VARD RHORER, Secretary to Director.
\V. H. SCHERFFIUS, l A t Cl _ I
Wl A. BEATTY,   . ss renns s.
Address of the Statiou—LEXINGTON, KY.
The Bulletins of the Station will be mailed free to any citizen of
Kentucky who sends his name and address to the Station for that
Correspondents will please notify the Director of changes i11 their
post·oftice address, or of any failure to receive the Bulletins.
Arlorucss 1
Iirmrucrry Ac.R1cr·r:rt·RAr. Ex1~ERm1~;N·r Srxrrow,
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( BULLET//V /\/O. 87.
I. Kentucky Forage Plants —Tbe Grasses. 1
The State produces her fair proportion of the forage pro-
duct of the United States. She is just withi11 the wl1eat belt,
and while this is not her characteristic crop, some regions of
the State are largely occupied with wheat growing a11d pro-
duce a winter wl1eat of very good quality. Oats do 11ot thrive ,
as generally here as in some other states, yet tl1e crop is not a
small o11e (1,725,596 bushels in 1898), and at times the qual-
ity is first-class. Barley and rye do well in the State. Most
of our soils produce excellent corn, which is the leading for- _
age crop. It is grown in every O1l€ of the 119 counties, the
lowest yield, in 1898, according to our State Commissioner of  
Agriculture, bei11g 52,3,80 bushels, while five counties pro- ·‘
duced more than a million bushels each. Sorghum grows well g `
everywhere, a11d is employed both for green forage and for 4
making syrup. Timothy, clover and orchard grass are exten- ft
pf sively grown for meadow, 561,696 tons of hay, mostly of these  
vt grasses, being produced by Kentucky in 1898, and in addition _
142,875 bushels of grass and clover seeds were harvested.
r The fa111e of Kentucky does not rest on any of these prod-
ucts especially. It is her blue-grass pastures that give her
sta11di11g in the world, a11d their charm that gives the State its
peculiar hold on the affections of those l)OI‘l1 and reared upon
· her soil. The phrase i°I)O\V11lll Old Kentucky" conveys to
the wandering Kentuckian a picture in which are sunny slopes l
of soft green grass ; grazing ho-rses and cattle, sleek and beau- 2

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 _` 56 Bulletin N0. 87. .
  tiful beyond the belief of those who have not seen them;
  together with memories of humming bee, and piping lark, and S
·   smell of clover and locust blossoms. Blue-grass Kentucky is ' [T
fl a delightful bit of the world in May and june; and all that
    her children say and believe of her, and more, is then true.
l   And it is largely the result of the profusion with which the
  little plant, blue-grass, grows in her limestone soil. If it grew
  everywhere in the State as it grows here about Lexington we
  should have little occasion to discuss forage plants in these
  bulletins. But Blue-grass Kentucky includes only about one-
Xl fifth of the area of the State, and outside this section we have
·` yet much to hope and labor for in the matter of forage for.
t _ " stock.
‘   Years ago, when the old Transylvania University was at
p the zenith of its fame and influence, a man, dark of feature
  and with something in expression and carriage that marked
  him a foreigner, might often have been encountered trudging
; , along country roads about Lexington or threading his way
  I through forests and along streams searching for plants and
·`;i shells and fossils. Breaking off a fragment from a rocky
"`“‘ i ledge here, turning over a stone yonder, to expose the lurk-
ing salamander or lizard, he went his way absorbed in study
j of the nature about him, unmindful of self, unmindful of
V scoffing neighbor and wondering countrv folk, bent solely on
i learning the truth and proclaiming it. This was the natural- ·
ist Rafinesque, at one time Professor of Botany and Natural
History at the University, a man whose great misfortune it
was to have been half a century ahead of his associates, and
who suffered for it later by dying unattended and in poverty
in a garret in Philadelphia. But Raiinesque is still an influ-
ence inthe world, and the scoffer who gorged himself while
the naturalist toiled, and lolled in his chair and smiled at the `
thought of his importance, has disappeared and left no trace
—-the natural end of self-sufficiency in all times. _
_ These and similar reflections have been suggested to me ·
from time to time as I have encountered traces of this man
while studying the zoology and botany of Kentucky. For he

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i g A"enl2¢c/ey Forage PZa7zfs—— T he Grasses. 57 i
_ is remembered very well by people yet living in this vicin-  
i__ ity. There is probably not a nook or corner of interest ` C Y
l . I within ten miles of Lexington which he did not visit, always, i
I am told, traveling afoot and carrying a pack for rocks and »___V
plants at his back. His acquaintance with Kentucky plants   i l
seems to have been particularly good, and the natural botan- i i
ical regions* into which he divided the State are based upon j
real knowledge, which could only have been acquired by -
arduous out of door work such as he is known to have done.
