xt7zs756gc55 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7zs756gc55/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1945 journals kaes_circulars_004_415_02 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 415 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 415 1945 2014 true xt7zs756gc55 section xt7zs756gc55 ` 4   I
Garden Project  
’°|° C i
4-l·l Clubs
Circulor 4l5
[4;;;, 1945
1°M'°`46 College of Agriculture and Home Economics
Agricultural Extension Division
Thomos P. Cooper, Deon ond Director

l. Boys and girls 10 to 20 years of age, inclusive, may take this
project. IN
2. Enroll for early gardens not later than March 1 and for Fall f01`
t gardens not later than ]une 1. gm
3. Study the instructions given in this circular and read other lfw
helpful reference circulars and leaflets. hm
4. Members 14 years or older should do all their own work. gsi
Younger members may have help in doing the heavy work UE
but will keep their own records.
5. Each member must keep a complete record of expenses, re- E?
ceipts, and all work done on this project, and record the same {
in this circular, with signature of the County Extension Agent. 0
6. Each member should receive all or a definite part of the net In
return from his project. da
7. To get the most beneht from 4-H Club work, a member Sh,
should attend all meetings of his club and take part in its W}
activities. C _
8. Where there is opportunity for an exhibit, each member ba
should take part. Make dehnite plans for your exhibit. mj
9. The project closes October 1. Records will be turned in to the sp
local leader or County Extension Agent not later than Octo-
ber 10, so that all members’ records can be judged in selecting CH
a county garden project champion. You are urged to make lh
the best possible record for this contest. If you are a good gar- _ m
dener and have planted a fall garden you will have many late h(
vegetables not harvested by October l. You will find a place OI
in the project record sunnnary under “Receipts" to give an
estimate of the value of these unharvested vegetables. You
should make an accurate list ol all unharvestecl vegetables in
the story of your project which you will attach to this record.
· sl
(This rfrru//1r is r1 rcvisirm of Cirrrtlnr 222,) Ki
_ A

 = r
1 r
Garden Pro]eet for 4-H Clubs y ,
By joan S. GARDNER  
IN THE GARDEN PRO_]ECT you may raise vegetables for sale, or ‘  
1]] for use by your family. If you raise vegetables for sale, it is best to i 1
grow only a few kinds so that you will have enough of each to market   V
C,. readily. lf you raise vegetables for the family your project will very j
likely be part or all of the family garden. If it is part of the family 1 i
_k· garden, decide with your parents and the 4-H leader what part of L j
jrk the garden it is to be.
The project may be a fall garden, or a "second garden" whose
YC- products are grown for canning or winter storage. lf so, it should
nc be started about june 15. It would then probably include a setting L
m_ of tomato plants from a plant bed sown about May 1. Also, there
would be plantings of beans, 10 feet per member of the family, on 1
let ]une 15, july 1, and july 15; and plantings of sweet corn, the same {
dates, 15 hills per family member, each planting. Such a garden . i
hir Should be put on land not used before in that season; for example, y l
its Where a late-sown cover crop was not worth turning under until .  
early May. The fall garden also would probably include Chinese cab-
Jef bage, sown August 1, and turnip greens, table turnips, kale and muS— _ 1
lard, sown through the month of August. These would be put in 1
the spots and rows from which early vegetables had been harvested. i i
fm` Another form the garden project may take is a joint gardening- r
mg canning enterprise with groups of girls and boys participating. In
lkf this case there should be not too great a number of varieties of vege-
lg; ' mhles. This form of projecr is especially suitable in schools where ·
mc hot IUHCTICS are served, and may be worked out between the Sp0nS<>1`S
an of that project, the 4-H leader, and the 4-H members.
ml. The Sile of the project will depend on the age Of the member, bUE
even for a beginner, 10 years old, if a general garden is chosen, it
should not be smaller than 20 feet by 40 feet (see suggested plan of
garden number 1) and should not contain fewer than 6 vegetables.
Members carrying the project for a second year should have a larger
garden, 40 feet square, for example (see plan of garden number 2)
containing not fewer than 10 vegetables. A small number of vegetables
` [ 3 1

 is suggested, so that there may be enough of each to be really helpful,
rather than merely samples of many kinds.  
GARDEN N0. 1 (20’x40’) I
i-   —-—-—-—— · ——--·--—--· ·E.ARLY MU5TAR`D -·------—--------—---- —- —--- I
. I t gg -3 --—------------—---- EARLY TOMATOES- --—---—-—·-—------- —-— ----- -
. 3 E K) I I
I .. vf- -------- BEANS (APRI5) FOLLOWED BY LATETURHIPS —--- ' I
s · Z I `Rl I
I `é§ - ------ - -------- ---· --——-—-- ONIONS --·—-—--— — -——— - —-——— — ————————-----· - I
fj E I —--—---—————------ EAm.~r GA¤e»Aca-E —-—————-—-—-————-—--—---———--   _
_ L "'—T -—---— -EAr21.v Lrsrruca ----——-—--———-— EARLY l2A1>¤sHE.s --—-- I
I ° EE--- —--- -— —---—-—---—-—--—-—- beams {MAY 1)-~ -———----—-———-- — -———--- _
I 0 I ·
‘ E ¤   . I
I E gil ----—--—-----—------—--- EARLY T-Ol"lATOE$ ······················· I _
I yy -7 ------——---———--——-—-—-- EA•2t.Y MUSTARD- ———-—- — -——----—-----  
Seed and plant list for Garden No. l: I
2 doz tomato plants (1 pkt seed); 2 rows, 40 ft. long, or 80 ft. `
2 doz early cabbage plants (1 pkt seed); 1 row, 40 ft. long. I
1% lb beans; 2 rows, 40 ft. long, or 80 ft. ·
yz oz mustard; 2 rows, 40 ft. long, or 80 ft. I
1 qt onion sets; 1 row, 40 ft. long. .
1 pkt lettuce; % row, 40 ft. or 20 ft. I
l pkt radish; % row, 40 ft. or 20 ft.
IA oz turnip; l row, 40 ft. long.  
After the second year you will be ready to manage larger gardens. S
See Kentucky Extension Circular 376, "The Vegetable Garden Month
by Month," for further information. Choose the size and kind of gHY·
den with the advice of your parents and 4-H leader. Be sure not t0
undertake more than you can carry through successfully. If a single
crop project is chosen, the minimum size is l/10 acre.
Before the project is undertaken it should be planned to comple-
tion. Planning begins with choosing the kind of project and its S1Z€· list
Make 21 map of the ground to be used, its exact shape and siZ€, and you
show on it the rows of vegetables to be grown. crm
Planning includes making complete arrangements for the pr€p¥1f6‘ wil]
tion of the ground and the necessary stable manure or fertilizer. $66
that the tools to be used in cultivating are in order and also thé SPYAY
` apparatus and materials which are to be used against insects and dis'
ease. Locate sure sources for spraying or dusting materials so [here SOI]
will be no delay when you need them. From a seed catalog and [he
[ 4 ]
_ o

   I 2
GARDEN N0. 2 (40’xA0*) I
tpful, .