The regions he proposed are the following, and are presented
in tl1is connection because of theirbearing on the distribution
of forage in Ke11tucky.
" 1. The Fluviatile or Rivcr Region, characterized by such
species as the sycamore, catalpa and cottonwood.
2. The Central or Limestone Region, characterized by the
buckeye (./Esmlzzs glabra), pennyroyal Qlsaufhus), boneset
(E2¢pa/0r1'z¢m), etc. Of this region Rafinesque says it is
poor in species. Until reading his statement I had been accus-
tomed to regard this relative scarcity of species as the result `
of close cultivation and grazing, but in his time doubtless there
was much virgin land that showed what the flora had been
before the advent of the white man.
3. The Hilly Regio11—a series of knobs that starts at the ‘
Ohio river in Lewis and Mason counties, encircles the Central
Region, reaching the river again in jeiferson county near Lou-   -
isville. This is still one of the best collecting grounds in the W ._
I State, and is characterized by the small l1ill iris (Ir/s cris/az‘a),  
by the red cedar, and by the pines.
4. The Barren Region—The open section of the western  
and southern parts of Kentucky, with a flora like that of the  
northern prairies, including such genera as Rudbeckia, Sil- ‘
phium and Ruellia.
_ A consideration of the whole flora of Kentucky would per-
haps require some modification of the boundaries of Rafines-
que’s regions, but as laid down by him they serve in a general
= way to indicate characteristic forage regions of the State.
*`* See tl1e Western Review and Literary Magazine, published at Lex- i
ington by \V. G, Hunt in 1819-220, Vol. I, p. 97. '

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V  58 Bullefin N0. 87;
  The hill region Iwould extend to include the mountains of _
  Eastern Kentucky. Some trace of it may be detected to the  
~ i  westward of the central region even in Edmonson, Grayson ‘*·
  and Hardin counties, indicated by the presence there of the
.     great-leaved magnolia (fllagvzolzkz macrup/gv//a), the umbrella
I   tree (/ll. frzpcfala), holly (//cx opaaz), and mountain laurel
  {](a!mz`a /aZg'0Zz`a). At present it is characterized by its defi-
  ciency in cultivated forage, and marked by the abundance of
  forest trees and native leguminons plants.
  \Vhile the central region produces most of the commonly
  cultivated forage crops, its blue-grass is what gives it distinc-
~ tion at the present time. [
" `r The fluviatile region, of course, follows the rivers. It is
  marked by extensive bottom-land corn fields. The establish-
" ment of permanent meadow and pasture is 1nade difficult over
V i much of it by spring overflows.
_ _ The name barren region does not imply sterile soil, but was
  applied in early days to a portion of the State that was largely
  I free from forest growth. As here used it includes our best wheat
{ f 4 and corn counties, Christian county producing more of both
  I of these crops than any other county in Kentucky. It is
  ( characterized, besides, by orchard grass and red-top meadows.
Some portions of it are adapted to southern forage crops, such
_ as Bermuda grass, which seems to be worthy of more extended
' trial than it has yet been given. I have extended this region to
, I include all of the State lying west of the Tennessee river,
n i which seems not to have been visited by Rafinesque, although
the bottom lands, especially, show so many species character-
istic of the far South, that it might well form a separate botan-
ical division. I need only refer to the presence of Mississippi
hackberry ( Cc/[is 7}lZ-SSli55I77/)I4c’}lS!.5T), the pecan (H2`c0rz`a _/pecan),
the red buckeye (llfscu/us j>a1·1'a)`, bald cypress (7`zz:c0dz`1¢m
(l1I·.S`[l·[hZ¢}ll), the red iris (Iris fulzia) and the water locust _
(Gia/z`fsrhz`a zzzozzasjmwmz), in illustration.