ii fl  
( --———--·· ------ -· -—·-· -E.Al2LY Po·rA·r¤es·----—--- --——·--—   3
W · E- ········ · ··········· EARLY POTATOE5 --------- — ——-—----—- `  
,.. l iii ````' ` ```'``````` ` ```''"`‘ “"ONl0N5 --——————-———--———---—----—   ¥
` .   ····· DEAN5 (APRJ5) FOLLOWED BY Tu2r~uPs6¤»us.l)·· , (
-- · ( _ use ······ · ···-·····-··· ‘EAI2LY IVIUSTAIZD -—-——-—----—--—·- ~ ------- I · (
l . tk h°j.;;, ····· BEANS (MAY F) FOLLOWED DY KALE (Aupz.1s)—-_ 1 2
  (0 lj --——-----~---—·--------——-- ——Or~uc>Ns —-—- — ---——-----——- —-—= ---· ·-( =i
-4 _ _ st Q ---- -— -----·- — —---·----·----- T0MA‘roas -——---——--------— -· -——-·-- —--_ `
i- .. va 0 · i
    I 5 g —--—--—- *CARLY CAooA.sr. r¤u.ovvz¤ ev KALE(5£P1Z‘r)···I I
I Q ty n 1 1 ,
  S 5-6 -————--—-—--—-—-—---—--—--- T oMA·r0¤s —-—----—-—----·-·---·----- --
‘· >; ········ ‘EAR\-Y CAz>oA&r; rottowao sv KALa(5cm>··
... Q l` l
. I u "I
) tg 0 ;; ———---—-—-—-——---—-—---— -ToMA·roas ---—----—-------------·--·-·· ·
Y g pj, -----—-—-------------- EAQLY MusTAr21>· ··········· · ···· · ···· ·‘ (
4 ·*· ········-·—············ EARLY E>¢·;£T5 ···········*······‘ ‘ ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘
_ tt 0.:
( 0 ---·--———--- EARLY Cmznzors -----~-· Swnss Cr-¢Am>· ····*·· ( I
gf) »
i QL_`""‘D;Ar~•5 Y KALa(Au&zs) ···· \ i
. _ M i
L K; ············· · ·~·········· ····P,·¤.r2sr~•n P5 ····*   ·*··*‘‘‘‘‘*‘’’   ’
Ydcm Seed and plant list for Garden N0. 2: ~
101b seed potatoes; 2 rows, 40 ft. long, or 80 ft.
f gm" 2 qt onion sets; 2 rows, 40 ft, long, or 80 ft.
not t0 2 lb beans; 3 rows, 40 ft. long, or 120 ft.
_ 1 oz mustard (5 pkt); 2 rows, 40 ft. long, or 80 ft.
mgI€‘ 2 doz tomato plants (1 pkt seed); 2 rows, 40 ft. long, or 80 ft.
4 doz cabbage plants (l pkt seed): 2 rows, 40 ft. long, or R0 ft.
M2 oz beet (4 pkt); l row, 40 ft. long.
1 pkt carrot; MZ row, 40 ft. long, or 20 ft.
I pkt Swiss chard; M2 row, 40 ft. long, or 20 ft.
% oz parsnip (2 pkt); 1 row, 40 ft. long.
mph? 2 oz kale; 3 rows, 40 ft. long, or 120 ft.
S jid lm of VHr1et1es (page 6) make 3 Seed list and get the seed €3l`IY Wh|I€
" You Call still get the varieties you want. When gHI`CI€HiT1g weather
mn °°m€$» the work can go forward without hitch or delay, and the garden
ip See MH PEYIOFH1 with satisfaction
there _T0 hal/6 good quality, vegetables must grow fast. To this end, the
(d the SOI] Should be prepared in the best way possible. It should be loose
— [ 5 ]

I I Space Time Seed Expected are as
P antlng be- to 100 crop 100
Vegetable Variety ’ date tween matur- feet feet
rows ity row
feet days
Beans (Pole) Kentucky Wonder May 15 to 3 75 8 oz 4 bu T
‘ July 1 ‘
Beans (Bush) Strlngless Greenpod Apr. 15 to 3 70 1Vz lb 4 bu suqge
July 20 ‘ ' _
Beans (Lima) Henderson Bush May 1 3 75 1 lb 4 bu H
Beets Crosby Egyptian April 1 2 60 1% oz 1% bu 1/10
Cabbage, early Wakeileld March 15 3 100 60 plts. 90 lb and l
yellows-resistant Wisconsin all-seasons May 15 to 3 110 60 plts. 200 lb If
June 15
Carrots Chantenay April 1 2 — 100 1 oz 1% bu gm)
Celery Golden Self-blanching April 15 3 170 150 plts. 150 stalks Phosi
Chard (Swiss) Llucullus April 1 3 50 1% oz 3 bu but {
Kale Siberian March 15 2 4Q 1 oz 2 bu Phan
Mustard southern Curled March 15 2 40 1 oz 2 bu   {
Lettuce Grand Rapids March 15 1% 40 1 oz 3bu h O-
l C
Onions Yellow (sets) March 11/2 80 2 qt 1% bu _ I V
Parsnip Guernsey March 15 2 200 1 oz 2 bu d
Ull E
Potatoes Irish Cobbler Mar. 15 to 3 120 6 lb 1*/; bu
Apr. 10 lt
Radish Scarlet Turnlp March 1 25 1 oz 300 radislws It U
Tomatoes, Break O'Day May 1 to 15 4 70 30 plts. 6 bu .