_ Our forage plants may for convenience be separated into .
three groups : (1) The grasses (Gramineae), including blue-
grass, crab-grass, timothy, ]ohnson grass, wheat, corn, rice

 A Ifevzfzuky Forage P[d72i5—T/I6 Grasses. 59 ·  
g and a large number of other species ; (2) the clovers (Legu-  
(__ minosae) and their allies, such as alfalfa, cow peas, soy beans, `  
i M and the like; (3) a small number of plants of other families, l
of value for some kinds of stock, or adapted to special situa— A g
tions, such as dwarf essex rape and the Australian salt bush. { i
In this bulletin only the true grasses, native and introduced, i i
are included, the observations both in the text and in the -,
tables following coming largely from grasses grown in plots on
the Experiment Farm. These plots have numbered about
thirty-two during the past eight years, and have given us a
means of estimating the value of the species for this region,
which could not have been obtained in any other way. But it
must be added that the soil on which the plots were situated
is rather poor, on which account I do not feel disposed to pass ‘
final judgment on some of tl1e species. New plots on better
soil have already been started, and will serve to correct and
extend the observations now presented.
The clovers and other forage plants, of which we have had
about twenty plots growing on the Farm for some years, will ‘
be treated in a bulletin to be printed later. It is hoped that
it will be possible to give native species special attention in a
final account of Kentucky forage, and with this in view I take
advantage of the opportunity to request correspondents of the *
Station to call our attention, as occasion may arise in the
future, to any native grass or other forage plant of which stock 9,,.
appear to be specially fond, sending us at the same time if
possible specimens of the plant i11 {lower. \Vherever blue- .·
grass, timothy and red clover grow well the question of forage
for stock is in a way solved. But in sections of both eastern  
and western Kentucky they do not thrive, and, whatever the =
cause, the fact must be faced. Some of our native grasses and ·
clovers may on trial prove adapted to cultivation in these sec-
_. tions. The hairy bush-clover (Lctg/Jczioza hfrfa) has already been
pointed out to me by Col. jay H. Northup, of Louisa. as rel-
ished by stock and otherwise adapted for forage in the moun-
- tains. A careful study of this and related genera would per-
haps reveal others even more promising. \Vhat is wanted for ’
the rather sterile mountain sections is a perennial that will I
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5   60 Bullelzbz N0. 87.
  stand our uneven winters and our very hot summer sun. It
  is not unreasonable to hope to find among the native species
`   growing in this region plants that after cultivation and im- · T
  provement will meet these requirements as well or better than ·
s --4i_   any to be found in foreign countries.
  Grasses may be known by their jointed stems, bearing
li; very small flowers which are generally more or less green in
  color, and either form a loose head or panicle (as in blue-
  grass) or else are closely placed so as to produce a cylindrical
  spike or spike·like panicle, as in timothy. The flowers are
Q, often complete, that is, with both stamens and ovary in one
yr flower, but occasionally the staminate flowers are separate
  from the pistillate and on a separate part of the panicle, as in
‘ ~ wild rice, or even on a different part of the plant, as is true
of Indian corn (maize). As the flowers are not brightly col-
  ` 0red and do not produce nectar, they are not much visited by
Q insects, the wind being tl1e important agent in carrying pollen
  ` from one flower to another. Besides well-known plants
id,./li T employed for pasturage and hay, the family includes others
if   that provide the most valuable vegetable food of man, so that
  "' it can be said that the grasses furnish us with both meat and
bread. In corn, wheat, oats, rye, barley, rice, bluegrass and
[ timothy we have a group that has no equal in its importance
· to us elsewhere in the vegetable kingdom.
‘ ' Agrapyrau crisfalzwz (Crested wheatgrass). This grass,
which is about 50 inches high, produces a short spike-like
head resembling that of wheat. It has been observed but
once, ]uly 5, 1895, when a specimen was collected among
grass plots on the Experiment Farm. No doubt it was intro-
duced among grass seeds bought of an eastern seedsman. It
is a native of Northern Asia, and is reported to have been -
observed in Scotland.