wilt-resistant , 0l'll0
Marglobe June 21 to 4 80 25 plts. 8 bu
July 15 tatoc
Rutgers (late) June 21 to 4 80 25 plts. 8 bu need
July 15
Tumip Strap-leaf Purple-top March 1*/2 40 1 oz 1% bu
so that it will absorb and hold moisture and not bake or crack in 3 T
dry, hot season but remain easy to work throughout the summer. A vale
loose soil is needed, too, to grow shapely root vegetables and potatoes. weel
The best way to put soil into gardening condition is to plow uHd€f The
_ _ • • · yl '
stable manure or straw or litter to rot into humus (see “F€I`[ll1ZlHg)· ahsr
A 2-inch coat of stable manure plowed under every year will keep
garden soil in top condition. lake
Garden land should be plowed deep. Some commercial gardcnfils (itc
plow 14 lIlCllCS deep, but this is possible only with tractors, Good 0lS
depth is 10 inches, but if the garden has not been plowed that d€€l> van
before, increase the depth of plowing gradually, an inch a yea?. uml} be
Hnally it is being plowed 10 inches deep. Too much "dead" subsoll mg
is thus not turned up in any one year. If possible, the land should be
broken a month before actual gardening starts. (mr
Make the seedbed by disking thoroughly, to cut up clods, and {hen mn
[ 6] l
_ P

 I F
ON dragging or harrowing with an A-harrow, or both, to make it fine all ‘
the way down. A seedbed is in good conditio_n when the soil particles ]
5% are as small as the seed to be sown.
"i§.l°° i
****1 There are no exact rules for fertilizing a, garden, but here are  
4 bu suggestions.
4,,,, lf fresh manure can be had spread at least one 2-horse load per 3 E
mb, 1/10 acre, then broadcast 50 pounds of 20-percent superphosphate,  
so lb and plow all under. ¥ E
,001,, lf the manure is old and has lost its "heat" (and much of its nitro- l .
1% bu gen) then use complete fertilizer (6-8-6, for example) instead of super- X l
momma phosphate. Use the complete fertilizer the same way as superphosphate,
abu but the amount should be 100 pounds on 1/l0 acre. The superphos- -
Hu phate or complete fertilizer may be broadcast after the land is broken,
Mu and disked in, as deep as possible. However, spreading fertilizer and
Mu “ch0pping" it in generally leaves it too near the surface, and when
1% bu the vegetable roots go deep in search of moisture, the fertilizer’s benefit
2 bu is lost. The exception is side dressing with nitrogen fertilizers described T
1,/Zhu Under the crops that benefit from this practice. V
Dmdism Manure, used alone, is not suited to the needs of all vegetables. ` i
Mu lf 'tontains a high proportion of nitrogen, which favors cabbage, 2 ,
Mu . 0Hl0ns, greens, and other leaf crops, but tends to make tomatoes, po- I
tatoes, and radishes grow to top and produce light yields because they
Shu ¤€€d phosphorus and potash to develop the fruit. l
1% bu x
tck in H The success of the garden depends very much on how it is culti- V
mer. A rated. Cultivation has for its aims just two things. One is to remove
»otat0es. weeds, for these rob the vegetables of both moisture and plant food.
N under The other is to keep the garden surface broken so that it can readily
lizing"). " absorb the moisture from even a light shower.
ill keep The time to kill weeds is while they are small, before they have
taken much food from the vegetables and before their roots have gone
ardeners deep. At this time all that is needed to kill them is to stir the top inch
;_ Good of soil, turning the weed roots to the sun to dry. This kind of culti-
rat deep lation is the best that can be given; it requires least work and does no
K1`, Until harm to the roots of the vegetables, This is not true Whéfl Cl€€p HW01"k·
· gubsoil mg" is done.