Agraslfs a/ba (Red-top). \\'here the soil holds water well
red-top thrives in Kentucky and has a value for meadow. -
It is not commonly grown in the limestone soils of Eastern
Kentucky, but may be seen here growing spontaneously along
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Krnfzzrty Forage P/ants- T be Grasses. 61 g
_ water courses. In porous soils and on high ground it suffers l
" in August and September from drought. On the Experiment · L
, T Farm at Lexington, on rather poor soil for this region, it ;
- reaches a height of two feet about june 20, when its panicle
‘ is fully expanded. On wet ground along ponds and streams  
it has been noted at times as about three feet in height. The i ~
head or panicle is contracted and green at first, but expands ,
and assumes the characteristic purple (not red) color later. i V
When fully expanded, heads measure from six to eight inches
long and are about three inches in expanse. The blades are
rather short and flat, those of the stem (culm`) measuring
from about three to five inches long and one-fourth inch in
greatest width. A plot started in the spring of 1893 and left
to itself very largely after the first season, lasted only until
1896, when but few tufts remained, the rest of the ground
having been occupied by weeds. The grass of this plot be-
came perfectly brown in winter, and would not then have fur-
nished any grazing. In the latter part of March the green
blades began to appear and bythe last of April a very nice , .
growth six inches high was generally visible, when it would
have furnished very good grazing. In the latter part of july
the growth stopped, and the grass remained stationery until
September, when green blades began to appear and during .
October the plot was again in a condition to furnish some
grazing. The Hrst cold weather, however, turned all parts of  
the plants above ground brown. The portion of the State  
beginning with jefferson and Nelson counties and extending  
westward to the Tennessee River seems to be better adapted to
  red-top than eastern Kentucky, and I have seen some very ,l
“ good crops of hay cut from Helds in that region.  
I It is a very nutritious grass, ranking in this regard with .
` timothy and blue-grass, but is said not to be relished by stock
t in some localities.
I ” It has been observed from time to time growing spontane-
ously at the following places; Crab Orchard, junction City,
_1 Brooklyn Bridge, Lexington, Clay’s Ferry, Maysville, Dick-
-_ - ey’s Mills. •
; -—l_g·r0sz'z`s ravziua (Rhode Island bent-grass,). This grass, '
» i

  ;4 62 Bu!/c1‘iu N0. 87. ’ _ g
  i planted side by side with red-top, has proved a more hardy
  and durable species. It soon forms a close-knit turf from _
I i  which during most of the season cattle could get some graz- i l
  ing. But its blades are short and rather slight, and hence the
. ..4;   amount of forage produced by it is relatively small. Because
A   of the close turf formed it stands drought on dry ground bet-
  ter than red—top, though both grasses do best in damp soil.
  It can only prove of value for grazing. Produces rather small
  panicles, with a general resemblance to those of red-top, in
  late june, and then averages about twenty inches in_height.
` .»1gr0s!z`s 0/am. A native grass observed in Harlan and Bell
, ~. counties by T. H. Kearney in 1893,. A late-blooming species
g ` which, according to Scribner, reaches a height of about two
ii A feet.
/1g`l’05[l·.S` 0//z`0/fiazm. A very slender, insignificant native grass
, about I2 inches high. Stems thread-like. Blades very short.
  Not worth considering as forage. Observed at Nortonville,
  T May I2, 1898; at Central City May 15, 1899; and at Auburn
{   _ May 17, 1898.
tf?-ii Agro;/is h_yr·ma!z`s (Rough hair-grass). A widely distributed
  A ¤ native species, of slight habit such that it is not calculated for
forage. Panicle very long with slender threacl-like branches. ‘
  A specimen in the Station collection measures twenty inches
i in height. Localities : junction City, june 19, 1892 ; Norton-
j ville, August 8, 1892 ; Aden Springs, October 22, 1892 ; Cave
City, May 19, 1898; Central City, May 15, 1899; Prentiss,
Ohio C0., May 1:, 19oo (from Mr. E. G. Austin).
.—1_g’r0sI1`s mlcrzmrdzlz. Grows in the mountains of Southeast-
ern Kentucky, where it was collected by Kearney. The orig-
inal description is in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club,
Vol. 20, p. 476. .
Agroslis jbcrwuzmzs (Thin-grass). A slender grass inclined
to be prostrate. Panicle scant, the branches very slender.
g Attains a height of twenty inches or more, but is so very A
slight as not to promise well for cultivation. Localities:
Clay’s Ferry, August 22, 1893; Hawesville, August 16, 1898.
\`___... _ 7 . -. , - - · ·· ..-···  a vi.  .` ,·@.;   »

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I   /(wzfzzc/cy Forage R/anls— The Grasses. 63‘ 'I 
Y Agroslzs sta/anyera (Creeping red·top). Reganrded as a  
if variety of red·top, but differs in producing a dense turf and in. .  
i I being more persistent in some situations as a consequence. It  
is not so well adapted for meadow as for pasture. 7 V
A/opccurus czg·rcsiz`s (Slender foxtail). Of European origin.   ,
The seeds are sometimes offered for sale by American seeds-
men. In general the plant resembles timothy, having flat Y
blades sometimes one-fourth inch in diameter and 3 inches or
more long, with at iiowering time a cylindrical head 3 to 4
inches long and three-sixteenths inch in diameter. In a plot on
the Experiment Earm the heads appeared from May I2 to
May 2I, and the grass then averaged about two feet in height.
In England it is known as black grass and is said to have the
character of a weed in some soils. It showed but poor staying
qualities on the Farm and when left to itself soon disappeared.
A/0pccz¢r2¢sgcrzim/a/zzs ( Marsh foxtail). A low growing grass
IO inches or less in height, observed growing in tufts in wet
places at Clinton, Ky., May 12, 1898. The heads are fro111 ·
one to one and a half inch long with a diameter of rather less
than three-sixteenths inch. The plant is too slight to be of
value on the farm. It l1€lS probably been introduced from
· A Europe with seeds of other plants. ‘
.*1/0j>¢v¢1zr1¢spz·:zfe1zsz's (Meadow foxtail). This is a handsome EP
introduced species that we have grown for some years on the ‘
Experiment Farm, where at times it has presented a very fine   n
appearance. The head resembles that of timothy, but is
shorter, ranging from about 2 to 2}§ inches in height and hav- é
ing a diameter of fj inch, or a trifle more. The seeds at the tip ' 1
ripen and fall first, the central axis becoming gradually bare _
fron1 the tip. It grows in large tufts, with numerous, rather
_ large, green blades at the base, the stems with heads 1neasur—
ing from 2 ft. 5 inches to 3 ft. 3 inches high. The blades
themselves are often S to 9 inches long and   inch in diame-
2 ter. Growth starts very early in spring, often as early as
March 6, and by the last of March the dense tufts of blades
would make excellent grazing. It is ready to cut by the first  

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_  64 Bulletin N0. 87, A
  of May and would doubtless make a moderate yield of good
  n hay, though it strikes me as better adapted to past-
. i  ure. While it is one of the most attractive species we have I ` :
  grown, it lacks the spreading habit that goes to make our best
»     pasture and meadow grasses. In England it is highly valued
  for pasture, and is said to do best on clay soils, and I judge on
  rather low ground.
  Amz'r0p0g0¢z /zalc,/>e2zsz`s (]ohnson grass). A coarse grass
  adapted to damp situations and rich soil. It spreads by thick
Tl underground stems, which remain in soil over winter and send
, up a new growth late the following spring, the time at which
c - it appears varying with the season, but ranging from about
  the last of April until the middle of May. By the middle of
" A june it is two feet high, with blades 22 inches long and as
l much as 1% inch wide, with the pauicles just appearing.
_ About ]uly 20 it is at its best, the panicles being fully devel-
  i oped, sometimes with a length of 18 inches and an expanse
  of 8 inches, the plants themselves averaging 5% to 6 feet in
{ height. On the Experiment Farm in 1894 some plants meas-
  L ured 75 inches in height. The panicles soon assume a purple
` Ki" hue, and later become dark brown. The grass presents a thrifty
JW We appearance throughout the fall months, until frost comes, when
it is killed to the ground at once, and nothing but dead remnants
l is seen until the following spring. Sometimes, as in 1895, it
` is cut down also by late spring frosts. It is a near relative of
* the common sorghum, and furnishes nutritious food which
seems to be greatly liked by all browsing animals. The
amount of forage it yields is not as great as would be expected,
this being the result of the large space occupied by individual
plants. The most serious objection to it is the fact than once
established it is rather difficult to eradicate, but this objection
has not the same force in Kentucky as farther south, because
it can be killed here by plowing at such time as to expose the A
underground roots to the frost.
]ohnson grass is not as hardy in Eastern Kentucky as it is _
· in the western counties. It grows spontaneously throughout
the State, however, though nowhere very common. Speci- »
mens have been collected by 1ne at Lexington, Bowling Green
\°"‘· *"""” " N "’°"  · 4@¤·— z..,&gf;;__·;g ·- 4

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. Ke1zl2¢cky Forage PZa¤1ls——The Grasses. 65  
_; and Clinton. It was received at the Station ]uly, 1894, from l
H Mr. O. E. Bowles, of Pikeville, in the extreme southeastern - l
1 i I end of the State.  