1ouldb€ The garden surface should be kept level. There should be no hills
and I_idg€S, fOr   ]"@qui]`@ mueh UHHCCCSSHYY \VOrk and, in dry sea`
lnd then SOHSY Cause [h€ soil [O 10$€ much ]']']OiS[u[`€ the vegetables Could Yvell uSC·
[ 7 l

 An excellent tool with which to cultivate is a good hoe, kept sharp
so that the soil can be literally shaved, or "scalped" as some say, but dean
a wheel hoe fitted with slide hoes is better because with it the job can at cr
be done much faster. Slmu
they 1
_ rue vsacanmnuas  
The vegetables to be discussed here will be those that appear in the is bet
first-year and second-year garden plan suggestions, pages 4 and 5.
Advanced project gardeners will find a complete discussion of all the
i vegetables in Kentucky Extension Circular 37 6, The Vegetable Garden Al
Month by Month. So far as similarity in their culture permits, the lng at
vegetables will be discussed in groups, to complete the information times
given in the table on page 6. and (
» Mustard, Kale, Lettuce, Swiss Chard seed
All these are leaf crops and benefit from nitrogen in the form of thus
side—dressings, when the seedlings are two weeks old. Apply 2 pounds T
of nitrate of soda, l pound of ammonium nitrate to 100 lineal feet them
or square feet (in "beds") or dry chicken manure, l bushel to 200 feet 40 de
This is in addition to the general program for fertilizing, page 7. carro
Mustard, lettuce and kale may be sown broadcast and the seed raked wire
in; or they may be sown in rows, but covered lightly, because the seed mam
is small. The seedbed should be very well prepared. · is im
Swiss chard is always sown in rows, the seed spaced about an inch
When the seedlings are all up, they should be thinned to a stand of
l0 inches. ln harvesting, only the outer leaves are removed, leaving T
the heart to grow out more leaves, continuing throughout the sum lYP€,
mer, and until severe frost. sider
Early Cabbage gran
Cabbage, too, is a leaf crop and the same methed lot fertilizing if gm
recommerltled as for mustard, etc., except that because cabbage Ulm l Pam
longer to mature, it is worth while to give 3 nitrogen Side dressings least
the first at setting and again in two weeks, and in two weeks again- dent
The seedbed need not be so Fine as for the greens, but the better ifs
preparation the better the cabbage will thrive.
_ Onions {OOC
Onions are leaf vegetables, and exactly the Same Soil preparati<>“ fm
and fertilizing should be given as for early cabbage. si
Onions intended for winter storage may be Pulled when the "neCl<5i` or I
have brOl<€1i Over and the tops have begun to dry, If the weaih€T ls and
[ 8 l
_ »

   Y t
” Sh;’P Clear, the pulled onions may be left lying in the garden until the tops j
Ly}; Cs; are entirely dry. Then they should be twisted off, the onions put into
slatted crates and set in an airy place so they will dry thoroughly; or Q
they may be spread on the floor of a barn loft to dry. For the winter, f
onions should be stored in a place where they will not freeze, but will  
be cool enough to keep them from sprouting. The best temperature ` i
*in the is between 40 and 50 degrees, and the air should be dry. y
and s. ‘ i
all the Radishes, Beets, Carrots, Parsnips, Turnips   y
Garden All these are root vegetables and as such need only general fertiliz— T
its, the ing as given on page 7. They are sown in rows, but turnips are some- . y
mation times broadcast. Because the seed is small, the seedbed should be fine '
and covering should be light. Even then, parsnips and carrots have i t
difficulty coming up, but they may be assisted by sowing some radish ·
seed with them. In fact, all the early radishes may be so sown, and .
form ol thus a row in the garden is saved for something else.
pounds The root vegetables are easily stored for the winter, by burying
eal feet them as is the custom with potatoes. Or, if the cellar is cool, about y
200 feet 40 degrees, they can be kept there in boxes or bins. In this climate.
page 7. carrots may be left in the row, if they are covered with leaves and with .
d raked wire netting to keep out rabbits. Parsnips may be kept in the same t
;he seed manner, except that no protection at all is needed. In fact, the flavor 3
- is improved by sharp freezing. i
tn inch. .
stand of Beans I
leaving The club gardener may use snap beans of the bush type or pole i y ,
he sum· Wpe, or he may prefer the lima bean or "butterbean," too often con-
sidered a luxury. In either case he should keep in mind that if the I
ground is made too rich with manure there will be too much vine
growth and heavy bloom, but no beans. The general fertilizing pro-
lizing is Slam, page 7, is the one to follow. The seedbed should be well pre-
ge takes ‘ Pured, especially for lima beans, for if the soil becomes packed in the
ressillgh leash lh€Y ubfeak their necks" in coming up. A way to reduce th1S
is again. (huge? is to plant lima bean seed with the eyes down.