Ayzdrojbogon rzulaus, var. avenaeezzs (Indian grass). A coarse  
native grass, with long blades and rather close spike-like pan- l .
icle. A specimen in the collection from Livingston, Ky.,
measures about 40 i11ches in height, with the panicle 9 inches. Y
and blades about I2 inches long. It is said to reach a height
of 8 feet. Observed only in Southeastern Kentucky.
.r*ff7ld?'0jb0g‘07Z p¢·o2·z`¢zez'aZ2`s (Forked beard—grass). A prairie
grass of the Middle States, where it is sometimes cut for hay.
Native throughout most or all of Kentucky and not uncom-
mon. Possibly worth cultivating in sections where timothy
does IIOI thrive. Height in good soil about tive feet, the
slender spikes resembling small heads of rye, 1% to 2%
inches long, in pairs at intervals along the stem, or sometimes
three at the summit. Blades broad, and I2 inches or more
long. - `
Avzdropogon scoparius (Broom beard-grass). This is related
to the preceding, but is more slender, with narrower blades
and slight short heads, the spikelets of which are covered .
with silky hairs. Blades about IO inches long. Heads 1 inch, °
or a triiie more. Clay’s Ferry, Ky. R., Aug. 22, 1893; Kear- j;,_
ney records it fro111 Southeastern Kentucky. ’
A¢za’ropqgo2z sorghum (Sorghum, Broom-corn, Kaiir corn). ·''`
This well-known species is cultivated everywhere in the State (
as sorghum and broom-corn. Kaiir corn has 11ot been seen in  
cultivation, excepting in a small plot on the Experiment l`
Farm. Sorghum stands drought better than corn, but on i
the whole cannot be considered the equal of the latter as
` green forage. 'When cnt before it becomes too tough, it
makes very fair silage. Kaiir corn is a dwarf variety, and
_ has not proved with us in any way remarkable. Common sor-
. ghum appears to have all its good qualities with some addi-
. tions. |

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? 66 Bulle/in N`0. 87.
  Arzdrapvgon z·z`¢g·i¢zz`cus (Broom-sedge). No plant occurring _
  in our fields is better known than this. In blue—grass Ken- I
i   tucky it is not as (2011111101] as elsewhere, yet can be found close I
` E to the edge of Lexington on bits of particularly poor ground. `
    I11 wester11 Kentucky it often occupies meadow and pasture
I i   land to the exclusion of most other grasses. Late in fall and
  in winter its tough stems are to be seen over large tracts of
  land, attracting attention because of their peculiar reddish
  brown color. \Vhen young they are eaten by stock to some
  slight extent, but later becon1e so tough and dry that they are
  untouched even when forage is scarcest and everything else is
{ grazed close to the ground. Occurs throughout Kentucky.
:-   Aden Springs, Lexington, Bardwell.
  A}Zfh0Xd}l{hl¢})l orloraium (Sweet scented vernalgrass). An
~ .» attractive little grass worth cultivating among more produc-
tive meadow grasses because of the pleasant fragrance it im-
{ i parts to hay. It grows in dense clumps six or seven inches
l , across Hnally, but this is about the extent to which it spreads
i_ . after becoming established. The dropped seeds do not ger-
i   * minate as a rule, and hence if one fails to get a stand at the
{*12 start,.vacant ground is not likely to be occupied by it. It is
-·-~   ‘ ‘ only moderately hardy. Our plot was badly injured by freez-
V c ing during the winter of 1895-96, but revived in great part
[ later, though it did 11ot produce heads in 1896, 31lCl is still alive.