— ts
imc] I Tomatoes
As tomatoes are a fruit crop they must have a combination of plant
food in which there is plenty of phosphorus. Manure alone causes
Pm-ation i0mafO€$ to gTOw to top, The genera] fertilizing Sugg€St10I1, page 7,
is satisfactory.
,··n€Cks" TOIUHKOGS may be staked and pruned to one, two Or three SIEHIS,
aatlier is or [MY may be let run. By staking, the fruit is kept off the ground
and will be of better grade, but the amount is less than from an equal
[ 9 l

 number of plants not staked. On the other hand, staked plants may HlW¤‘
be set closer together. Where tomatoes are staked, weeds can be kept bean
under better control and a mulch may be used to hold soil moisture, ¤f€ Y
to keep up fruit size and to extend the picking season, perhaps all ih€l
summer, especially when more than one stem is kept. hm]
` Potatoes  
Potatoes require soil fertility well balanced. If there is too much (
nitrogen they "grow to top," but it is safe to apply as much manure mi]
as recommended in the general fertilizing program, page 7. The The
1 complete fertilizer may be used as there suggested, but it should be Pm
sown in the bottom of the furrow, at the rate of l pound to 25 feet of »
row, and worked into the soil before the seed is dropped. The dis- [abi
tance between seed pieces should be about 15 inches, one piece at lice,
a place. the
It is suggested that certified seed be used, and that it be treated but
against scab and scurf. Inasmuch as only a small amount of seed is Km
required in the second—year garden plan, page 5, it is suggested that
the member get it from the seed supply for the family potato planting. ma;
but if this is not treated, he may treat his seed by soaking it for ONE Som
hour in a solution made by dissolving bichloride of mercury tabl€lS mn
in water, a tablet to each pint of water. Bichloride of mercury isi mm
deadly poison. _ OH
In cutting the seed potatoes, use these standards:
1. Each seed piece should have at least one eye; more do not matter.
2. The seed piece should weigh about 1% ounce or be the size of a pullet’s egg.
3. The seed piece should be thick and blocky, rather than thin and flat. This For
prevents undue drying out. R01
Refer to Kentucky Extension Circular 307, "Potato Growing."
All the vegetables suffer more or less from insect damage, but thm M;
are only two general classes of insects; those that weaken plants bl ‘ Hg.
draining the sap, and those that chew the leaves, This is seri0¤5, for
the leaves of a plant are its digestive organs. `
Close watch should be kept for the first sign of injury. If it Coll
sists of holes in the leaves, the insect is a chewing one and all that ls
needed is to put the control material where it feeds.
On cabbage, mustard, turnips or kale, for the CABBAGE WORM
use dust No. 1 or spray No. 1, page 11.
On beans, for the MEXICAN BEETLE, several ways for c¤¤¤0]
&1‘€ suggested. The best is a dust or spray containing p0iSOI1, as Dust
N0. 2 or Spray No. 2, but either must NEVER be used after pods hm
begun fOI`IIlil'1g. After that time, Dust No_ 1, or Spray NO. l Should Oi
[ 10 l
_ A

 - ‘% t
ls may always be used. A very important part of successful control of Mexican  
B kept bean beetle is to begin in time; one dare not wait until the bean leaves I
lslum are riddled. The right time for the first dusting or spraying is when i ,
ips all the first few "hard-shell" adults are seen, so as to kill the first young  
hatched from the eggs they lay. Ten days later a second application i
should be made, to catch the larvae that hatch last. Sometimes, a  
third application is needed, 10 days after the second.