· Excepting this sensitiveness to cold it is quite persistent,
1 standing drought splendidly, and throughout the season pre-
senting a growth of rather short, light green blades that would
make good grazing. V\’hen cut it sends up a fresh growth
promptly, but does not grow tall enough to make it profitable
for meadow. The heads develop from about May 1 to May
15, are rather thick and about 1% to 2}.6 inches long. It has
not l)€€11 observed growing spontaneously anywhere in the
State. in
An`s!1'da g`7'tIc`Ii[l'5 (Slender aristida). A very slight native
grass observed to be connnon on poor land in the vicinity of r
‘ Bremen, l\Iul1lenberg County, Sept., I2, 1899. The species
\‘*··~~ H     ’·*# #~·  · ·‘    ·- i

  S i 
](cnz‘z¢cA;y F0ra_g·e P/anis--The Grasses. 67 li
was collected in the mountains of Southeastern Kentucky by  
il Kearney. Of no possible value for stock. _  
_ An's!z`da alzjgmzlha (Few-flowered aristida). Collected in  
Muhlenberg county with the preceeding, on dry, clayey soil  
along country roads ; a thin wiry growth, with a poor hold on r V
the soil, of no value for stock. A
Arz`sz‘z`d¢z ;>1¢zyJz¢rasrms (Purplish aristida). Collected in the A .
mountains of southeastern Kentucky by Kearney.
Arisfidamz11z0.sz's.vz'z1zzz(Brauched aristida). Credited to the
State by Dr. Asa Gray, by Britton and Brown, and by
Arrbexzalbwvwz 0/affzzs (Tall oatsgrass). Among fron1 forty
to fifty forage plants kept growing on the Kentucky Experi-
ment Farm for a number of years, this has always, winter and
summer, been one of the finest in appearance. In the matter
of hardiness sud prodnctiveness it has had no equal on the
Farm. It stands drought better than timothy. It has not `
been affected by the severest cold weather we have had during
the past six years. It grows rapidly on poor soil. .
\\’hen fully grown about the middle of ]une it is often five
feet in height, with a panicle somewhat like that of oats, and `
inclined to droop a little, but 11ot so course. After flowering X
it soon becomes rather woody and should on this account be ‘;.?"
cut promptly before the panicles mature. After cutting, a new . ·
growth of blades appears, that might furnish either pasture ¤
or hay. k
The experience of American farmers who have tried this  
grass is in its favor, but British farmers say it is bitter and C;
unfit for either hay or pasture. It is at least worthy of trial `
in Kentucky As showing more fully the character of the
~ grass, the following is quoted from notes made on the plot
grown on the Experiment Farm,
]une 13, 1893. Recently replanted. A regular growth of
r a bright green color.
Aug. 8, 1893. A fair growth. About 8-to inches long. |
Coarse ; grayish green, like timothy. A

{  ' 68 I , Bulleiin IVO. 87.
  ]an. 20, 1894. A very good green growth in dense tufts. l
Q  june 16, 1894. Averages EVE feet high. Some stalks five
’   feet four inches. Heads 7-14 inches long, a little inclined to ’
,‘ droop. Chiefiy past its flowering season. Not a very good mat
7 Ada   of blades at base, but those well up the stems are of consider-
S ’   able size and sufficiently abundant to make good fodder.
  Growth still confined to lines in which seed was drilled. Blades
  5% to 7 inches long and Fyé inch wide, resembling those of oats
  and with a gray bloom. Panicles green at first, but finally
  becoming whitish with a purplish cast. _
zi ]uly 10, 1894. Had this cut yesterday. `Weight at present,
  40 pounds.
,. , July 26, 1896. Since cutting, this has sent upa good growth
{ ‘ S of fresh green blades, in places six inches long.
  Aug. 25, 1894. A splendid growth of blades. Fresh and
‘ » green. \Vould make good pasture. Blades 6-12 inches long.
5 Nov. 6, 1894. Very good. Uniform. Would make fine
  grazing. 8-12 inches high'. A very slight trace of injury
Q from recent frost.
  V l Dec. 4, 1894. Good, but some brown.
PM,./I ‘ March 6, 1895. Very fair. Generally brown, but with a
·   good appearance of green mixed with it. A dense growth in
"`"‘ ` 4 drills. Does not spread much.
March 50, 1895. Very good. \Vould make excellent past-
I ure. _
Z April 29, 1895. A fine growth, 12-18 inches high. Growth
1 green, like timothy. No trace of stems yet. The tallest a11d
rankest among the grasses planted.
May 24, 1895. A fine growth just heading out, stems
with heads often 44 inches high. Leafy to the top. Would
make fine hay. Nodes (joints) dark purple. Heads with a
silvery shee11 and purple cast, 9% i11ches long in some cases.
Longer blades 7% inches by 2%; inch. _
]une 29, 1895. Cut this on the 27th. \Veight, 42 pounds. l
]uly 25, 1895. A splendid growth, 8-10 inches high. A
very fine grass. .
_ March 26, 1896. Sple